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1.  Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in sickle cell anaemia and its correlation with QT parameters 
Background:
Abnormalities of QT parameters together with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) confer significant risks of cardiac morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. We questioned whether or not CAN influences occurrence of QT interval prolongation and dispersion in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA).
Materials and Methods:
Forty stable adult sickle cell patients with 44 healthy haemoglobin AA controls were studied. Baseline electrocardiograms were obtained and cardiovascular autonomic function tests were performed using standard protocols.
Results:
Mean corrected QT (QTc) in sickle cell patients was significantly higher (P = 0.001) than the mean of controls. Similarly, mean QT dispersion (QTcd) was higher (P = 0.001) in the former than in the latter. Mean QTc in patients with CAN was longer than patients with normal autonomic function (461 ± 26 ms versus 411 ± 23 ms), P = 0.001 (OR of 17.1, CI 3.48–83.71). Similarly, QTcd was higher (P = 0.001) in patients with CAN than those with normal cardiac autonomic function. Positive correlations were found between CAN with QTc and QTcd (r = 0.604, P = 0.001, r = 0.523, P = 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion:
CAN is a risk factor for abnormalities of QT parameters in SCA and both may be harbinger for cardiac death.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.126288
PMCID: PMC3948959  PMID: 24665151
Cardiac arrhythmias; cardiac autonomic neuropathy; sickle cell anaemia; QTc
2.  Awareness of the Warning Signs, Risk Factors, and Treatment for Tuberculosis among Urban Nigerians 
Objectives. To determine the awareness of the warning signs, risk factors, and treatment of tuberculosis among urban Nigerians. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey among 574 adults in Ilorin, Nigeria. Semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers to obtain information about awareness of tuberculosis warning signs, risk factors, and treatment. Results. Majority of the subjects (71.4%) were aware of at least one warning sign of tuberculosis. Cough (66.2%), weight loss (38.0%), and haemoptysis (30.7%) were the most identified warning signs. The predictors of awareness of warning sign were increasing age (r + 0.12), higher family income (r + 0.10), higher level of education (r + 0.10), and belonging to Christian faith (r + 0.11). Awareness of risk factors for tuberculosis was higher for tobacco smokers (77.0%) and history of contact with a case of TB (76.0%). Less than half were aware of HIV infection (49.8%), alcohol consumption (42.5%), chronic kidney disease (40.4%), extremes of ages (39.4%), cancers (36.9%), and diabetes mellitus (27.5%) as risk factors for TB. Tuberculosis was reported to be curable by 74.6% of the subjects and 67.9% knew that there are medications for treatment of tuberculosis, while 11.5% knew the duration of treatment. Conclusion. This study has revealed that the awareness of HIV and noncommunicable diseases as risk factors for TB is poor. This study has therefore demonstrated the need for health education programs that will emphasize recognition, identification, and modification of risk factor for TB.
doi:10.1155/2013/369717
PMCID: PMC3557638  PMID: 23401764
3.  Drug prescription pattern for asthma among nigerian doctors in general practice: A cross-sectional survey 
Annals of Thoracic Medicine  2012;7(2):78-83.
BACKGROUND:
A wide range of medications are now available for the treatment of asthma and selection of the optimal treatment combination of agents is essential.
OBJECTIVES:
This study was designed to evaluate a self-reported drug prescribing pattern for asthma among Nigerian doctors in general practice.
METHODS:
It was a cross-sectional survey conducted among general practitioners in six states of Nigeria.
RESULTS:
For acute severe asthma, 75.9% of the doctors prescribed intravenous methylxanthines, which was combined with oral or inhaled short-acting β2 agonists (SABA) by 56.3% of them. Systemic steroids were prescribed mainly via the intravenous route by 58.8% of them. Aberrant drugs such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and mucolytics were prescribed by 25.6% of them. For long-term, follow-up treatment of asthma, oral steroids, and oral SABA were commonly prescribed, while inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/LABA (long acting beta agonists) were infrequently prescribed. Aberrant drugs such as analgesics, antimalaria, and antihistamines were prescribed by 22.8% of them. About 48% of the doctors had never attended any form of update training on asthma management, whereas, only 16.3% attended update training on asthma within the last year preceding this study. Awareness of international guidelines on asthma treatment was poor among them with only 16.4% being able to mention any correct guideline on asthma management.
CONCLUSION:
The poor anti-asthma prescribing behavior among these doctors is associated with a low level of participation at update training on asthma management and poor awareness of asthma guidelines. The Nigerian Medical Association and the Nigerian Thoracic Society should urgently address these problems.
doi:10.4103/1817-1737.94524
PMCID: PMC3339208  PMID: 22558012
Asthma; drug prescription; general practitioners; Nigeria

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