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4.  Micrometastasis in non–small-cell lung cancer: Detection and staging 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(3):149-152.
BACKGROUND:
The clinical relevance of bone marrow micrometastasis (BMM) in non–small-cell lung cancer is undetermined, and the value of such analyses in advanced stage patients has not been clearly assessed previously. This study was conducted to estimate the accuracy of both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in micrometastases detection and determine the best site for bone marrow biopsy in order to find micrometastasis.
METHODS:
This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Alzahra University Hospital from September 2008 to June 2009. To evaluate the bone marrow, a 3-cm rib segment and an aspirated specimen from the iliac bone prior to tumor resection were taken. PCR and IHC were performed for each specimen to find micrometastasis.
RESULTS:
Of 41 patients, 14 (34%) were positive for BMM by PCR compared with two positive IHC (4.8%). All BMMs were diagnosed in rib segments, and iliac specimens were all free from metastatic lesion. Our data showed no significant association between variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, side of tumor, involved lobe, smoking, or weight loss and presence of BMM.
CONCLUSION:
PCR could use as a promising method for BMM detection. BMM in a sanctuary site (rib) is not associated with advanced stages of lung cancer. In addition, when predictor variables such as age, sex, histology, tumor location, smoking, or weight loss are analyzed, no correlation can be found between micrometastasis prevalence and any of those variables.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.98848
PMCID: PMC3425047  PMID: 22924073
IHC; lung cancer; micrometastasis; PCR
5.  Touch imprint and crash preparation intra operative cytology versus frozen section in thyroid nodule 
Background:
Intra operative cytology (IC), including touch imprint (TI) and crash preparations (CP), in general has been demonstrated to be a diagnostic tool for many organs but its validity and reliability for diagnosis of thyroid nodules remain controversial. We evaluate the diagnostic value of frozen section, touch imprint, crash preparation and the combination of touch imprint and crash preparation and the combination of frozen section, touch imprint and crash preparation.
Materials ans Methods:
55 intra operative specimens from patients with thyroid nodules who underwent thyroidectomy were evaluated at Alzahra and vali-Asr hospital laboratories. For all of the patients frozen section (FS), touch imprint (TI) and crash preparation (CP) was obtained and reviewed by two pathologists at the same time. Serial TI and CP, and FS, TI and CP were reviewed by the same pathologists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and accuracy were calculated according to the permanent section as the gold standard test.
Results:
In our study sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for FS was 100%, 97.6% and 98.1% respectively; for TI they were 78.6%, 95% and 92.4%; for CP they were 78.6%, 92.7% and 89.9%; for serial TI and CP they were 85.7%, 92.7% and 90.9%; and for the combination of FS and TI and CP they were 100%, 97.6% and 98.18% respectively.
Conclusions:
Intra operative cytology (including TI and CP) seems to be a useful, valuable and inexpensive method in clinics, which do not have equipment for frozen sections. Intra operative cytology combined with FS increased the overall accuracy of diagnosis. Further studies are needed to validate the obtained results of this study.
PMCID: PMC3634276  PMID: 23626615
Crash Preparation; Frozen Section; Thyroid Nodule; Touch Imprint

Results 1-5 (5)