The Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation in people with type 2 Diabetes on Insulin Therapy (CREDIT) study is an international, multicenter, observational study designed to assess metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin therapy. The present report summarizes results at baseline and 1-year follow-up for the cohort of Japanese patients.
Male and female patients (n = 511), aged >40 years, with T2DM for >1 year, treated with insulin therapy for ≥1 month and <6 months were eligible for participation in the study. Glycemic and lipid parameters, duration of diabetes, diabetic complications, oral antidiabetic medications, and all hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. Effectiveness was assessed based on changes in clinical parameters and attainment of target HbA1c levels. Safety was evaluated based on episodes of hypoglycemia and weight gain.
At baseline, the mean ± SD duration of diabetes was 11.8 ± 8.8 years. Microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications were present in 83.4% and 25.1% of patients, respectively. At the 1-year follow-up, significant improvements were observed in mean HbA1c (10.3 ± 2.0% vs. 7.5 ± 1.3%, P < .001), fasting plasma glucose (217.3 ± 80.8 mg/dL vs. 139.0 ± 48.7 mg/dL, P < .001), and postprandial plasma glucose levels (296.1 ± 96.0 mg/dL vs. 178.2 ± 68.6 mg/dL, P < .001) compared with baseline. Mean total cholesterol (P < .001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001), triglycerides (P < .01), and diastolic blood pressure (P < .01) also significantly decreased. Good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.0%) was achieved in 40% of patients at the 1-year follow-up. Glycemic control tended to be better in patients with lower baseline HbA1c levels (P < .01). Patients with a shorter duration of diabetes were more likely to achieve glycemic control and discontinue insulin for diabetes control at the 1-year follow-up (P < .05 for trend). Symptomatic hypoglycemic episodes occurred in 21.8% of patients over 6 to 12 months.
Our results suggest that insulin treatment is an effective and safe therapeutic option in Japanese patients with T2DM, and earlier insulin initiation might be associated with better glycemic control.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Insulin therapy; Real-life clinical data
We report a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by toluene poisoning. She had erythema, alopecia, arthralgia, and various neurological symptoms. Laboratory findings showed leukocytopenia, low levels of complements, and anti-dsDNA antibody. However, normal interleukin-6 level and IgG index of cerebrospinal fluid and brain magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computed tomography findings suggested that her neurological symptoms were caused by metabolic disorder but not neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Erythema, alopecia, and arthralgia improved rapidly after administration of prednisolone and tacrolimus, whereas neurological symptoms improved only gradually. Because of a history of exposure to toluene, her neurological symptoms were considered to be due to toluene poisoning. The differentiation of toluene poisoning from neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus based on symptoms is difficult because both induce various neuropsychiatric disorders. Laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid, radiological findings, and medical interview were useful for differentiation of toluene poisoning from neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common cause of death in patients with autopsy-confirmed Parkinsonism. This study investigated the incidence of leg deep vein thrombosis in Parkinson’s disease and relationships between deep vein thrombosis and clinical/laboratory findings, including postural abnormalities as assessed by photographic measurements.
This cross-sectional study assessed the presence of deep vein thrombosis using bilateral leg Doppler ultrasonography in 114 asymptomatic outpatients with Parkinson’s disease.
Deep vein thrombosis was detected in 23 patients (20%) with Parkinson’s disease. Deep vein thrombosis was located in the distal portion in 18 patients and in the proximal portion in 5 patients. No significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, disease duration, Hoehn-Yahr stage, anti-Parkinson’s drugs, or daily levodopa-equivalent dose were seen between deep vein thrombosis-positive and -negative groups. Univariate analysis for developing deep vein thrombosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease identified the following markers: long-term wheelchair use, bent knee, bent spine, and D-dimer elevation. Bending angles were significantly greater in the deep vein thrombosis-positive group at the knee and spine than in the deep vein thrombosis-negative group. Half of Parkinson’s disease patients with camptocormia had deep vein thrombosis. Among diabetes mellitus cases, long-term wheelchair use, bent knee over 15°, camptocormia, D-dimer elevation, the more risk markers were associated with a higher incidence of DVT. The presence of risk markers contributed to the development of deep vein thrombosis. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a bent knee posture was strongly associated with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis.
Presence of leg deep vein thrombosis correlated with postural abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease. We recommend non-invasive ultrasonographic screening for leg deep vein thrombosis in these high-risk patients with Parkinson’s disease.
Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and malignant melanoma share overlapping immunohistochemistry with regard to the melanocytic markers HMB45, S100, and Melan-A. However, the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is specific to CCS. Therefore, although these neoplasms are closely related, they are now considered to be distinct entities. However, the translocation is apparently detectable only in 50%–70% of CCS cases. Therefore, the absence of a detectable EWS/AFT1 rearrangement may occasionally lead to erroneous exclusion of a translocation-negative CCS. Therefore, histological assessment is essential for the correct diagnosis of CCS. Primary CCS of the bone is exceedingly rare. Only a few cases of primary CCS arising in the ulna, metatarsals, ribs, radius, sacrum, and humerus have been reported, and primary CCS arising in the pubic bone has not been reported till date.
We present the case of an 81-year-old man with primary CCS of the pubic bone. Histological examination of the pubic bone revealed monomorphic small-sized cells arranged predominantly as a diffuse sheet with round, hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cells had scant cytoplasm, and the biopsy findings indicated small round cell tumor (SRCT). Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumor cells to be positive for HMB45, S100, and Melan-A but negative for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary CCS of the pubic bone resembling SRCT. This ambiguous appearance underscores the difficulties encountered during the histological diagnosis of this rare variant of CCS.
Awareness of primary CCS of the bone is clinically important for accurate diagnosis and management when the tumor is located in unusual locations such as the pubic bone and when the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is absent.
Clear cell sarcoma; Small round cell tumor; Pubic bone; Immunohistochemistry
For progressive interstitial pneumonia (progressive IP) that accompanies diffuse systemic sclerosis (diffuse SSc), no treatment guidelines have yet been established, and it is a complication with a poor prognosis. We herein report a case in which combination therapy of a low-dose corticosteroid and low-dose azathioprine was performed for progressive SSc-IP in a 64-year-old female whose respiratory function was severely damaged for a long period of time and for whom improvement was achieved. The beneficial effect has continued for 3 years with no side effects being observed during the course.
World Health Organization (WHO) criteria are commonly used to diagnose plasma cell myeloma (PCM); however, these criteria are complex and require several laboratory parameters. For differentiating reactive plasmacytosis from clonal plasma cell (PC) neoplasms such as PCM, it is important to accurately determine the expression of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin light chains.
We retrospectively analyzed the records of 27 selected patients with PCM who underwent bone biopsies for confirmative diagnosis according to WHO criteria. Twenty-three controls were also investigated. In the present study, all the samples were analyzed using flow cytometry (FC) in the side scatter vs. CD38 histogram mode, and the CD38-gated PC population was identified. Bivariate histograms of CD138/kappa and CD138/lambda were assessed, and the ratios of dual-positive cells to the CD138+ PC population were calculated. The kappa/lambda ratio was defined as the ratio of CD138/kappa to CD138/lambda.
PCM cells were distinguished from normal PCs using cutoff levels between 0.76 and 1.5, at a sensitivity of 96.3% and specificity of 95.7%.
Three-color FC analysis is simple to perform and inexpensive, with clinically relevant data obtained soon after the completion of FC measurements. The detection of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-gated CD138+ PCs may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCM. To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the first diagnostic assessment of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio in CD38-gated CD138+ PCs using FC analysis. This method may help in more simple, efficient, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of PCM.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1568085959771735
Plasma cell myeloma; Diagnosis; kappa/lambda ratio; CD138; CD38
Interferon therapy can trigger induction of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. To assess the clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of type 1 diabetes induced by interferon therapy, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Clinical characteristics, anti-islet autoantibodies, and HLA-DR typing were examined in 91 patients for whom type 1 diabetes developed during or shortly after interferon therapy.
Median age at the onset of type 1 diabetes was 56 (interquartile range 48–63) years and mean ± SD BMI was 20.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The time period from the initiation of interferon therapy to type 1 diabetes onset in patients receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin was significantly shorter than that in patients with nonpegylated interferon single therapy (P < 0.05). Anti-islet autoantibodies were detected in 94.5% of patients at diabetes onset. Type 1 diabetes susceptibility HLA-DRs in the Japanese population, DR4 and DR9, were also associated with interferon treatment–related type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, the prevalence of HLA-DR13 was significantly higher in interferon treatment–related type 1 diabetes than in healthy control subjects (odds ratio 3.80 [95% CI 2.20–7.55]; P < 0.0001) and classical type 1 diabetes (2.15 [1.17–3.93]; P < 0.05).
Anti-islet autoantibodies should be investigated before and during interferon therapy to identify subjects at high risk of type 1 diabetes. Stronger antiviral treatment may induce earlier development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, patients who develop interferon-induced type 1 diabetes are genetically susceptible.
Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a fatal cancer-related pulmonary complication with rapidly progressing dyspnea, and occasionally induces sudden death. Here, we describe a postmortem-diagnosed PTTM case caused by gastric cancer, with the complaint of progressing dyspnea for 5 days.He did not have any abdominal symptoms or cancer history. PTTM should be considered in patients with rapidly worsening respiratory conditions, even if there is no cancer history.
Dyspnea; gastric cancer; PTTM
Oxidative stress/free radical generation after ischemic stroke contributes to neuronal cell injury. We evaluated the utility of an oxidative stress marker, urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), to demonstrate an association between the changes of 8-OHdG and outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.
We enrolled 44 patients (26 males and 18 females) who visited our hospital due to acute ischemic stroke. Urine was collected on admission and on Days 7, and 8-OHdG was measured by ELISA. The relationships between 8-OHdG levels, stroke subtypes, and clinical outcomes based on the NIHSS and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) upon discharge was evaluated.
In the overall cohort, the mean urinary level of 8-OHdG on Day 7 was increased than that on Day 0. The 8-OHdG levels on Day 0 were not different between patients with poor and good outcomes. However, an increasing rate from Day 0 to 7 (Δ 8-OHdG) in stroke patients with a poor outcome(mRS ≥3) was significantly higher than those with a good outcome (mRS ≤2) (2.54 vs 39.44, p = 0.004).
The biochemical changes related to 8-OHdG and oxidative stress may be considered a marker of ischemic brain injury and clinical outcome of ischemic stroke.
Ischemic stroke; Oxidative stress; 8-OHdG; Clinical outcome; Radical scavenger; Edaravone.
A Japanese randomized controlled study showed that Interferon â (IFN-â1b) therapy is clinically effective in decreasing the frequency of attacks in multiple sclerosis (MS), even in optico-spinal MS (OSMS). However, recent studies have shown that IFN-â (IFN-â1a/IFN-â1b) treatment was not effective in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients and that the diminished benefit of IFN-â treatment in NMO may be due to different immune responses to IFN-â. We determined longitudinally the expression of CCR5, CXCR3 and CCR4 on CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in the blood from patients with NMO and MS treated with IFN-â1b. During a 12-month period of IFN-â1b therapy, the annualized relapse rate decreased in MS patients but not in NMO patients. There was no significant difference in the expression of the chemokine receptors between NMO and MS at baseline. The percentages of CD4+CCR5+ and CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, representative of the Th1 response, were decreased in both NMO and MS after treatment. The percentage of CD4+CCR4+ T cells, representative of the Th2 response, was decreased in MS, but those for NMO was significantly increased compared with the pretreatment levels. Our results indicate that IFN-â1b-induced up-modulation of the Th2 response in NMO patients may be the source of differences in the therapeutic response to IFN-â1b therapy. In the present study, Th2 predominance is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO.
neuromyelitis optica; multiple sclerosis; IFN-â1b; chemokine receptor; CCR5; CXCR3; CCR4; Th1; Th2
We previously reported that depressive personality (the scores of hypochondriasis, depression and psychasthenia determined by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)) and daily hassles of Graves' disease (GD) patients treated long trem with antithyroid drug (ATD) were significantly higher in a relapsed group than in a remitted group, even in the euthyroid state. The present study aims to examine the relationship among depressive personality, emotional stresses, thyroid function and the prognosis of hyperthyroidism in newly diagnosed GD patients.
Sixty-four untreated GD patients responded to the MMPI for personality traits, the Natsume's Stress Inventory for major life events, and the Hayashi's Daily Life Stress Inventory for daily life stresses before and during ATD treatment.
In the untreated thyrotoxic state, depressive personality (T-scores of hypochondriasis, depression or psychasthenia greater than 60 points in MMPI) were found for 44 patients (69%). For 15 (23%) of these patients, the scores decreased to the normal range after treatment. However, depressive personality persisted after treatment in the remaining 29 patients (46%). Normal scores before treatment were found for 20 patients (31%), and the scores were persistently normal for 15 patients (23%). The remaining 5 patients (8%) had higher depressive personality after treatment. Such depressive personality was not associated with the severity of hyperthyroidism. Serum TSH receptor antibody activity at three years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0351) greater in the depression group than in the non- depression group. The remission rate at four years after treatment was significantly (p = 0.0305) lower in the depression group than in the non- depression group (22% vs 52%).
The data indicate that in GD patients treated with ATD, depressive personality during treatment reflects the effect of emotional stress more than that of thyrotoxicosis and that it aggravates hyperthyroidism. Psychosomatic therapeutic approaches including antipsychiatric drugs and/or psychotherapy appears to be useful for improving the prognosis of hyperthyroidism.
Intradermal infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in burned mice was pathogenically analyzed. An abscess was formed in normal mice intradermally infected with 108 CFU/mouse of MRSA, and all of these mice survived after the infection; however, abscess formation was not demonstrated to occur in burned mice similarly exposed to the pathogen, and all of these mice died within 5 days of infection. In burned mice, MRSA infected at the burn site intradermal tissues spread quickly throughout the whole body, while in normal mice, the pathogen remained localized at the infection site. Macrophages (Mφ) isolated from the infection site tissues of normal mice produced interleukin-12 (IL-12) but not IL-10 and were characterized as M1Mφ. These M1Mφ were not isolated from the infection site tissues of burned mice. When normal-mouse infection site tissue Mφ were adoptively transferred to burned mice at the MRSA infection site, an abscess formed, and the infection did not develop into sepsis. In contrast, an abscess did not form and sepsis developed in normal mice that were inoculated with burned-mouse infection site tissue Mφ. These Mφ produced IL-10 but not IL-12 and were characterized as M2Mφ. These results indicate that abscess formation is a major mechanism of host resistance against intradermal MRSA infection. M1Mφ in the tissues surrounding the infection site play a pivotal role in abscess formation; however, the abscess is not formed in burned mice where M2Mφ predominate. M2Mφ have been described as inhibitor cells for Mφ conversion from resident Mφ to M1Mφ.
Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels have a significant inverse correlation with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. However, direct evidence for the association with DHEAS and vascular disorders has not yet been explored. DHEAS significantly reduced neointima formation 28 days after surgery without altering other serum metabolite levels in a rabbit carotid balloon injury model. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and increase of TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) index, expressing differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers in the media 7 days after surgery. In vitro, DHEAS exhibited inhibitory effects on VSMC proliferation and migration activities, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest with upregulation of one of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p16INK4a and apoptosis with activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α in VSMCs. DHEAS inhibits vascular remodeling reducing neointima formation after vascular injury via its effects on VSMC phenotypic modulation, functions and apoptosis upregulating p16INK4a/activating PPARα. DHEAS may play a pathophysiological role for vascular remodeling in cardiovascular disease.
hormones; restenosis; vascular smooth muscle cell; apoptosis
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that predominantly affects the optic nerves and the spinal cord, and is possibly mediated by an immune mechanism distinct from that of multiple sclerosis (MS). Central scotoma is recognized as a characteristic visual field defect pattern of optic neuritis (ON), however, the differing pathogenic mechanisms of NMO and MS may result in different patterns of visual field defects for ON.
Medical records of 15 patients with NMO and 20 patients with MS having ON were retrospectively analyzed. A thorough systemic and neurological examination was performed for evaluating ON. The total number of relapses of ON and visual fields was investigated. Visual fields were obtained by Goldmann perimeter with each ON relapse.
All MS patients experienced central scotoma, with 90% of them showing central scotoma with every ON relapse. However, 53% of NMO patients showed central scotoma with every ON relapse (p = 0.022), and the remaining 47% of patients experienced non-central scotoma (altitudinal, quadrant, three quadrant, hemianopia, and bitemporal hemianopia). Thirteen percent of NMO patients did not experience central scotoma during their disease course. Altitudinal hemianopia was the most frequent non-central scotoma pattern in NMO.
NMO patients showed higher incidence of non-central scotoma than MS, and altitudinal hemianopia may be characteristic of ON occurring in NMO. As altitudinal hemianopia is highly characteristic of ischemic optic neuropathy, we suggest that an ischemic mechanism mediated by anti-aquaporin-4 antibody may play a role in ON in NMO patients.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can develop into end-stage disease such as cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hence, it is important to understand the pathogenesis of NASH. In general, the “two-hit theory” has prevailed as a pathogenic mechanism of NASH. According to this theory, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) contained in normal portal blood are the “second hit,” but their role is not completely understood. Based on this theory, we evaluated the role of LPS in NASH pathogenesis. For the first hit to develop metabolic abnormalities, a synthetic diet rich in disaccharide (synthetic diet: 12.1 cal% disaccharide) was fed to Zucker (fa/fa) rats for 12 weeks. For the second hit, 100 µg/kg LPS was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 2 weeks. Synthetic diet-fed rats treated with LPS showed an increase in the triglyceride content and higher expression of profibrogenic mRNAs in the liver. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly elevated using this protocol. Furthermore, histological examination demonstrated that this protocol induced mild hepatic fibrosis and focal necrosis in the livers of all rats. Synthetic diet-fed Zucker (fa/fa) rats treated with LPS could be useful for understanding the development of hepatic fibrosis in the two-hit theory.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); two-hit theory; synthetic diet; lipopolysaccharides (LPS); hepatic fibrosis
OBJECTIVE—To examine the contribution of the CTLA4 gene in the susceptibility to fulminant type 1 diabetes and compare it with classic type 1A diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We genotyped the +49G>A and CT60G>A variants of the CTLA4 gene in fulminant type 1 diabetic patients (n = 55), classic type 1A diabetic patients (n = 91), and healthy control subjects (n = 369). We also assessed serum levels of the soluble form of CTLA4 (sCTLA4).
RESULTS—The +49GG and CT60GG genotypes were associated with type 1A diabetes (P < 0.001). In contrast, the CT60AA genotype, but not the +49G>A variation, was associated with fulminant type 1 diabetes (P < 0.05), especially in patients carrying HLA-DR4 (P < 0.01). Serum levels of sCTLA4 were significantly decreased in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that CTLA4 CT60 affects the genetic susceptibility to fulminant type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, the contribution of CTLA4 to disease susceptibility is distinct between fulminant type 1 diabetes and classic type 1A diabetes.
The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7566605 in the upstream region of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) is associated with the obesity phenotype in many Caucasian populations. In Japanese, this association with the obesity phenotype is not clear. To investigate the relationship between rs7566605 and obesity in Japanese, we genotyped rs7566605 from severely obese subjects [n = 908, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2] and normal-weight control subjects (n = 1495, BMI < 25 kg/m2). A case–control association analysis revealed that rs7566605 was significantly associated with obesity in Japanese. The P value in the minor allele recessive mode was 0.00020, and the odds ratio (OR) adjusted for gender and age was 1.61 [95% confidential interval (CI) = 1.24–2.09]. Obesity-associated phenotypes, which included the level of BMI, plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure, were not associated with the rs7566605 genotype. Thus, rs7566605 in the upstream region of the INSIG2 gene was found to be associated with obesity, i.e., severe obesity, in Japanese.
Insulin-induced gene 2; Obesity; Japanese population; Association; SNP
Variations in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with the obesity phenotype in many Caucasian populations. This association with the obesity phenotype is not clear in the Japanese. To investigate the relationship between the FTO gene and obesity in the Japanese, we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FTO genes from severely obese subjects [n = 927, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2] and normal-weight control subjects (n = 1,527, BMI < 25 kg/m2). A case-control association analysis revealed that 15 SNPs, including rs9939609 and rs1121980, in a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block of approximately 50 kb demonstrated significant associations with obesity; rs1558902 was most significantly associated with obesity. P value in additive mode was 0.0000041, and odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age and gender was 1.41 [95% confidential interval (CI) = 1.22–1.62]. Obesity-associated phenotypes, which include the level of plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure were not associated with the rs1558902 genotype. Thus, the SNPs in the FTO gene were found to be associated with obesity, i.e., severe obesity, in the Japanese.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10038-008-0283-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Fat-mass and obesity-associated gene; Obesity; Japanese population; Association; SNP
Patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes almost completely lack
C-peptide even soon after the onset of the disease, and the deficiency
continues for the rest of their life. Thus, fulminant type 1 diabetes
could serve as a good model of nature to explore the physiological role
of C-peptide. For example, patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes have
diabetic chronic complications more frequently than those with classical
autoimmune type 1 diabetes 5 years after the onset of diabetes, and the
higher prevalence could be partly attributable to the complete lack of
C-peptide in fulminant type 1 diabetes.
Expression of CCR2, CXCR3 and CCR4 on CD4+ T or CD8+ T cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for multiple sclerosis (MS) was measured by 3-color flow cytometry, and compared to blood from healthy controls and CSF from patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (INDs). CD4+CXCR3+/CD4+CCR4+ ratio (representing Th1/Th2 balance) was higher in both CSF and blood of MS patients than those of IND patients or healthy controls. Percentage of CCR2-positive T cells was significantly higher in CSF from MS patients. Increased CCR2 expression on T cells in CSF and Th1/Th2 imbalance may reflect the pathological processes involved in MS.
multiple sclerosis; CCR2; CXCR3; CCR4; chemokine receptor; chemokine
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is assumed to be a T cell–mediated autoimmune disease. To investigate the role of Fas-mediated cytotoxicity in pancreatic β cell destruction, we established nonobese diabetic (NOD)-lymphoproliferation (lpr)/lpr mice lacking Fas. Out of three genotypes, female NOD-+/+ and NOD-+/lpr developed spontaneous diabetes by the age of 10 mo with the incidence of 68 and 62%, respectively. In contrast, NOD-lpr/lpr did not develop diabetes or insulitis. To further explore the role of Fas, adoptive transfer experiments were performed. When splenocytes were transferred from diabetic NOD, male NOD-+/+ and NOD-+/lpr developed diabetes with the incidence of 89 and 83%, respectively, whereas NOD-lpr/lpr did not show glycosuria by 12 wk after transfer. Severe mononuclear cell infiltration was revealed in islets of NOD-+/+ and NOD-+/lpr, whereas islet morphology remained intact in NOD-lpr/lpr. These results suggest that Fas-mediated cytotoxicity is required to initiate β cell autoimmunity in NOD mice. Fas–Fas ligand system might be critical for autoimmune β cell destruction leading to IDDM.