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1.  Pandora’s box: a threatening foreign body 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0620103110.
doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2010.3110
PMCID: PMC3079526  PMID: 22701029
2.  Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide: the definitive data of the CIAOW Study 
Sartelli, Massimo | Catena, Fausto | Ansaloni, Luca | Coccolini, Federico | Corbella, Davide | Moore, Ernest E | Malangoni, Mark | Velmahos, George | Coimbra, Raul | Koike, Kaoru | Leppaniemi, Ari | Biffl, Walter | Balogh, Zsolt | Bendinelli, Cino | Gupta, Sanjay | Kluger, Yoram | Agresta, Ferdinando | Saverio, Salomone Di | Tugnoli, Gregorio | Jovine, Elio | Ordonez, Carlos A | Whelan, James F | Fraga, Gustavo P | Gomes, Carlos Augusto | Pereira, Gerson Alves | Yuan, Kuo-Ching | Bala, Miklosh | Peev, Miroslav P | Ben-Ishay, Offir | Cui, Yunfeng | Marwah, Sanjay | Zachariah, Sanoop | Wani, Imtiaz | Rangarajan, Muthukumaran | Sakakushev, Boris | Kong, Victor | Ahmed, Adamu | Abbas, Ashraf | Gonsaga, Ricardo Alessandro Teixeira | Guercioni, Gianluca | Vettoretto, Nereo | Poiasina, Elia | Díaz-Nieto, Rafael | Massalou, Damien | Skrovina, Matej | Gerych, Ihor | Augustin, Goran | Kenig, Jakub | Khokha, Vladimir | Tranà, Cristian | Kok, Kenneth Yuh Yen | Mefire, Alain Chichom | Lee, Jae Gil | Hong, Suk-Kyung | Lohse, Helmut Alfredo Segovia | Ghnnam, Wagih | Verni, Alfredo | Lohsiriwat, Varut | Siribumrungwong, Boonying | El Zalabany, Tamer | Tavares, Alberto | Baiocchi, Gianluca | Das, Koray | Jarry, Julien | Zida, Maurice | Sato, Norio | Murata, Kiyoshi | Shoko, Tomohisa | Irahara, Takayuki | Hamedelneel, Ahmed O | Naidoo, Noel | Adesunkanmi, Abdul Rashid Kayode | Kobe, Yoshiro | Ishii, Wataru | Oka, Kazuyuki | Izawa, Yoshimitsu | Hamid, Hytham | Khan, Iqbal | Attri, AK | Sharma, Rajeev | Sanjuan, Juan | Badiel, Marisol | Barnabé, Rita
The CIAOW study (Complicated intra-abdominal infections worldwide observational study) is a multicenter observational study underwent in 68 medical institutions worldwide during a six-month study period (October 2012-March 2013). The study included patients older than 18 years undergoing surgery or interventional drainage to address complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs).
1898 patients with a mean age of 51.6 years (range 18-99) were enrolled in the study. 777 patients (41%) were women and 1,121 (59%) were men. Among these patients, 1,645 (86.7%) were affected by community-acquired IAIs while the remaining 253 (13.3%) suffered from healthcare-associated infections. Intraperitoneal specimens were collected from 1,190 (62.7%) of the enrolled patients.
827 patients (43.6%) were affected by generalized peritonitis while 1071 (56.4%) suffered from localized peritonitis or abscesses.
The overall mortality rate was 10.5% (199/1898).
According to stepwise multivariate analysis (PR = 0.005 and PE = 0.001), several criteria were found to be independent variables predictive of mortality, including patient age (OR = 1.1; 95%CI = 1.0-1.1; p < 0.0001), the presence of small bowel perforation (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.5-5.3; p < 0.0001), a delayed initial intervention (a delay exceeding 24 hours) (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.5-3.7; p < 0.0001), ICU admission (OR = 5.9; 95%CI = 3.6-9.5; p < 0.0001) and patient immunosuppression (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 2.1-6.7; p < 0.0001).
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-9-37
PMCID: PMC4039043  PMID: 24883079
4.  Peritoneal adhesion index (PAI): proposal of a score for the “ignored iceberg” of medicine and surgery 
Peritoneal adhesions describe a condition in which pathological bonds form between the omentum, the small and large bowels, the abdominal wall, and other intra-abdominal organs. Different classification systems have been proposed, but they do not resolve the underlying problem of ambiguity in the quantification and definition of adhesions. We therefore propose a standardized classification system of adhesions to universalize their definition based on the macroscopic appearance of adhesions and their diffusion to different regions of the abdomen. By scoring with these criteria, the peritoneal adhesion index (PAI) can range from 0 to 30, unambiguously specifying precise adhesion scenarios. The standardized classification and quantification of adhesions would enable different studies to more meaningfully integrate their results, thereby facilitating a more comprehensive approach to the treatment and management of this pathology.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-8-6
PMCID: PMC3573980  PMID: 23369320
Adhesions; Classification; PAI; Peritoneal; Abdominal; Occlusion; Surgery; Treatment; Prevention

Results 1-5 (5)