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1.  Swyer–James–MacLeod syndrome with ipsilateral herniation of hyperinflated hyperlucent lung 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0520114191.
Swyer–James–MacLeod syndrome is characterised by unilateral hyperlucency on chest radiograph with small or normal-sized lung on the affected side and compensatory hyperinflation of opposite lung. Hyperinflation of the affected lung is a very rarely reported entity. An adult female patient, who presented with exertional breathlessness and diagnosed to have hypoplastic left pulmonary artery with hyperlucent, hyperinflated and herniated left lung is described.
doi:10.1136/bcr.05.2011.4191
PMCID: PMC3176363  PMID: 22679043
2.  Free Radical Status in Retinopathy of Prematurity 
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major cause of blindness in children. Free radicals are implicated in the development of this retinopathy. We studied the role of free radicals in ROP and enrolled 60 preterm neonates at 30–32 weeks age. Thirty neonates predisposed to development of ROP, were placed in study group and 30 normal neonates in control group. Malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured in blood spectrophotometrically. Both the groups were followed-up to 40–42 weeks age. Serum MDA levels, erythrocyte SOD and plasma GPX were significantly high in study group at 30–32 weeks as compared to control group. At follow up visit significant increase in MDA level and decrease in SOD and GPX level among the study group was seen. This disturbance in equilibrium of oxidant and antioxidant status initiates an inflammatory process in retinal tissue leading to development of ROP.
doi:10.1007/s12291-011-0180-9
PMCID: PMC3358377  PMID: 23542575
Free radicals; Antioxidants; Retinopathy of prematurity
3.  Poland sequence: Series of two cases and brief review of the literature 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(2):110-112.
Poland sequence is a rare congenital anomaly involving the chest wall and arm, displaying differing degrees of severity, functional and aesthetic impairments. Here we report a series of two cases that presented to us with this anomaly. These cases illustrate, for physicians, the importance of physical diagnosis and reinforce the practice of looking for additional anomalies when one is discovered.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.94535
PMCID: PMC3339202  PMID: 22558018
Aesthetic impairments; congenital anomalies; Poland sequence; Poland syndrome
4.  A comparative study on the clinical and polysomnographic pattern of obstructive sleep apnea among obese and non-obese subjects 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(1):26-30.
OBJECTIVE:
This study was designed to compare the pattern of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among obese and nonobese subjects regarding clinical and polysomnographic data obtained for a polysomnographic study.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study was conducted by analyzing polysomnographic data in 112 consecutive patients underwent a sleep study at our sleep laboratory from January 2009 to July 2010. Out of them, 81 were diagnosed to have OSA (apnea-hypopnoea Index ≥5). These patients were classified in two groups with body mass index (BMI) < 27.5 kg/m2 as nonobese and BMI≥27.5 kg/m2 as obese. Clinical as well as polysomnographic data were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Patients were also evaluated for other risk factors such as smoking, alcoholism, and use of sedatives. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (χ2-test, P value <0.05 considered to be significant). The Fisher Exact test was applied wherever the expected frequency for a variable was ≤5.
RESULTS:
Of 81 patients with OSA, 36 (44.4%) were nonobese with a mean BMI of 26.62 ± 2.29 kg/m2 and 45 (55.6%) were obese with a mean BMI of 35.14 ± 3.74 kg/m2. Mean AHI per hour was significantly more in the obese than in the nonobese group (50.09 ± 29.49 vs. 24.36 ± 12.17, P<0.001). The use of one or more sedatives was more in nonobese as compared to obese (58.3% vs. 24.4%, P=0.002). The obese group had significantly higher desaturation and arousal index (P<0.001). The minimal oxygen saturation was lower in the obese than the nonobese group (68.5 ± 13.00 vs. 80.3 ± 7.40, P<0.001) and was well below 90% in both groups. Overall, the OSA in nonobese patients was mild-to-moderate as compared to that of the obese and no significant differences were observed between them as regard to age, gender, mean neck circumference, excessive daytime sleepiness, adenoid or tonsillar enlargement, smoking, and remaining polysomnographic parameters.
CONCLUSION:
Obstructive sleep apnea can occur in nonobese persons though with less severity as compared to obese leading to a concept that OSA is not restricted to obese persons only and there is a high demand of its awareness regarding evaluation, diagnosis, and management in such individuals.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.91561
PMCID: PMC3277037  PMID: 22347347
Body mass index; obesity; obstructive sleep apnea
5.  Cavitary Pulmonary Zygomycosis Caused by Rhizopus homothallicus▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(5):1965-1969.
We report the first two proven cases of cavitary pulmonary zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus homothallicus. The diagnosis in each case was based on histology, culture of the causal agent, and the nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01272-09
PMCID: PMC2863885  PMID: 20200286
6.  Parotid tuberculosis 
Tuberculosis of the parotid gland is a rare condition. We describe a case of tuberculosis of right parotid gland in a 17-year-old male patient. Diagnosis was made by early suspicion and confirmed by demonstration of epitheloid granulomas on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Patient was successfully treated with daily regimen of four drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol) for first two months followed by two drugs (rifampicin and isoniazid) for last four months.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.71969
PMCID: PMC2988182  PMID: 21139728
Parotid gland; salivary gland; tuberculosis
7.  Intralobar sequestration of lung 
Intralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by the presence of nonfunctional parenchymal lung tissue, receiving systemic arterial blood supply. It lacks normal communication with tracheobronchial tree. Failure to diagnose and treat this condition can lead to recurrent pneumonia and fatal hemoptysis. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness about the condition and to review criteria of its definitive diagnosis and subsequent treatment.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.56357
PMCID: PMC2876708  PMID: 20532005
Intralobar; lung; sequestration
8.  Lessons from patients with hemoptysis attending a chest clinic in India 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2009;4(1):10-12.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the various etiologies of hemoptysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Four hundred and seventy-six consecutive patients of hemoptysis who were admitted to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine between January 1996 and December 2002 were included in this study. Hemoptysis was categorized as mild (< 100 ml/day), moderate (100–400 ml/day), and massive (>400 ml/day). We also categorized the patients according to the primary etiology of the hemoptysis.
RESULTS:
Of the 476 patients with hemoptysis included in this study, 352 were males and 124 were females. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the leading cause of hemoptysis. There were 377 (79.2%) patients in the pulmonary tuberculosis group, 25 (5.7%) in the neoplasm group, 19 (4.0%) in the chronic bronchitis group, 18 (3.8%) in the bronchiectasis group, and 35 (7.3%) patients with hemoptysis due to other causes. About one-third of the patients with hemoptysis had been misdiagnosed by the referring doctor as having active pulmonary tuberculosis.
CONCLUSION:
Although pulmonary tuberculosis is the most important cause of hemoptysis in India, it may also occur due to a variety of other causes. Awareness should be increased among general physicians about the various etiologies of hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.43062
PMCID: PMC2700474  PMID: 19561915
Diagnosis; hemoptysis; mortality; treatment; tuberculosis
9.  A rare case of benign isolated schwannoma in the inferior orbit 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2008;56(6):514-515.
A rare case of unilateral orbital schwannoma arising from the infraorbital nerve is presented. An excision biopsy with complete removal of the mass in the inferior orbit was performed. A definitive diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. The clinical and histological features of schwannoma are discussed. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications.
PMCID: PMC2612976  PMID: 18974528
Infraorbital; orbital; schwannoma
10.  Extraconal cavernous hemangioma of orbit: A case report 
Cavernous hemangioma is the most common benign noninfiltrative neoplasm of the orbit. Most cavernous hemangiomas are intraconal and lateral in location. We present a case of a cavernous hemangioma with an unusual extraconal and superomedial location.
doi:10.4103/0971-3026.43849
PMCID: PMC2747469  PMID: 19774188
Extraconal; hemangioma; orbit
11.  Isoniazid- and ethambutol-induced psychosis 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2008;3(4):149-151.
Most cases of antituberculous agent–associated psychoses were caused by isoniazid (INH), with ethambutol (EMB)-induced psychosis being rare. The concomitant occurrence of INH- and EMB- induced psychosis and in a single individual is extremely uncommon. We report a case of 28-year-old male who developed psychotic symptoms on start of EMB initially and later on INH also. He was prescribed rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ofloxacin and had no further psychotic symptoms.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.43083
PMCID: PMC2700450  PMID: 19561898
Ethambutol; isoniazid; psychosis
12.  Spontaneous pneumothorax: An unusual complication of pregnancy - A case report and review of literature 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2008;3(3):104-105.
Spontaneous pneumothorax complicating pregnancy is rare. Only 55 cases have been reported till now. We describe a case of a 30-year-old Indian woman with spontaneous pneumothorax during her 28th week of pregnancy.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.41915
PMCID: PMC2700443  PMID: 19561889
Pneumothorax; pregnancy; spontaneous
13.  PULMONARY MUCORMYCOSIS MIMICKING AS PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS: A CASE REPORT 
Pulmonary Mucormycosis is an uncommon disease caused by fungi of class Zygomycetes. It occurs predminantly in an immunodeficient host most common risk factor being diabetes mellitus. The lesions are localized in the lungs or the mediastinum. We are reporting a case of 70 years old male, having cough, haemoptysis, fever and chest pain. He was on antituberculosis treatment (RHEZ) for last 10 days and was later found to have Pulmonary Mucormycosis on further evaluation.
doi:10.4103/0970-2113.59595
PMCID: PMC2822332  PMID: 20165666
Pulmonary; Mucormycosis; Tuberculosis
14.  Proboscis lateralis 
doi:10.1007/BF02996854
PMCID: PMC3451486  PMID: 23119493

Results 1-14 (14)