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1.  Inflammation as well as angiogenesis may participate in the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis 
Journal of Radiation Research  2014;55(4):803-811.
Radiation necrosis (RN) after intensive radiation therapy is a serious problem. Using human RN specimens, we recently proved that leaky angiogenesis is a major cause of brain edema in RN. In the present study, we investigated the same specimens to speculate on inflammation's effect on the pathophysiology of RN. Surgical specimens of symptomatic RN in the brain were retrospectively reviewed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining as well as immunohistochemical staining for VEGF, HIF-1α, CXCL12, CXCR4, GFAP, CD68, hGLUT5, CD45, IL-1α, IL-6 TNF-α and NF-kB. H&E staining demonstrated marked angiogenesis and cell infiltration in the perinecrotic area. The most prominent vasculature was identified as thin-walled leaky angiogenesis, i.e. telangiectasis surrounded by prominent interstitial edema. Two major cell phenotypes infiltrated the perinecrotic area: GFAP-positive reactive astrocytes and CD68/hGLUT5-positive cells (mainly microglias). Immunohistochemistry revealed that CD68/hGLUT5-positive cells and GFAP-positive cells expressed HIF-1α and VEGF, respectively. GFAP-positive cells expressed chemokine CXCL12, and CD68/hGLUT5-positive cells expressed receptor CXCR4. The CD68/hGLUT5-positive cells expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α in the perinecrotic area. VEGF caused leaky angiogenesis followed by perilesional edema in RN. GFAP-positive cells expressing CXCL12 might attract CXCR4-expressing CD68/hGLUT5-positive cells into the perinecrotic area. These accumulated CD68/hGLUT5-positive cells expressing pro-inflammatory cytokines seemed to aggravate the RN edema. Both angiogenesis and inflammation might be caused by the regulation of HIF-1α, which is well known as a transactivator of VEGF and of the CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rru017
PMCID: PMC4100008  PMID: 24676944
brain radiation necrosis; CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis; inflammation; microglia; pro-inflammatory cytokine
2.  The roles of platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors in brain radiation necrosis 
Background
Brain radiation necrosis (RN) occurring after radiotherapy is a serious complication. We and others have performed several treatments for RN, using anticoagulants, corticosteroids, surgical resection and bevacizumab. However, the mechanisms underlying RN have not yet been completely elucidated. For more than a decade, platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) have been extensively studied in many biological processes. These proteins influence a wide range of biological responses and participate in many normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we demonstrated that PDGF isoforms (PDGF-A, B, C, and D) and PDGFRs (PDGFR-α and β) are involved in the pathogenesis of human brain RN. We speculated on their roles, with a focus on their potential involvement in angiogenesis and inflammation in RN.
Methods
Seven surgical specimens of RN, obtained from 2006 to 2013 at our department, were subjected to histopathological analyses and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We qualitatively analyzed the protein expression of each isoform of PDGF by immunohistochemistry. We also examined their expression with double immunofluorescence.
Results
All PDGFs were expressed in macrophages, microglia, and endothelial cells in the boundary of the core of RN, namely, the perinecrotic area (PN), as well as in undamaged brain tissue (UB). PDGF-C, D and PDGFR-α were also expressed in reactive astrocytes in PN. PDGFs and PDGFR-α were scarcely detected in UB, but PDGFR-β was specifically expressed in endothelial cells not only in PN but also in UB.
Conclusions
PDGFs/PDGFRs play critical roles in angiogenesis and possibly in inflammation, and they contribute to the pathogenesis of RN, irrespective of the original tumor pathology and applied radiation modality. Treatments for the inhibition of PDGF-C, PDGF-D, and PDGFR-α may provide new approaches for the treatment of RN induced by common radiation therapies.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-9-51
PMCID: PMC3927833  PMID: 24512807
Angiogenesis; Brain radiation necrosis; Inflammation; Platelet-derived growth factors; Platelet-derived growth factor receptors
3.  Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy caused by gastric cancer 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):168-169.
Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a fatal cancer-related pulmonary complication with rapidly progressing dyspnea, and occasionally induces sudden death. Here, we describe a postmortem-diagnosed PTTM case caused by gastric cancer, with the complaint of progressing dyspnea for 5 days.He did not have any abdominal symptoms or cancer history. PTTM should be considered in patients with rapidly worsening respiratory conditions, even if there is no cancer history.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98853
PMCID: PMC3425052  PMID: 22924078
Dyspnea; gastric cancer; PTTM
4.  Precore mutant hepatitis B virus-associated fulminant hepatitis during infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis 
Clinical Rheumatology  2010;32(Suppl 1):47-49.
A 73-year-old female, who suffered from rheumatoid arthritis for 10 years, developed precore mutant hepatitis B virus-associated fulminant hepatitis after 1 year of infliximab therapy and subsequent methotrexate withdrawal. We emphasize the importance of preemptive antiviral therapy before starting infliximab administration and withdrawing immunosuppressive drugs.
doi:10.1007/s10067-010-1438-y
PMCID: PMC3594820  PMID: 20379839
Fulminant hepatitis; HBV; Infliximab; MTX; Rheumatoid arthritis

Results 1-4 (4)