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1.  Atherogenic index of plasma in highly active antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Southeast Nigeria 
Introduction:
Metabolic abnormalities are often common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is increasingly being used as a screening tool for dyslipidemia as it predicts the presence of small, dense, and highly atherogenic low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern and predictors of an abnormal atherogenic index in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naïve HIV patients.
Materials and Methods:
HAART-naïve patients with HIV infection were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure, CD4 count, viral load, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were determined. Total cholesterol (TCH)/HDL, triglyceride (TG)/HDL, and LDL/HDL ratios were calculated. The AIP was calculated as log (TG/HDL). The correlations between AIP and the other lipoprotein ratios and predictors of AIP were determined using stepwise multiple linear regression. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results:
A total of 353 patients with a mean age of 37.3 (9.6) years were recruited for this study. Low HDL level was the most common abnormality in 222 (62.9%) patients while elevated TCH was seen in 54 (15.3%) patients. Those with medium risk (AIP 0.1-0.24) and high risk category (AIP > 0.24) constituted up to 226 (64%) of the patients. There were significant correlations between AIP and CD4 count, body mass index, LDL, TCH/HDL, and LDL/HDL. Predictors of AIP were CD4 count, TCH/HDL, and LDL/HDL.
Conclusion:
Abnormal AIP is frequent in HAART-naïve HIV patients and is inversely related to their level of immunity. We recommend that AIP estimation should be part of baseline assessment of HIV patients before the commencement of therapy.
doi:10.4103/2230-8210.139217
PMCID: PMC4171884  PMID: 25285278
Atherogenic index; dyslipidemia; human immunodeficiency virus; lipids; plasma
2.  Drug prescription pattern for asthma among nigerian doctors in general practice: A cross-sectional survey 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(2):78-83.
BACKGROUND:
A wide range of medications are now available for the treatment of asthma and selection of the optimal treatment combination of agents is essential.
OBJECTIVES:
This study was designed to evaluate a self-reported drug prescribing pattern for asthma among Nigerian doctors in general practice.
METHODS:
It was a cross-sectional survey conducted among general practitioners in six states of Nigeria.
RESULTS:
For acute severe asthma, 75.9% of the doctors prescribed intravenous methylxanthines, which was combined with oral or inhaled short-acting β2 agonists (SABA) by 56.3% of them. Systemic steroids were prescribed mainly via the intravenous route by 58.8% of them. Aberrant drugs such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and mucolytics were prescribed by 25.6% of them. For long-term, follow-up treatment of asthma, oral steroids, and oral SABA were commonly prescribed, while inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/LABA (long acting beta agonists) were infrequently prescribed. Aberrant drugs such as analgesics, antimalaria, and antihistamines were prescribed by 22.8% of them. About 48% of the doctors had never attended any form of update training on asthma management, whereas, only 16.3% attended update training on asthma within the last year preceding this study. Awareness of international guidelines on asthma treatment was poor among them with only 16.4% being able to mention any correct guideline on asthma management.
CONCLUSION:
The poor anti-asthma prescribing behavior among these doctors is associated with a low level of participation at update training on asthma management and poor awareness of asthma guidelines. The Nigerian Medical Association and the Nigerian Thoracic Society should urgently address these problems.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.94524
PMCID: PMC3339208  PMID: 22558012
Asthma; drug prescription; general practitioners; Nigeria
3.  Evaluation of Current Knowledge, Awareness and Practice of Spirometry among Hospital -based Nigerian Doctors 
Background
Spirometry is a cost-effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of lung function and for case-finding in a resource-limited setting. The acceptance of this test depends on the awareness of its indications and the ability to interpret the results. No studies have assessed the knowledge of spirometry among Nigerian doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current knowledge, awareness and practice of spirometry among hospital-based Nigerian doctors.
Methods
We carried out a cross-sectional survey among 321 doctors working in Nigerian hospitals between March 2008 and June 2008. Information on knowledge, awareness, practice of and barriers to spirometry were obtained using a pre-tested, self-administered structured questionnaire and the data were then analysed.
Results
Of the 321 doctors that participated, 108 (33.6%) reported that they have good knowledge of spirometry. One hundred and ninety-five (60.7%) were aware of the importance of spirometry in aiding the diagnosis of respiratory diseases; 213(66.4%) were aware of the importance of spirometry in determining the severity of diseases. Medical school was the most common source of knowledge on spirometry (64.5%). Eighty-one (25.2%) doctors reported having a spirometer in their hospitals. Doctors having access to a spirometer used it more frequently for aiding the diagnosis of COPD (40.7% vs.27.5%) and for monitoring of asthma (18.5% vs.11.3%) than those without access to a spirometer. The doctors working in University Teaching Hospitals and Federal Medical Centres (FMC) (22.4% vs. 4.5%) and those having access to a spirometer (40.7 vs.11.3%) were very confident of interpreting spirometry results compared to those working in District and General Hospitals and without access to a spirometer. Irrespective of access to a spirometer or the type of hospital they were employed in, doctors reported that unavailability of a spirometer was the greatest barrier to its use (62.5%) followed by lack of awareness about its usefulness (17.2%).
Conclusion
The knowledge and practice of spirometry were poor among hospital-based Nigerian doctors because of unavailability of spirometers in most hospitals. These findings have implications for further evaluation, planning and management of patient care in respiratory disease. Spirometers should be made available in all hospitals, and the knowledge of spirometry should be improved among doctors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-9-50
PMCID: PMC2803443  PMID: 20003446

Results 1-3 (3)