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1.  Comparison of five staging systems of lymph node metastasis in the gastric carcinoma 
The presence of metastatic lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for gastric carcinoma; however, the optimal system for the accurate staging of lymph node metastasis for patients with gastric cancer remains controversial. This study was designed to compare five systems in relation to the N classification of gastric carcinoma.
Materials and Methods:
This multicentric historical cohort study was conducted on 148 patients with M0 gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent gastrectomy in, five referral hospitals in Iran. Lymph nodes were sectioned, stained with hematoxyl in and eosin. The lymph node status was classified according to the five systems which are: The number of involved lymph nodes (TNM staging), metastatic lymph node ratio (N ratio), and the largest involved lymph node size, largest metastatic nest size and largest metastatic nest to lymph node size ratio.
Patients were classified into significant prognostic groups by the five N classification method including the TNM method, N ratio (0, ≤0.15, 0.15-0.4, >0.4), largest involved lymph node size (0, ≤5, 5-11, >11 mm), Largest metastatic nest size (≤1, 1-7.5, >7.5 mm) and largest metastatic nest to lymph node size ratio (≤0.3, 0.3-0.9, >0.9). All of the above systems remained as independently significant prognostic factors in terms of overall and disease free survival time.
Among the N staging systems we recommend the metastatic lymph node ratio and largest metastatic nest to lymph node size systems, since they are reproducible, simple, have good survival applicability, have prognostic value and include less stage migration especially in patients whom fewer than 15 lymph nodes are dissected.
PMCID: PMC3897067  PMID: 24497854
Gastric carcinoma; lymph node metastasis; metastatic nest; staging; TNM system
2.  Touch imprint and crash preparation intra operative cytology versus frozen section in thyroid nodule 
Intra operative cytology (IC), including touch imprint (TI) and crash preparations (CP), in general has been demonstrated to be a diagnostic tool for many organs but its validity and reliability for diagnosis of thyroid nodules remain controversial. We evaluate the diagnostic value of frozen section, touch imprint, crash preparation and the combination of touch imprint and crash preparation and the combination of frozen section, touch imprint and crash preparation.
Materials ans Methods:
55 intra operative specimens from patients with thyroid nodules who underwent thyroidectomy were evaluated at Alzahra and vali-Asr hospital laboratories. For all of the patients frozen section (FS), touch imprint (TI) and crash preparation (CP) was obtained and reviewed by two pathologists at the same time. Serial TI and CP, and FS, TI and CP were reviewed by the same pathologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and accuracy were calculated according to the permanent section as the gold standard test.
In our study sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for FS was 100%, 97.6% and 98.1% respectively; for TI they were 78.6%, 95% and 92.4%; for CP they were 78.6%, 92.7% and 89.9%; for serial TI and CP they were 85.7%, 92.7% and 90.9%; and for the combination of FS and TI and CP they were 100%, 97.6% and 98.18% respectively.
Intra operative cytology (including TI and CP) seems to be a useful, valuable and inexpensive method in clinics, which do not have equipment for frozen sections. Intra operative cytology combined with FS increased the overall accuracy of diagnosis. Further studies are needed to validate the obtained results of this study.
PMCID: PMC3634276  PMID: 23626615
Crash Preparation; Frozen Section; Thyroid Nodule; Touch Imprint
3.  Pistacia atlantica Resin Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on Angiogenesis and Skin Burn Wound Healing in Rat 
Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica resin extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Methods. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated by vehicle, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of Pistacia atlantica resin extract for 14 days (G1, G2, G3, and G4, resp.). The efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound size and histological and molecular characteristics. Results. α-Pinene (46.57%) was the main content of essential oil of resin. There were no statistically significant differences between groups according to wound size analysis. The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Capillary counts of G2 and G3 were significantly higher than those of the G1 (P = 0.042 and 0.032, resp.). NO concentration in wound fluids on the 5th day of study was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.468). But bFGF concentration in G2 and G3 and PDGF concentration in G3 were significantly higher in comparison to G1 (P = 0.043, 0.017, and 0.019, resp.). Conclusion. Our results revealed that Pistacia atlantica resin extract has a concentration-dependent effect on the healing of burn wounds after 14 days of treatment by increasing the concentration of bFGF and PDGF and also through improving the angiogenesis.
PMCID: PMC3826334  PMID: 24285978
5.  Ectopic lipoadenoma of parathyroid 
A parathyroid lipoadenoma is a very rare cause of mediastinal mass. The clinical features of this pathologic entity is similar to those of the more common pathologic variants of parathyroid disease associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. A 58-year-old woman presented with huge multinodular goiter. Her thoracic CT scan was done before surgery, showed a posterior mediastinal mass. On microscopic examination, the thyroid was composed of thyroid follicles in varies sizes, compatible with a multinodular goiter and the mediastinal mass, microscopically, was composed of epithelial cells arranged in follicular and cellular nests pattern alter with abundant mature adipose tissue, morphologically closely resembled parathyroid tissue. Thyroid, mesenchymal and neuroendocrine origin for this tumor excluded by immunohistochemistry and the mass was diagnosed as a parathyroid lipoadenoma. In our case, there is a non functional parathyroid lipoadenoma with a very rare presence.
PMCID: PMC3698661  PMID: 23826002
6.  A histopathological study of nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity or testicular toxicity: Which one is the first observation as side effect of Cisplatin-induced toxicity in animal model? 
Journal of Nephropathology  2012;1(3):190-193.
Cisplatin (CP) is widely used in clinic to treat the solid tumors. However, CP is associated with some major side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity, and testicular toxicity.
To found, which of the toxicities is the first side effect of CP.
Materials and Methods
we conducted a pilot research on 12 adult male Wistar rats.
One week after CP administration, the induced toxicity was observed clearly in kidney tissue. The only abnormality that observed in testis tissue was very small degree of hyaline casts. However, no damage and other abnormality were detected in the liver tissue.
According to these findings, in clinic, first special attention must be made on kidneys during chemotherapy with CP. However, the duration of experiment is suggested to be extended to obtain hepatoxicity or testicular toxicity model in experimental animal in laboratories. Moreover, different dose of CP should be used to study the first side effect in animal model.
PMCID: PMC3886150  PMID: 24475415
Nephrotoxicity; Hepatoxicity; Cisplatin; Toxicity
7.  Micrometastasis in non–small-cell lung cancer: Detection and staging 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):149-152.
The clinical relevance of bone marrow micrometastasis (BMM) in non–small-cell lung cancer is undetermined, and the value of such analyses in advanced stage patients has not been clearly assessed previously. This study was conducted to estimate the accuracy of both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in micrometastases detection and determine the best site for bone marrow biopsy in order to find micrometastasis.
This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Alzahra University Hospital from September 2008 to June 2009. To evaluate the bone marrow, a 3-cm rib segment and an aspirated specimen from the iliac bone prior to tumor resection were taken. PCR and IHC were performed for each specimen to find micrometastasis.
Of 41 patients, 14 (34%) were positive for BMM by PCR compared with two positive IHC (4.8%). All BMMs were diagnosed in rib segments, and iliac specimens were all free from metastatic lesion. Our data showed no significant association between variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, side of tumor, involved lobe, smoking, or weight loss and presence of BMM.
PCR could use as a promising method for BMM detection. BMM in a sanctuary site (rib) is not associated with advanced stages of lung cancer. In addition, when predictor variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, smoking, or weight loss are analyzed, no correlation can be found between micrometastasis prevalence and any of those variables.
PMCID: PMC3425047  PMID: 22924073
IHC; lung cancer; micrometastasis; PCR

Results 1-7 (7)