Previous study showed that Trichinella spiralis proteasome subunit beta type-7 (Tspst) gene is an up-regulated gene in intestinal infective larvae (IIL) compared to muscle larvae (ML), which was screened by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and confirmed by real-time PCR. Tspst may be related to the larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The aim of this study was to identify Tspst and to investigate its immune protection against intestinal T. spiralis infection.
The Tspst gene encoding a 29 kDa protein from T. spiralis infective larvae was cloned, and recombinant Tspst protein (rTspst) was produced in an Escherichia coli expression system. The rTspst was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Anti-rTspst antibodies were used to determine the immunolocolization of Tspst in the parasite. Transcription and expression of Tspst at T. spiralis different developmental stages were observed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence test (IFT). The in vitro or in vivo immune protection of anti-rTspst serum or rTspst against intestinal T. spiralis infection in BALB/c mice was evaluated.
Anti-rTspst serum recognized the native Tspst protein with 29 kDa in ML crude antigens. Transcription and expression of gene was observed at all T. spiralis different developmental stages (IIL, adult worms, newborn larvae, and ML). An immunolocalization analysis identified Tspst in the cuticle and internal organs of the parasite. An in vitro invasion assay showed that, when anti-rTspst serum, serum of mice infected with T. spiralis or normal mouse serum were added to the medium, the invasion rate of the infective larvae in an IEC monolayer was 25.2%, 11.4%, and 79%, respectively (P < 0.05), indicating that anti-rTspst serum partially prevented the larval invasion of IECs. After a challenge infection with T. spiralis muscle larvae, mice immunized with rTspst conferred a 45.7% reduction in adult worm burden in intestines.
In the present study, Tspst was first identified and characterized. Tspst is an invasion-related protein of T. spiralis IIL and could be considered as a potential vaccine candidate antigen against intestinal T. spiralis infection that merits further study.
Trichinella spiralis; Proteasome subunit beta type-7 (Tspst); Invasion; Immune protection
The impact of strabismus on visual function, self-image, self-esteem, and social interactions might decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical applications of two strabismus-specific HRQoL questionnaires in the cultural context of China.
The Chinese versions of the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) and the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (ASQE) were self-administered to 304 adults with strabismus. The Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated to assess the internal consistency reliability. The criterion-related validity was identified by exploring Spearman’s correlation with the most widely used vision-specific quality of life questionnaire NEI-VFQ-25. One-way ANOVA was employed to examine the differences in the quality of life of strabismus patients with visually normal adults and with other eye diseases patients.
Significantly positive correlations with NEI-VFQ-25 were shown in both scales (r = 0.21 - 0.44, p <0.05, p <0.01). Both scales could distinguish individuals with strabismus from visually normal adults (p <0.001) and adults with other eye diseases (p <0.001). The overall Cronbach’s α value were 0.91 for the AS-20 and 0.89 for the ASQE; and for the subscales, the α value ranged from 0.68 to 0.90.
This was the first cross-sectional study to compare the psychometric properties of two strabismus-targeted questionnaires, AS-20 and ASQE in the context of Chinese culture. Both AS-20 and ASQE showed satisfactory and comparable properties for measuring HRQoL in strabismus patients.
Quality of life; Adult strabismus; Questionnaire; Chinese
The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of radical nephrectomy (RN) with nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in treating patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
The literature search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar up to December 2012. The software Review Manager 5.1 and the STATA software package v.11.0 were used for analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for comparison. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the tumor size of RCC.
In total, 10 studies with 10,174 RCC patients (7,050 treated with RN and 3,124 treated with NSS) were selected. The pooled estimate (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.15–2.15, P = 0.004) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer-specific deaths in the patients treated with NSS compared to RN. However, no statistically significant differences were found in the rate of tumor recurrence (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.67–1.06, P = 0.14) and complications (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.51–1.63, P = 0.74) between the patients treated with NSS and RN. In addition, all the subgroup analyses presented consistent results with the overall analyses.
NSS had no significantly different from RN in tumor recurrence and complications for localized RCC. However, the significantly lower rate of cancer-specific deaths supported the use of NSS not only for RCC with tumor size >4.0 cm but also for tumor sizes ≤4.0 cm compared with RN.
Meta-analysis; Nephron-sparing surgery; Radical nephrectomy; Renal cell carcinoma
This study focuses on determining whether and how the novel PI3 kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 (BKM120) induces apoptosis and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. We found that BKM120 reduced Mcl-1 levels across the tested cell lines along with induction of apoptosis and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Enforced expression of ectopic Mcl-1 significantly attenuated the effects of BKM120 alone or in combination with TRAIL on induction of apoptosis. Thus Mcl-1 downregulation contributes to BKM120-induced apoptosis or enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we have demonstrated that BMK120 decreases Mcl-1 levels through facilitating its degradation involving a GSK3/FBXW7-dependent mechanism.
BKM120; PI3 kinase; TRAIL; apoptosis; lung cancer
Previous studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) can be used to treat general gastrointestinal disturbances including intestinal mucosal injury. However, the mechanism by which APS mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, the effects of APS on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were assessed using an in vitro wounding model and colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assays. The effect of APS on IEC-6 cell differentiation was observed using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope, and the expression of differentiation-specific markers of IEC-6 cells, such as cytokeratin 18 (CK18), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tight junction protein ZO-2, and sucrase-isomaltase (SI), was determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and real-time PCR. In addition, APS-induced signaling pathways in IEC-6 cells were characterized. Our results indicated that APS significantly enhance migration and proliferation of IEC-6 cells in vitro. APS-treated IEC-6 cells have numerous microvilli on their apical surface and also highly express CK18, ALP, ZO-2, and SI. Moreover, APS-treated IEC-6 cells, in which the activity and expression level of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were significantly elevated, also exhibited an increase in cellular putrescine, whereas no significant increase in TGF-β levels was observed. These findings suggest that APS may enhance intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in vitro by stimulating ODC gene expression and activity and putrescine production, independent of TGF-β. Exogenous administration of APS may provide a new approach for modulating intestinal epithelial wound restitution in vivo.
S100B is member of a multigenic family of Ca2+-binding proteins that is overexpressed by gliomas. Recently, we demonstrated that low concentrations of S100B attenuated microglia activation through the induction of Stat3. We hypothesized that overexpression of S100B in gliomas could promote tumor growth by modulating the activity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs).
We stably transfected GL261 glioma cell lines with constructs that overexpressed (S100Bhigh) or underexpressed (S100Blow) S100B and compared their growth characteristics to intracranial wild-type (S100Bwt) tumors.
Downregulation of S100B in gliomas had no impact on cell division in vitro but abrogated tumor growth in vivo. Interestingly, compared to S100Blow tumors, S100Bwt and S100Bhigh intracranial gliomas exhibited higher infiltration of TAMs, stronger inflammatory cytokine expression, and increased vascularity. To identify the potential mechanisms involved, the expression of the S100B receptor, RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), was evaluated in gliomas. Although S100B expression induced RAGE in vivo, RAGE ablation in mice did not significantly inhibit TAM infiltration into gliomas, suggesting that other pathways were involved in this process. To evaluate other mechanisms responsible for TAM chemoattraction, we then examined chemokine pathways and found that CCL2 was upregulated in S100Bhigh tumors. Furthermore, analysis of TCGA’s glioma data bank demonstrated a positive correlation between S100B and CCL2 expression in human proneural and neural glioma subtypes, supporting our finding.
These observations suggest that S100B promotes glioma growth by TAM chemoattraction through upregulation of CCL2 and introduces the potential utility of S100B inhibitors for glioma therapy.
Brain neoplasm; Macrophage; Mice; RAGE
Many studies have assessed the association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, the results are inconsistent. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis was conducted. Fifteen studies with 3, 183 cases and 3, 410 controls were enrolled by searching the databases of Pubmed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Wanfang Database. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The main analysis indicated no significant association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of DR in overall population [allelic model: OR = 0.94 (0.79–1.11); additive model: OR = 0.91 (0.73–1.14); recessive model: OR = 1.01 (0.81–1.25); dominant model: OR = 0.91 (0.75–1.09)]. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity also indicated no significant association. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis did not observe any association between the polymorphism of eNOS 4b/a and the risk of DR among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, larger well-designed studies are required to confirm this finding.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest type of epilepsy in adults, and the hippocampus is indicated to have a close relationship with TLE. Recent researches also indicate that the entorhinal cortex (EC) is involved in epilepsy. To explore the essential role that the EC may play in epilepsy, a computational model of the hippocampal CA3 region was built, which consisted of pyramidal cells and two types of interneurons. By changing the input signals from the EC, the effects of EC on epileptiform activities of the hippocampus were investigated. Additionally, recent studies have found that the antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA) can block ictal discharges but cannot block interictal discharges in vitro, and the mechanism under this phenomenon is still confusing. In our model, the effects of VPA on epileptiform activities were simulated and some mechanisms were explored.
Interictal discharges were induced in the model without the input signals from the EC, whereas the model with the EC input produced ictal discharges when the EC input contained ictal discharges. The GABA-ergic connection strength was enhanced and the NMDA-ergic connection strength was reduced to simulate the effects of VPA, and the simulation results showed that the disappearance of ictal discharges in the model mainly due to the disappearance of ictal discharges in the input signals from the EC.
Simulation results showed that ictal discharges in the EC were necessary for the hippocampus to generate ictal discharges, and VPA might block the ictal discharges in the EC, which led to the disappearance of ictal discharges in the hippocampus.
Computational model; Hippocampal CA3 region; Entorhinal cortex; Valproate; Temporal lobe epilepsy
Gastric cancer, as one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide, causes about 800,000 deaths per year. Up to now, the mechanism underlying this disease is still not totally uncovered. Identification of related genes of this disease is an important step which can help to understand the mechanism underlying this disease, thereby designing effective treatments. In this study, some novel gastric cancer related genes were discovered based on the knowledge of known gastric cancer related ones. These genes were searched by applying the shortest path algorithm in protein-protein interaction network. The analysis results suggest that some of them are indeed involved in the biological process of gastric cancer, which indicates that they are the actual gastric cancer related genes with high probability. It is hopeful that the findings in this study may help promote the study of this disease and the methods can provide new insights to study various diseases.
Increasing data shows miR-29a is a key regulator of oncogenic processes. It is significantly down-regulated in some kind of human tumors and possibly functionally linked to cellular proliferation, survival and migration. However, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report miR-29a is significantly under-expressed in gastric cancer compared to the healthy donor. The microvessel density is negatively related to miR-29a expression in gastric cancer tissues. The ectopic expression of miR-29a significantly inhibits proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, western blot combined with the luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is direct target of miR-29a. This is the first time miR-29a was found to suppress the tumor microvessel density in gastric cancer by targeting VEGF-A. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-29a is a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. Restoration of miR-29a in gastric cancer may be a promising therapeutic approach. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(1):39-44]
Gastric cancer; Hsa-miR-29a; MicroRNAs; Post-transcriptional regulation; VEGF-A
The end-Permian mass extinction was followed by the formation of an enigmatic rock layer with a distinctive macroscopic spotted or dendroid fabric. This deposit has been interpreted as microbial reef rock, digitate dendrolite, digital thrombolite, dendritic thrombolite, or bacterial deposits. Agreement has been reached in considering them as microbialites, but not in their formation. This study has revealed that the spotted and dendroid microbialites were composed of numerous fossil casts formed by the planktic cyanobacterium, Microcystis, a coccoid genus that at the present-day commonly forms blooms in modern lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. The abundance of the fossils and the diagenesis they experienced has determined the macroscopic fabric: where they abundant, the rock appears as dendroid, otherwise, it appears as spotted. The ancient Microcystis bloom might produce toxin to kill other metazoans, and be responsible for the oceanic anoxia that has puzzled so many researchers for so many years.
This study focuses on determining whether the combination of NYP-BKM120 (BKM120) and RAD001 exerts enhanced therapeutic effect against lung cancer. The combination of BKM120 and RAD001 exerted synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of lung cancer cells both in culture and in mouse xenograft model. This combination abrogated RAD001-induced Akt phosphorylation and exerted enhanced suppressive effect on 4EBP1 phosphorylation. Collectively, we suggest that the combination of RAD001 and BKM120 may be an effective regimen for treatment of lung cancer, hence warranting further evaluation of the combination in the clinic.
RAD001; BKM120; PI3 kinase; mTOR; lung cancer
Many studies have accessed the association between eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among type 2 diabetic subjects. However, the results are conflicting and inconclusive. The aim of current meta-analysis was to more precisely estimate the relationship. Pubmed, Embase, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Wanfang Database were searched for articles published up to May 26th, 2013 that addressed eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and the risk of DN among type 2 diabetic subjects. 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis. eNOS-4b/a polymorphisms were associated with an overall significantly increased risk of DN (allele model: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14–1.82; additive model: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.14–3.62; dominant model: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.07–1.68; recessive model: OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.12–3.61). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between the eNOS-4b/a polymorphism and DN in Asian population, especially in Chinese population, but not in non Asian populations. Our meta-analysis supported an association between the 4b/a polymorphism of eNOS gene and increased risk of DN in type 2 diabetes among Asians, especially in Chinese population.
eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; DN, diabetic nephropathy; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; MTHFR, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; CNKI, China National Knowledge Infrastructure; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; HWE, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium; FEM, fixed-effects model; REM, random-effects model; Diabetic nephropathy; eNOS; 4b/a; Polymorphism; Meta-analysis
The novel Akt inhibitor, API-1, induces apoptosis through undefined mechanisms. The current study focuses on revealing the mechanisms by which API-1 induces apoptosis.
API-1 rapidly and potently reduced the levels of Mcl-1 primarily in API-1-senstive lung cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 protected cells from induction of apoptosis by API-1. API-1 treatment decreased the half-life of Mcl-1, whereas inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. API-1 decreased Mcl-1 levels accompanied with a rapid increase in Mcl-1 phosphorylation (S159/T163). Moreover, inhibition of GSK3 inhibited Mcl-1 phosphorylation and reduction induced by API-1 and antagonized the effect of API-1 on induction of apoptosis. Knockdown of either FBXW7 or β-TrCP alone, both of which are E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in Mcl-1 degradation, only partially rescued Mcl-1 reduction induced by API-1. However, double knockdown of both E3 ubiquitin ligases enhanced the rescue of API-1-induced Mcl-1 reduction.
API-1 induces GSK3-dependent, β-TrCP- and FBXW7-mediated Mcl-1 degradation, resulting in induction of apoptosis.
API-1; GSK3; Mcl-1; E3 ubiquitin ligase; Apoptosis; Lung cancer
Patients with strabismus experience visual dysfunction, self-image disorders, low self-esteem, and social and emotional barriers, which adversely influence their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Currently no strabismus-specific questionnaire is available in China to identify patients’ quality of life and to evaluate the effectiveness of strabismus treatment. The aims of the present study were to validate the Chinese-language version of the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) and to evaluate the impacts of strabismus on the quality of life among Chinese strabismus patients.
Two hundred and fifty-five Chinese adults with strabismus, one hundred visually normal adults and one hundred patients with other eye diseases completed the Chinese version of AS-20. Psychometric properties of the Chinese AS-20 were examined by Cronbach’s α coefficient, test-retest and split-half reliability, and construct and criterion-related validity. Independent-samples t test and one-way ANOVA analyses were conducted to explore the impact of demographic factors and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in Chinese strabismic adults.
The final AS-20 in Chinese (AS-C) included 18 items and two subscales: psychosocial (12 items) and function (6 items). The Cronbach’s α was 0.908 for overall scale, with 0.913 and 0.808 for 'psychosocial’ and 'function’ subscales respectively, indicating high internal consistency reliability. The mean of the overall AS-C score among strabismus patients was 62.80 ± 18.94, significantly lower than that in visually normal adults (t = -18.693, P < 0.001), and in patients with other eye diseases (t = -5.512, P < 0.001).
The AS-C is a culturally appropriate tool to evaluate the HRQoL in Chinese strabismus adults. The psychosocial health well-being and overall quality of life in strabismic patients should receive greater emphasis.
Strabismus; Quality of life; Questionnaires; Chinese
Although it has been known for many years that T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) can not invade intestinal epithelial cells unless they are exposed to the intestinal milieu and activated into intestinal infective larvae (IIL), which genes in IIL are involved in the process of invasion is still unknown. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes between IIL and ML. SSH library was constructed using cDNA generated from IIL as the ‘tester’. About 110 positive clones were randomly selected from the library and sequenced, of which 33 T. spiralis genes were identified. Thirty encoded proteins were annotated according to Gene Ontology Annotation in terms of molecular function, biological process, and cellular localization. Out of 30 annotated proteins, 16 proteins (53.3%) had binding activity and 12 proteins (40.0%) had catalytic activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that the expression of nine genes (Ts7, Ndr family protein; Ts8, serine/threonine-protein kinase polo; Ts11, proteasome subunit beta type-7; Ts17, nudix hydrolase; Ts19, ovochymase-1; Ts22, fibronectin type III domain protein; Ts23, muscle cell intermediate filament protein OV71; Ts26, neutral and basic amino acid transport protein rBAT and Ts33, FACT complex subunit SPT16) from 33 T. spiralis genes in IIL were up-regulated compared with that of ML. The present study provide a group of the potential invasion-related candidate genes and will be helpful for further studies of mechanisms by which T. spiralis infective larvae recognize and invade the intestinal epithelial cells.
AIM: To investigate the cytotoxic mechanism of caribbean maitotoxin (MTX-C) in mammalian cells.
METHODS: We used whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and fluorescence calcium imaging to determine the cellular toxic mechanisms of MTX-C in insulin secreting HIT-T15 cells, which is a system where the effects of MTX have been observed. HIT-T15 cells stably express L-type calcium current, making it a suitable model for this study. Using the fluorescence calcium indicator Indo-1 AM, we found that there is a profound increase in HIT-T15 intracellular free calcium 3 min after application of 200 nmol/L MTX-C.
RESULTS: About 3 min after perfusion of MTX-C, a gradual increase in free calcium concentration was observed. This elevation was sustained throughout the entire recording period. Application of MTX-C did not elicit the L-type calcium current, but large cationic currents appeared after applying MTX-C to the extracellular solution. The current-voltage relationship of the cation current is approximately linear within the voltage range from -60 to 50 mV, but flattened at voltages at -80 and -100 mV. These results indicate that MTX-C induces a non-voltage activated, inward current under normal physiological conditions, which by itself or through a secondary mechanism results in a large amount of cationic influx. The biophysical mechanism of MTX-C is different to its isoform, pacific maitotoxin (MTX-P), when the extracellular calcium is removed.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that MTX-C causes the opening of non-selective, non-voltage-activated ion channels, which elevates level of intracellular calcium concentration and leads to cellular toxicities.
Maitotoxin; Calcium fluorescence; High voltage gated Ca2+ channels; Whole cell patch clamp; Insulin secreting cells
Treatment with the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI) acarbose is associated with a significant reduction the risk of cardiovascular events. However, the underlying mechanisms of this effect are unclear. AGIs were recently suggested to participate in stimulating glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion. We therefore examined the effects of a 24-week treatment of acarbose on endogenous GLP-1, nitric oxide (NO) levels, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Blood was drawn from 24 subjects (14 male, 10 female, age: 50.7 ± 7.36 years, BMI: 26.64 ± 3.38 kg/m2, GHbA1c: 7.00 ± 0.74%) with drug-naïve T2D at 0 and 120 min following a standard mixed meal for the measurements of active GLP-1, NO and NOS. The CIMT was measured prior to and following 24 weeks of acarbose monotherapy (mean dose: 268 mg daily).
Following 24 weeks of acarbose treatment, both fasting and postprandial plasma GLP-1 levels were increased. In patients with increased postprandial GLP-1 levels, serum NO levels and NOS activities were also significantly increased and were positively related to GLP-1 levels. Although the CIMT was not significantly altered following treatment with acarbose, a decreased CIMT was negatively correlated with increased GLP-1 levels.
Twenty-four weeks of acarbose monotherapy in newly diagnosed patients with T2D is associated with significantly increased levels of both fasting and postprandial GLP-1 as well as significantly increased NO levels and NOS activity for those patients in whom postprandial GLP-1 levels were increased. Therefore, the benefits of acarbose on cardiovascular risk may be related to its stimulation of GLP-1 secretion.
Glucagon-like peptide 1; Carotid intima-media thickness; Nitric oxide type 2 diabetes; Acarbose
API-1 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Akt, which acts by binding to Akt and preventing its membrane translocation, and has promising preclinical antitumor activity. In this study, we reveal a novel function of API-1 in regulation of c-FLIP levels and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, independent of Akt inhibition. API-1 effectively induced apoptosis in tested cancer cell lines including activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9. It reduced the levels of c-FLIP without increasing the expression of DR4 or DR5. Accordingly, it synergized with TRAIL to induce apoptosis. Enforced expression of ectopic c-FLIP did not attenuate API-1-induced apoptosis, but inhibited its ability to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that downregulation of c-FLIP mediates enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by API-1, but is not sufficient for API-1-induced apoptosis. API-1-induced reduction of c-FLIP could be blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, API-1 increased c-FLIP ubiquitination and decreased c-FLIP stability. These data together suggest that API-1 downregulates c-FLIP by facilitating its ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Since other Akt inhibitors including API-2 and MK2206 had minimal effects on reducing c-FLIP and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis, it is likely that API-1 reduces c-FLIP and enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis independent of its Akt-inhibitory activity.
API-1; Akt; TRAIL; c-FLIP; apoptosis; cancer
Constitutively active KRAS mutations have been found to be involved in various processes of cancer development, and render tumor cells resistant to EGFR-targeted therapies. Mutation detection methods with higher sensitivity will increase the possibility of choosing the correct individual therapy. Here, we established a highly sensitive and efficient microfluidic capillary electrophoresis-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (µCE-based RFLP) platform for low-abundance KRAS genotyping with the combination of µCE and RFLP techniques. By using our self-built sensitive laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detector and a new DNA intercalating dye YOYO-1, the separation conditions of µCE for ΦX174 HaeIII DNA marker were first optimized. Then, a Mav I digested 107-bp KRAS gene fragment was directly introduced into the microfluidic device and analyzed by µCE, in which field amplified sample stacking (FASS) technique was employed to obtain the enrichment of the RFLP digestion products and extremely improved the sensitivity. The accurate analysis of KRAS statuses in HT29, LS174T, CCL187, SW480, Clone A, and CX-1 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by µCE-based RFLP were achieved in 5 min with picoliter-scale sample consumption, and as low as 0.01% of mutant KRAS could be identified from a large excess of wild-type genomic DNA (gDNA). In 98 paraffin-embedded CRC tissues, KRAS codon 12 mutations were discovered in 28 (28.6%), significantly higher than that obtained by direct sequencing (13, 13.3%). Clone sequencing confirmed these results and showed this system could detect at least 0.4% of the mutant KRAS in CRC tissue slides. Compared with direct sequencing, the new finding of the µCE-based RFLP platform was that KRAS mutations in codon 12 were correlated with the patient’s age. In conclusion, we established a sensitive, fast, and cost-effective screening method for KRAS mutations, and successfully detected low-abundance KRAS mutations in clinical samples, which will allow provision of more precise individualized cancer therapy.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors of prolonged QTc interval among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The retrospective study included 3156 outpatients from the Diabetes Centre, the 306th Hospital of PLA, during the period from September 2003 to June 2010. QT interval was measured manually in the 12-lead conventional electrocardiogram. The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) was calculated using Bazett's formula. Additional demographic and laboratory data were also collected. Potential risk factors of prolonged QTc interval were assessed using multivariable regression. Results. The prevalence of prolonged QTc interval among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes was 30.1%. Height (OR 0.156, 95% CI 0.032~0.748), waist circumference (OR 1.025, 95% CI 1.010~1.040), diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.016, 95% CI 1.007~1.026), postprandial glucose (OR 1.040, 95% CI 1.022~1.059), fasting insulin (OR 1.014, 95% CI 1.003~1.025), and presence of microalbuminuria (OR 1.266, 95% CI 1.033~1.551) were significant risk factors. Conclusions. The prevalence of prolonged QTc interval among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes is high. Risk factors for prolongation of QTc interval were low height, high waist circumference, increasing diastolic blood pressure levels, high postprandial glucose levels, high fasting insulin levels, and presence of microalbuminuria.
Diabetic HDL had diminished capacity to stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, and adhesion to extracellular matrix. The mechanism of such dysfunction is poorly understood and we therefore sought to determine the mechanistic features of diabetic HDL dysfunction.
We found that the dysfunction of diabetic HDL on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was associated with the down regulation of the HDL receptor protein, SR-BI. Akt-phosphorylation in HUVECs was induced in a biphasic manner by normal HDL. While diabetic HDL induced Akt phosphorylation normally after 20 minutes, the phosphorylation observed 24 hours after diabetic HDL treatment was reduced. To determine the role of SR-BI down regulation on diminished EC responses of diabetic HDL, Mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were isolated from wild type and SR-BI (−/−) mice, and treated with normal and diabetic HDL. The proliferative and migratory effects of normal HDL on wild type MAECs were greatly diminished in SR-BI (−/−) cells. In contrast, response to diabetic HDL was impaired in both types suggesting diminished effectiveness of diabetic HDL on EC proliferation and migration might be due to the down regulation of SR-BI. Additionally, SR-BI down regulation diminishes diabetic HDL’s capacity to activate Akt chronically.
Diabetic HDL was dysfunctional in promoting EC proliferation, migration, and adhesion to matrix which was associated with the down-regulation of SR-BI. Additionally, SR-BI down regulation diminishes diabetic HDL’s capacity to activate Akt chronically.
The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic/prognostic value of various clinical tumor markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1), α-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125), carbohydrate antigen-19.9 (CA-19.9) and ferritin, individually or in combination. The electro-chemiluminescence immunization method was performed to detect the levels of seven tumor markers in 560 cancer patients and 103 healthy subjects for comparison. The serum levels of the seven markers measured in cancer patients were higher compared to healthy subjects (P<0.05 for AFP and P<0.001 for the remaining six markers). Different markers had different sensitivity towards different types of tumors. Combining more markers significantly increased the ratios of positive diagnosis in the tumors. The diagnostic sensitivities of combining seven markers were particularly high in digestive, urinary and skeletal tumors (82, 92 and 83%, respectively). Gynecological tumors have exhibited a constant yet relatively low positive diagnosis irrespective of the use of a single marker or combined markers. However, the increase in sensitivity when combining markers was accompanied by a decrease in specificity. Generally, combining more markers increased the tumor detection rates, while a combination of the seven markers provided the highest detection rate. Combined detection showed a particularly high sensitivity in detecting respiratory, digestive and urinary system tumors, with the lowest sensitivity observed in gynecological tumors. As a result, combining tumor markers may play an important role in early tumor detection/diagnosis while the loss of specificity can be tolerated.
tumor marker; diagnosis; lung cancer; carcinoembryonic antigen; neuron-specific enolase; cytokeratin 19
Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of breast cancer. There is a significant inverse relationship between HDL and the risk and mortality of breast cancer. However, it is well known that under conditions of oxidative stress, such as breast cancer, HDL can be oxidatively modifiedand these modifications may have an effect on the functions of HDL. The purpose of this study is to determine the different effects of normal and oxidized (caused by hypochlorite-induced oxidative stress) HDL on breast cancer cell metastasis.
Human breast cancer cell lines were treated with normal and hypochlorite-oxidized HDL, and then cell metastasis potency in vivo and the abilities of migration, invasion, adhesion to HUVEC and ECM in vitro were examined. Integrin expression and PKC activity were evaluated, and PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA was applied.
We found hypochlorite-oxidized HDL dramatically promotes breast cancer cell pulmonary metastasis (133.4% increase at P < 0.0 l for MDA-MB-231 by mammary fat pad injection; 164.3% increase at P < 0.01 for MCF7 by tail vein injection) and hepatic metastasis (420% increase at P < 0.0 l for MDA-MB-231 by mammary fat pad injection; 1840% fold increase at P < 0.001 for MCF7 by tail vein injection) in nude mice, and stimulates higher cell invasion (85.1% increase at P < 0.00 l for MDA-MB-231; 88.8% increase at P < 0.00 l for MCF7;), TC-HUVEC adhesion (43.4% increase at P < 0.00 l for MDA-MB-231; 35.2% increase at P < 0.00 l for MCF7), and TC-ECM attachment (41.0% increase at P < 0.00 l for MDA-MB-231; 26.7% increase at P < 0.05 for MCF7) in vitro compared with normal HDL. The data also shows that the PKC pathway is involved in the abnormal actions of hypochlorite-oxidized HDL.
Our study demonstrated that HDL under hypochlorite-induced oxidative stress stimulates breast cancer cell migration, invasion, adhesion to HUVEC and ECM, thereby promoting metastasis of breast cancer. These results suggest that HDL-based treatments should be considered for treatment of breast cancer patients.
Breast cancer; Oxidative stress; Metastasis; High-density lipoprotein
Alpha-albumin (AFM), a member of the albumin gene family that also includes albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein, is expressed predominantly in the liver and activated at birth. Here, we identify two hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1)-binding sites in the AFM promoter that are highly conserved in different mammals. These two sites bind HNF1α and HNF1β. The distal site (centered at −132, relative to AFM exon 1) is more important than proximal site (centered at −58), based on HNF1 binding and mutational analysis in transfected cells. Our data indicate that HNF1α is a more potent activator of AFM promoter than is HNF1β. However, HNF1β can act in a dominant manner to inhibit HNF1α-dependent transactivation of the AFM promoter when both proteins are expressed together. This suggests that the differential timing with which the albumin family genes are activated in the liver may be influenced by their responsiveness to HNF1α and HNF1β. Our comparison of HNF1-binding sites in the promoters in the albumin family of genes indicates that the primordial albumin-like gene contained two HNF1 sites; one of these sites was lost from the albumin promoter, but both sites still are present in other members of this gene family.