In medio-lateral oblique view of mammogram, pectoral muscle may sometimes affect the detection of breast cancer due to their similar characteristics with abnormal tissues. As a result pectoral muscle should be handled separately while detecting the breast cancer. In this paper, a novel approach for the detection of pectoral muscle using average gradient- and shape-based feature is proposed. The process first approximates the pectoral muscle boundary as a straight line using average gradient-, position-, and shape-based features of the pectoral muscle. Straight line is then tuned to a smooth curve which represents the pectoral margin more accurately. Finally, an enclosed region is generated which represents the pectoral muscle as a segmentation mask. The main advantage of the method is its’ simplicity as well as accuracy. The method is applied on 200 mammographic images consisting 80 randomly selected scanned film images from Mammographic Image Analysis Society (mini-MIAS) database, 80 direct radiography (DR) images, and 40 computed radiography (CR) images from local database. The performance is evaluated based upon the false positive (FP), false negative (FN) pixel percentage, and mean distance closest point (MDCP). Taking all the images into consideration, the average FP and FN pixel percentages are 4.22%, 3.93%, 18.81%, and 6.71%, 6.28%, 5.12% for mini-MIAS, DR, and CR images, respectively. Obtained MDCP values for the same set of database are 3.34, 3.33, and 10.41 respectively. The method is also compared with two well-known pectoral muscle detection techniques and in most of the cases, it outperforms the other two approaches.
Adaptive band division; Biomedical image analysis; Breast cancer; Mammography; Pectoral muscle; Segmentation
Fever is of grave concern in the management of patients with neutropenia with early detection of a focus of infection being the major goal. As lungs are the most common focus, chest imaging is of vital importance. This Institute Review Board approved prospective study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in early detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities in febrile neutropenia.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 104 consecutive patients (M:F:75:29, age range 11–66 years) with fever of 38.2°C or more with an absolute neutrophil count <500/μl underwent HRCT chest. HRCT diagnosis was compared with final diagnosis based on ancillary investigations.
HRCT could detect pulmonary abnormalities in 93 patients (89.4%) with air space consolidation being the predominant finding (n = 57), followed by ground-glass opacities (Ground glass opacity (GGO), n = 49) and nodules (n = 39). HRCT could correctly characterize the infective lesions in 76 patients (81.7%). Presence of random or pleural-based nodules >10 mm with or without surrounding GGO or cavitations was sensitive (95.23%) and specific (96.7%) for fungal infection, while small (1–4 mm) random or centrilobular nodules with tree-in-bud appearance was sensitive (90%) and highly specific (97.02%) for tuberculosis. Diagnosis of pyogenic infection based on presence of air-space consolidation, pleural effusion, GGO or centrilobular nodules showed a sensitivity of 84.78% and specificity of 93.84%, whereas patchy or diffuse GGO, interstitial thickening and/or air-space consolidation showed high sensitivity (86.7%) and specificity (96.8%) for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.
HRCT chest is an excellent modality in the diagnostic work-up of patients with febrile neutropenia allowing early detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities.
Febrile neutropenia; high resolution CT; imaging; pulmonary infections
To evaluate the role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as an ablative technique in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Settings and Design:
A tertiary care center, prospective study.
Materials and Methods:
The subjects comprised 31 patients (30 males, one female; age range 32-75 years) with HCC (41 lesions) who were treated with image-guided RFA. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 6 years, and included a multiphasic computed tomography (CT) at 1, 3 and 6 months post-RFA, and every 6 months thereafter. Patient outcome was evaluated and the tumor recurrence, survival and complications were assessed.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Discrete categorical data were presented as n (%) and continuous data as mean ± SD. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the different variables. Kaplan–Meier survival curve and Log-rank test were used to test the significance of difference between the survival time of the different groups.
The ablation success rate was 80.5% (33/41 HCC lesions). 12.2% (5/41) of the lesions were managed with repeat RFA due to tumor residue. 4.9% (2/41) of the lesions were managed with repeated RFA and transarterial chemoembolization. Eight patients had tumor recurrence (five patients (16.1%) had local recurrence and three patients (9.6%) had distant recurrence). Eleven patients died within 3.5-20 months post-RFA. The survival rate at 1 year in patients who completed at least 1 year of follow-up was 63.3%. There was one major complication (1/31, 3.2%) in a patient with a subcapsular lesion and ascites. This patient developed hemoperitoneum in the immediate postprocedure period and was managed with endovascular treatment. She, however, had hepatic decompensation and died 48 h post-RFA.
RFA is an effective and safe treatment for small unresectable HCC.
HCC; RFA; small; unresectable
Thymic carcinoma developing in a pre-existing thymic cyst has rarely been reported in literature. The diagnosis of this entity in the past has always been established after surgery. We are reporting a case of thymic carcinoma that developed in a pre-existing multilocular thymic cyst in an elderly male. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
Thymic cyst; carcinoma; fine needle aspiration cytology
The pulmonary venous abnormalities are very rare and are difficult to diagnose. We present a case of middle age male who presented with cough and chest pain. Chest radiograph showed abnormal tortuous vessel in right lung. Computed tomographic angiography of chest demonstrated meandering anomalous right superior pulmonary vein.
Anomalous pulmonary venous connection; CT; pulmonary veins
Chest radiography has been the traditional method of diagnostic evaluation of patients of hyaline membrane disease (HMD). Lung sonography (USG) has been lately explored as an alternative modality.
To explore the application of transabdominal USG of lung bases (TASL) in the evaluation of HMD in premature neonates with respiratory distress soon after birth.
Settings and Design:
Tertiary care institutional setup. Study duration–18 months. Follow-up–variable, up to 1 month. Prospective descriptive study.
Materials and Methods:
Eighty-eight consecutive patients admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with gestational age <32 weeks having respiratory distress within 6 h of birth were enrolled. The diagnosis of HMD was made if the patient had negative gastric shake test and/or suggestive chest radiograph. TASL was performed in all patients within the first 24 h of life and biweekly subsequently. USG was interpreted as normal, HMD pattern, or broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pattern. Biweekly follow-up was done for patients showing HMD till normalization of the sonographic HMD pattern, development of the sonographic BPD pattern, or death/discharge of the neonate from the hospital.
Results and Conclusions:
TASL showed 85.7% sensitivity, 75% specificity, 88.88% positive predictive value, and 69.2% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of HMD. The abnormal sonographic findings on day 14 had 94.1% accuracy for prediction of eventual occurrence of clinical BPD. TASL is complementary to chest radiograph in the diagnosis of HMD. It is also useful for the early prediction of BPD with the potential of reducing the cumulative radiation dose to these neonates.
Hyperechogenicity; neonates; respiratory distress syndrome; transabdominal; ultrasound
Background & objectives:
Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased food intake, energy expenditure and altered body composition. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of adipocytokines in weight homeostasis in patients with hyperthyroidism.
Patients (n=27, 11men) with hyperthyroidism (20 Graves’ disease, 7 toxic multinodular goiter) with mean age of 31.3±4.2 yr and 28 healthy age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls were studied. They underwent assessment of lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat (TBF) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometer (DXA) and blood sample was taken in the fasting state for measurement of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids. Patients were re-evaluated after 3 months of treatment as by that time all of them achieved euthyroid state with carbimazole therapy.
The LBM was higher (P<0.001) in healthy controls as compared to hyperthyroid patients even after adjustment for body weight (BW), whereas total body fat was comparable between the two groups. Serum leptin levels were higher in patients with hyperthyroidism than controls (22.3±3.7 and 4.1±0.34 ng/ml, P<0.001), whereas adiponectin levels were comparable. Plasma acylated ghrelin was higher in patients than in controls (209.8±13.3 vs 106.2±8.2 pg/ml, P<0.05). Achievement of euthyroidism was associated with significant weight gain (P<0.001) and significant increase in lean body mass (P<0.001). The total body fat also increased but insignificantly from 18.4±1.8 to 19.9±1.8 kg. There was significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum leptin and acylated ghrelin but adiponectin levels remained unaltered after treatment. Serum leptin positively correlated with TBF and this correlation persisted even after adjustment for BW, BMI, gender and age (r=0.62, P=0.001). However, serum leptin and acylated ghrelin did not correlate with the presence or absence of hyperphagia.
Interpretation & conclusion:
Patients with hyperthyroidism predominantly had decreased lean body mass which increased after achievement of euthyroidism with carbimazole. The hyperphagia and the alterations in weight homeostasis associated with hyperthyroidism were independent of circulating leptin and ghrelin levels.
Adipocytokines; body composition; ghrelin; hyperphagia; hyperthyroidism
Parotid gland involvement in tuberculosis is rare. We present a case of middle aged male presenting with parotid swelling for 1 year and diagnosed to have parotid tuberculosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. A brief review of radiological findings in tuberculous parotitis is discussed which can help in correct interpretation and timely diagnosis, and thus avoiding unnecessary parotidectomies.
Cytology; parotid; tuberculosis
To compare the helical and axial modes of indirect computed tomographic (CT) venography (CTV) for accuracy for diagnosing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities as well as for their radiation burden in patients proven to have pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA).
Subjects and Methods:
Of patients evaluated with CTPA for suspected acute PE, 20 of patients who were found to have PTE underwent both indirect CTV of the lower extremities and color Doppler examination. For indirect CTV, patients were randomly assigned to helical and axial modes. The CTV and Doppler findings were interpreted by two experienced radiologists who were blinded to the results of each other.
Out of total of 260 venous segments analyzed (130 venous segments each by helical or axial CTV), thrombi were seen in 43 venous segments (15 and 28 each by helical or axial CTV respectively). On comparison with Doppler, helical CTV had 82.35% sensitivity and 99.11% specificity, whereas axial CTV had 96.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The mean radiation dose was significantly higher for helical (1153.57 mgy.cm) as compared to axial mode CTV (806.28 mgy.cm) with P value of <0.0001.
Axial CTV results in decreased radiation dose without significant change in the accuracy, as compared to helical CTV in the evaluation of DVT.
Pulmonary embolism; CT; venography; deep venous thrombosis
Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.
Esophageal injury; pleural fistula; esophagus perforation
Background & objectives:
Hyperprolactinaemia affects testicular functions by influencing hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis at various levels. Available literature on the level of defect, time course of improvement of gonadal functions and its relation with decline in prolactin levels is scanty. We carried out this study to evaluate the HPT axis in patients with macroprolactinomas, before and six months after cabergoline therapy.
Fifteen men with macroprolactinomas underwent gonadotropin and testosterone response to their respective stimuli before and after six months of cabergoline therapy.
Serum prolactin levels decreased after six months of therapy. Pretreatment, mean lutenizing and follicle stimulating hormones (LH and FSH) levels were 2.0 ± 0.4 and 1.4 ± 0.2 IU/l, respectively. However, LH and FSH responses to GnRH were preserved in majority of the patients and LH peaked to 12.1 ± 2.3 IU/l (P<0.01), while FSH to 2.9 ± 0.4 IU/l suggesting the influence of hyperprolactinaemia at the level of hypothalamus with preserved gonadotrope reserve. After cabergoline therapy, there was an increase in basal as well as stimulated LH and FSH levels, though these were not statistically significant when compared to respective pretherapy levels. Basal testosterone (T) levels significantly improved after therapy, but peak T response to hCG was similar at both pre- and post treatment. A significant correlation was observed between peak LH and peak T at baseline (r=0.53, P<0.01) and it further strengthened after therapy (r=0.70, P<0.01). After cabergoline therapy, there was significant improvement in seminal volume, sperm count and motility and sperm count correlated with peak FSH response (r=0.53, P<0.05).
Interpretation & conclusions:
Hyperprolactinaemia affects testicular functions probably by influencing at the level of hypothalamus resulting in subnormal basal secretion of gonadotropins required for optimal testicular functions.
Hypogonadism; hypothalamus; macroprolactinomas; pituitary; testis
Ophthalmic vein thrombosis is an extremely rare entity. We present a case of middle-aged female who presented with proptosis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed cavernous sinus meningioma with ipsilateral superior and inferior vein thrombosis. A brief review of the vascular involvement of the meningioma and ophthalmic vein thrombosis is presented along with the case.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Ophthalmic Vein Thrombosis; Venous Thrombosis
The aim was to identify the position of sigmoid colon in children and discuss its clinical significance.
Materials and Methods:
Ninety-one contrast enema studies were retrospectively evaluated and the position of sigmoid colon categorized as below: Left lower quadrant, right lower quadrant, midline, and indeterminate.
The position of sigmoid colon in the right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant, midline, and indeterminate was 32 (35.16%), 33 (36.26%), 12 (13.19%), and 14 (15.38%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age (P = 0.87) or gender prevalence (P = 0.49) for different positions of the sigmoid colon.
The sigmoid colon occupies the right lower quadrant in a large number of children. Awareness of this finding is of crucial importance in correct interpretation of abdominal radiographs in the emergency room.
Children; radiographs; sigmoid colon
We undertook this study involving 200 peri- and postmenopausal women to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis, and in turn increase the awareness, education, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis.
Setting and Design:
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, UT Chandigarh, India, and a clinical study.
Materials and Methods:
A detailed medical, obstetrical, menstrual, and drug history was recorded in a proforma designated for the study. Height and weight was measured, weight-bearing exercise was assessed, and sunlight exposure per day for each woman was recorded. Food intake was estimated by using the 24-hour dietary recall method, and calcium and vitamin D consumption pattern was assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) at postero-anterior lumbar spine and dual femurs was assessed by densitometer. Women were classified according to the WHO criteria.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Student's t-test, multiple logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of low BMD was found in more than half of this population (53%). The mean age in group I (normal BMD) was found to be 50.56 ± 5.74 years as compared to 52.50 ± 5.94 in group II with low BMD (P=0.02). The two groups were similar with respect to parity, education, socioeconomic status, family history of osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy, and thyroid disorders. 46.8% of the women in group I and 33% of the women in group II had low physical activity and there was no statistically significant difference in sunlight exposure between the groups. Parity or the number of children and type of menopause was not seen to have much association with low BMD in our study. Lack of exercise and low calcium diet were significantly associated with low BMD. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, exercise, menopause, and low calcium diet acted as significant predictors of low bone density.
The findings from the study suggest the need for large community-based studies so that high-risk population can be picked up and early interventions and other life style changes can be instituted if there is delay in implementing national or international health strategies to tackle this increasing global health problem. Strategies to identify and manage low BMD in the primary care setting need to be established and implemented.
Bone mineral density; calcium; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; osteoporosis and menopause
Background & objectives
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare metabolic bone disease and information available from India is limited to only anecdotal case reports. We describe the clinical profile and therapeutic outcome of 25 patients with FD observed over a period of 14 yr in a tertiary care centre from north India.
In this retrospective study patients (n = 25) with diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia based on either classical radiological features and/or histological evidence on bone biopsy, were analyzed. Associated endocrinopathies if any, were evaluated. The diagnosis of McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) was considered when fibrous dysplasia was accompanied by either café-au-lait macules and/or endocrinopathies. The clinical presentation, biochemical parameters and imaging were analysed. Seven patients received bisphosphonate therapy. The final outcome and side effects were noted.
Age of the patients ranged from 7 to 48 yr (mean ± SD, 24.2 ± 11.4 yr) with a lag time between onset of symptoms and presentation ranging from 1 to 20 yr (mean ± SD, 6.6 ± 6.2 yr). The mean duration of follow up was 3.5 ± 2.1 yr. Eighteen (72%) patients had polyostotic disease while the remaining had monostotic FD. Eight patients had endocrinopathies: five had acromegaly, one each had gonadotropin independent precocious puberty (GIPP), hyperthyroidism and hypophosphatemic rickets. One child with GIPP later developed hyperthyroidism. McCune Albright syndrome was observed in 10 (40%) patients. A majority of the patients underwent various minor or major surgical procedures and seven patients received bisphosphonates for recurrent pathological fractures. Bone pain was reduced in all bisphosphonate treated patients with a decrease in subsequent fractures.
Interpretation & conclusions
This series of FD patients from north India shows the varying presentations of this rare disease. Medical treatment with bisphosphonates appears to be potentially rewarding.
Bisphosphonates; endocrinopathies; fibrous dysplasia; McCune-Albright syndrome
Diaschisis is the inhibition of function produced by focal disturbances in a portion of the brain at a distance from original site of injury. Many studies using brain SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) have demonstrated crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with cerebral cortical infarct. We report a case of cerebrovascular accident involving the left middle cerebral artery territory. PET/CT performed one month after stroke showed hypometabolism in the left cerebral hemisphere with hypometabolism of the contralateral cerebellum. The finding of diminished glucose metabolism in the contralateral cerebellum represents CCD.
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis; PET/CT; stroke
Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare cause of secondary postpartum hemorrhage but is potentially life-threatening and can occur after caesarean section (c-section) or a hysterectomy. A 28-year-old woman who developed secondary postpartum hemorrhage after c-section was diagnosed to have pseudoaneurysm from the left uterine artery on ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scan. She was treated with coiling of the pseudoaneurysm with stainless steel coil via selective catheterization of the uterine artery. The procedure was uneventful and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully obliterated. Angiographic embolization is a safe and effective method for treating postpartum hemorrhage due to pseudoaneurysm in hemodynamically stable patients. Therefore, it should be considered as a treatment option before resorting to surgery, in appropriately selected cases.
Angiography; Doppler; secondary postpartum hemorrhage; uterine artery embolization; uterine artery pseudoaneurysm
Diffusion: weighted MRI (DWI) is a novel technique that analyzes the diffusion of water molecules in vivo. DWI has been used extensively in the central nervous system. Its use in body imaging is on the rise. In the prostate, it has been used in the evaluation of prostatic carcinoma. We present DWI findings in two patients of prostatic abscess.
Apparent diffusion coefficient; diffusion-weighted imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; prostatic abscess; transrectal ultrasound