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1.  Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model 
Background:
Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs) with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM) and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study.
Materials and Methods:
A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane) and group P (n = 4; pleural patch) according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF) was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests.
Results:
BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69).
Conclusion:
Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.
PMCID: PMC4061641  PMID: 24949027
Amniotic membrane; bronchial stump; bronchopleural fistula; pneumonectomy
2.  How effective are alprostadil and hydrocortisone on reperfusion injury in kidney after distant organ ischemia? 
Background:
After reestablishment of blood flow to ischemic limb recirculation of free radicals may cause ischemia-reperfusion injury in many organs. This study designed to investigate effects of hydrocortisone and alprostadil distant injury to kidneys by both measuring biochemical markers of oxidative stress and histopathologic examination in an experimental rat model of hind limb ischemia-reperfusion.
Materials and Methods:
This study conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2011–2012. Ischemia was established by infra renal aortic clamping for 60 min in 32 male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into those receiving alprostadil (group ischemia-reperfusion plus alprostadil (IR/A), n = 8), those receiving hydrocortisone (group ischemia-reperfusion plus hydrocortisone (IR/H), n = 8), control group (group ischemia-reperfusion (IR), n = 8), and sham group (n = 8). After 120 min of reperfusion both kidneys were removed. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) as indirect markers of oxidative injury was measured. Finally all data in different groups were compared using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.
Results:
Administration of alprostadil or hydrocortisone does not improve the biochemical parameters of oxidative injury including MDA and SOD. However, statistically significant difference was seen in GSH level among sham and IR groups. Mean (± standard deviation (SD)) concentration of GSH in IR, IR/A, IR/H, and sham groups were 1028.77 (72.65), 924.82 (70.66), 1000.28 (108.77), and 846.69 (163.52), respectively (P = 0.015). Histopathological study of specimens did not show any significant changes between groups.
Conclusion:
Alprostadil and hydrocortisone do not improve the kidney GSH, SOD, and MDA level and kidney releases its GSH reserve during ischemia-reperfusion event, and another point is that, 3 h of ischemia-reperfusion does not develop injury in kidney.
PMCID: PMC3872582  PMID: 24381617
Alprostadil; hydrocortisone; ischemia-reperfusion injury; oxidative stress
3.  Successful auto-implantation of hepatic cells in lung tissue: An animal study 
Background:
This study was proposed to evaluate a new method for autograft transplantation of liver tissue fragments (LTF) in the lung parenchyma and bronchus of dogs and to compare the results to find out if they are suitable sites for hepatocyte implantation or not.
Materials and Methods:
The dogs were randomly assigned into two categories: LTF auto-transplantation to the lung parenchyma and into the bronchus. The suspensions of normal saline and LTF were injected and implanted into the lung parenchyma and the main bronchus of the right accessory lobe in first and second groups, respectively. Two weeks later the right accessory lobe was removed and sent for a histopathological study. All samples were checked under a light microscope with regard to the presence of hepatocytes, with both the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) preparation and immunohistochemistry (IHC) method, using a CK-18 marker. All results were double-checked with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results:
The mean weight of all the dogs was 19.87 ± 0.93 kg and mean age was 3.58 ± 0.31 years. After 15 days, the H and E, IHC, and PCR studies revealed that in the first group, all the dogs (n = 4) had living liver tissue, which survived in the lung parenchyma successfully. In contrast, none of the dogs (n = 0) in the second group showed surviving hepatocytes in the bronchus (P < 0.001).
Conclusion:
Implantation of the LTFs into the lung parenchyma could be a source of hepatic cell production.
PMCID: PMC3872589  PMID: 24381624
Auto-transplantation; IHC; PCR
4.  The mid-sternal length, a practical anatomical landmark for optimal positioning of long-term central venous catheters 
Background:
Long-term tunneled catheters are used for the hemodialysis or chemotherapy in many patients. Proper placement of the catheter tip could reduce early and late catheter related complications. Aim of the present study was to evaluate a new formula for proper placement of tunneled hemodialysis or infusion port device by using an external anatomic landmark.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 64 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled Central Venous Catheter (CVC) requiring hemodialysis or chemotherapy were enrolled in this prospective study during 2011-2012 in the university hospital. The catheter length to be inserted in the right internal jugular vein (IJV) was calculated by adding two measurements (the shortest straight length between the insertion point of the needle and the suprasternal notch plus and half of sternal length). The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium (RA) or Superior vena cava (SVC)-RA junction.
Results:
The patients were 55.28 ± 19.85 years of age, weighed 5.78 ± 16.62 kg and were 166.07 ± 10.27 cm tall. Catheters were inserted successfully in 88% of patients (n = 56). Catheter tip positions in the failures were SVC (n = 5), tricuspid valve (n = 2), and right ventricle (n = 1) in our patients.
Conclusion:
Long-term hemodialysis or port CVC could easily insert in the right IJV by using half of the sternal length as an external land marks among adult patients.
PMCID: PMC3810570  PMID: 24174941
External landmark; hemodialysis; port device
6.  Micrometastasis in non–small-cell lung cancer: Detection and staging 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):149-152.
BACKGROUND:
The clinical relevance of bone marrow micrometastasis (BMM) in non–small-cell lung cancer is undetermined, and the value of such analyses in advanced stage patients has not been clearly assessed previously. This study was conducted to estimate the accuracy of both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in micrometastases detection and determine the best site for bone marrow biopsy in order to find micrometastasis.
METHODS:
This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Alzahra University Hospital from September 2008 to June 2009. To evaluate the bone marrow, a 3-cm rib segment and an aspirated specimen from the iliac bone prior to tumor resection were taken. PCR and IHC were performed for each specimen to find micrometastasis.
RESULTS:
Of 41 patients, 14 (34%) were positive for BMM by PCR compared with two positive IHC (4.8%). All BMMs were diagnosed in rib segments, and iliac specimens were all free from metastatic lesion. Our data showed no significant association between variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, side of tumor, involved lobe, smoking, or weight loss and presence of BMM.
CONCLUSION:
PCR could use as a promising method for BMM detection. BMM in a sanctuary site (rib) is not associated with advanced stages of lung cancer. In addition, when predictor variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, smoking, or weight loss are analyzed, no correlation can be found between micrometastasis prevalence and any of those variables.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98848
PMCID: PMC3425047  PMID: 22924073
IHC; lung cancer; micrometastasis; PCR
7.  Successful prevention of tunneled, central catheter infection by antibiotic lock therapy using cefotaxime 
BACKGROUND:
Chronic hemodialysis patients frequently require vascular access through central venous catheters (CVCs). The most significant complication of these catheters is infection. This risk can be lowered by the use of an antibiotic-Heparin lock. This study focuses on hemodialysis patients using Tunneled-cuffed catheters (TCC), to assess the rate of catheter-related infections (CRI) in catheter-restricted filling with Cefotaxime and Heparin in end stage renal disease patients.
METHODS:
A double-blind randomized study was conducted to compare 5000 U/ml Heparin plus10 mg/ml cefotaxime (CE/HS) as catheter-lock solutions, with Heparin (5000 U/ml) alone. A total of 30 patients with end-stage renal disease and different etiologies, were enrolled for chronic hemodialysis with permanent catheters from December 2009 to March 2010. These patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 members. Blood samples were collected for culture, sensitivity, and colony count, from the catheter lumen and the peripheral vein. CRI was considered as the end point.
RESULTS:
The rate of CRI was significantly lower in the cefotaxime group versus control group (p < 0.001). No exit site infection was occurred in both groups. Infection-free survival rates at 180 days were 100% for the CE/HS group, and 56% for the HS group.
CONCLUSIONS:
Antibiotic lock therapy using cefotaxime reduces the risk of CRI in hemodialysis patients.
PMCID: PMC3214338  PMID: 22091249
Catheter; Hemodialysis; Lock Solution Infection; Cefotaxime; Heparin

Results 1-7 (7)