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author:("bilipid, S.")
1.  The Role of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification in Differentiating Benign and Malignant Renal Masses by 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
Balkan Medical Journal  2015;32(3):273-278.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a widely-accepted diagnostic modality whose efficacy has been investigated by numerous past studies in the differentiation of malignant lesions from benign entities.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the characterization of renal lesions.
Study Design:
Diagnostic accuracy study.
A total of 137 patients with renal lesions were included in this study. The median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as well as the b 800 and b 1600 signal intensities of normal kidneys, solid components of mixed renal masses, and total cystic lesions were evaluated.
There were significant differences between the ADC values of lesions and normal renal parenchyma, and between the ADC values of benign and malignant renal lesions on DWIs at b values of 800 and 1600 s/mm2 (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). There were significant differences between the ADC values of Bosniak Category 1 and 2 cysts and the ADC values of Bosniak Category 1 and 3 cysts on DWIs at b values of 800 s/mm2 (p<0.001) and 1600 s/mm2 (p<0.001). A cutoff value of 1.902 × 10−3 mm2/s for the ADC with a b value of 800 s/mm2 provided 88% sensitivity and 96% specificity for differentiation between benign and malignant renal lesions. A cutoff value of 1.623 × 10−3 mm2/s for the ADC with a b value of 1600 s/mm2 provided 79% sensitivity and 96% specificity (p<0.001) for the differentiation between benign and malignant renal lesions.
Accurate assessment of renal masses is important for determining the necessity for surgical intervention. DWI provides additional value by differentiating benign from malignant renal tumors and can be added to routine kidney MRI protocols.
PMCID: PMC4497693  PMID: 26185715
Apparent diffusion coefficient; diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; renal neoplasms; 3 T MRI
2.  Assessment of the correlation between serum prolidase and alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma 
AIM: To determine the predictive value of increased prolidase activity that reflects increased collagen turnover in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with HCC (mean age of 69.1 ± 10.1), 31 cirrhosis patients (mean age of 59.3 ± 6.3) and 33 healthy volunteers (mean age of 51.4 ± 12.6) were enrolled in this study. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the association of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) values with HCC clinicopathological features, such as tumor size, number and presence of vascular and macrovascular invasion. The patients with HCC were divided into groups according to tumor size, number and presence of vascular invasion (diameters; ≤ 3 cm, 3-5 cm and ≥ 5 cm, number; 1, 2 and ≥ 3, macrovascular invasion; yes/no). Barcelona-clinic liver cancer (BCLC) criteria were used to stage HCC patients. Serum samples for measurement of prolidase and alpha-fetoprotein levels were kept at -80 °C until use. Prolidase levels were measured spectrophotometrically and AFP concentrations were determined by a chemiluminescence immunometric commercial diagnostic assay.
RESULTS: In patients with HCC, prolidase and AFP values were evaluated according to tumor size, number, presence of macrovascular invasion and BCLC staging classification. Prolidase values were significantly higher in patients with HCC compared with controls (P < 0.001). Prolidase levels were significantly associated with tumor size and number (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, respectively). Prolidase levels also differed in patients in terms of BCLC staging classification (P < 0.001). Furthermore the prolidase levels in HCC patients showed a significant difference compared with patients with cirrhosis (P < 0.001). In HCC patients grouped according to tumor size, number and BCLC staging classification, AFP values differed separately (P = 0.032, P = 0.038, P = 0.015, respectively). In patients with HCC, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.616; P < 0.001) between prolidase and AFP values in terms of tumor size, number and BCLC staging classification, whereas the presence of macrovascular invasion did not show a positive association with serum prolidase and AFP levels.
CONCLUSION: Considering the levels of both serum prolidase and AFP could contribute to the early diagnosing of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC4462742  PMID: 26078578
Alpha-fetoprotein; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Prolidase; Cirrhosis; Macrovascular invasion
3.  Important Factors Affecting Adjuvant Treatment Decision in Stage IA Breast Cancer Patients in Turkey 
Breast Care  2014;9(2):123-127.
In Turkey, the gene expression profile test is not standard, so adjuvant treatment is planned according to clinicopathological factors. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed important parameters that affect the decision on adjuvant chemotherapy, and also factors related to survival in stage IA breast cancer patients in Turkey.
We retrospectively evaluated 347 stage IA patients. The relationship between the clinicopathological parameters and adjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed.
The median age and follow-up time were 52 years (range: 25–86) and 22.6 months (range: 1–113), respectively. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 87.9% and 98.7%, respectively, but the median DFS was not reached. Age, estrogen receptor (ER) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and the presence of triple-negative breast tumor (TNBC) were related to DFS, and lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion (PNI), HER2 status, the presence of TNBC, and recurrence were related to OS (p > 0.05). Furthermore, age, menopausal status, multicentricity, grade, tumor size, necrosis, ER, the presence of TNBC, and HER2 were found to be related to adjuvant therapy decision (p > 0.05). All these parameters, in addition to LVI and PNI, were independent factors for chemotherapy by logistic regression analysis.
In decisions about adjuvant therapy in stage IA breast cancer patients, clinicopathological factors should be kept in mind.
PMCID: PMC4038307  PMID: 24944556
Breast cancer; Stage IA; Adjuvant therapy; Chemotherapy
4.  Evaluation of 37,438 consecutive cervical smear results in the Turkish population 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2015;11(2):402-405.
Retrospective evaluation of cervical smear results of women who attended our gynecology policlinics with various symptoms and discussion of the results in the light of the literature.
Material and methods
We performed a retrospective investigation on 37,438 Pap smear results of women who attended our hospital between January 2011 and December 2012 with a variety of symptoms.
Average patient age was 43 (18–83) years. Of the Pap smear results analyzed, in 21,503 (57.4%) findings were within normal limits, while 153 (0.41%) showed epithelial cell abnormalities and 15,358 (41%) showed inflammation. Four hundred and twenty-four (1.1%) cases were reported to have inadequate Pap smear samples for evaluation. Of the epithelial cell abnormalities, 136 (88.8%) were squamous cell abnormalities and 17 (11.1%) were glandular cell abnormalities. Atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) were reported for 117 (0.3%) Pap smears, while other epithelial abnormalities included atypical glandular cells of unknown significance (AGUS) in 17 (0.05%) cases, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in 8 (0.02%) cases, atypical squamous cells with possible high grade lesion (ASC-H) in 8 (0.02%) cases and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 3 (0.008%) cases.
Public awareness should be raised on the importance of Pap smear testing repeated at appropriate intervals in the prevention and early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Health education should become more widespread, and the importance of screening programs and regular check-ups should be emphasized more often on this issue in the media.
PMCID: PMC4424238  PMID: 25995758
Pap smear; screening; cervical cancer
5.  Short-term outcomes of switching anti-VEGF agents in eyes with treatment-resistant wet AMD 
BMC Ophthalmology  2015;15:40.
To investigate the short-term outcomes of treatment with intravitreal aflibercept in cases with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) resistant to ranibizumab.
The study included patients who had been undergoing follow-up for a minimum of three months at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Ophthalmology Department’s Retina Unit with a diagnosis of wet AMD. All cases had received intravitreal aflibercept injection due to the presence of intraretinal/subretinal fluid and pigment epithelial detachment (PED), as detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT), despite having received intravitreal ranibizumab. Medical records of the cases were investigated retrospectively and the demographic data, treatments administered before aflibercept injection, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after aflibercept injection, central macular thickness (CMT), and the presence of intraretinal/subretinal fluid and the height and presence of PED were recorded.
A total of 29 eyes from 11 females and 17 males were included in the study. The mean age was 73.89 ± 7.49 (62–92). The average number of intraocular injections administered before aflibercept injection was 11.75 ± 5.73 (6–25). The mean duration of follow-up following aflibercept injection was 4.55 ± 2.14 (3–11) months, with a mean of 3.44 ± 0.73 (3–5) aflibercept injections during this period. The mean BCVA values before and after aflibercept injection were found to be 0.83 and 0.77 LogMAR, respectively. The mean CMT values before and after aflibercept injection were 471.3 (97–1365) and 345.1 (97–585) microns, respectively (p < 0.001). The PED height before and after aflibercept injection was 350.4 ± 151.7 (129–793) and 255.52 ± 156.8 (0–528) microns, respectively (p < 0.05).
Switching to intravitreal aflibercept appears to be an effective treatment modality for patients with AMD who are resistant to ranibizumab. While anatomic success including the effect of reducing the PED height was achieved in the short term following aflibercept injection in all cases, no concomitant increase in visual acuity occurred. This is attributed to the long-term presence of chronic fluid and the development of scar tissue before the treatment.
PMCID: PMC4407797  PMID: 25885684
Aflibercept; Age-related macular degeneration; Ranibizumab
6.  Pathologic and Clinical Characteristics of Elderly Patients With Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of a Multicenter Study (Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology) 
International Surgery  2014;99(1):2-7.
There is very little information about breast cancer characteristics, treatment choices, and survival among elderly patients. The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to examine the clinical, pathologic, and biologic characteristics of 620 breast cancer patients age 70 years or older. Between June 1991 and May 2012, 620 patients with breast cancer, recruited from 16 institutions, were enrolled in the retrospective study. Patients had smaller tumors at diagnosis; only 15% of patients had tumors larger than 5 cm. The number of patients who had no axillary lymph node involvement was 203 (32.7%). Ninety-three patients (15.0%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Patients were characterized by a higher fraction of pure lobular carcinomas (75.3%). The tumors of the elderly patients were also more frequently estrogen receptor (ER) positive (75.2%) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive (67.3%). The local and systemic therapies for breast cancer differed according to age. An association between age and overall survival has not been demonstrated in elderly patients with breast cancer. In conclusion, the biologic behavior of older patients with breast cancer differs from younger patients, and older patients receive different treatments.
PMCID: PMC3897335  PMID: 24444261
Breast cancer; Elderly patients; Clinical characteristics; Pathologic characteristics
7.  Disseminated tuberculosis in a non immun compromised patient with a complicated diagnosis 
Tuberculosis (TB) has become a global emergency worldwide. The long time period between the exposure to TB bacillus and the onset of symptoms cause a delay in diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of 64-year-old female patient suffering from dyspepsia, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal pain for the last 8 months. Physical examination, ascites fluid evaluation, chest radiography, ultrasonographic and tomographic scans, histopathological analysis of the lymphadenopathy (LAP) and endometrial tissue revealed TB. A fourfold antituberculous treatment with isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin and ethambutol was prescribed for two months and for four months maintenance therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin was given. On the fourth month of the medical treatment the patient clinically recovered. Since the diagnosis of TB is difficult, high grade suspicion, combination of the radiologic, microbiologic and histopathological examinations are needed to achieve a diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC4356042  PMID: 26029564
Ascites; Tuberculosis; Diagnostic methods
8.  The Comorbidity of Reduplicative Paramnesia, Intermetamorphosis, Reverse-Intermetamorphosis, Misidentification of Reflection, and Capgras Syndrome in an Adolescent Patient 
Case Reports in Psychiatry  2014;2014:360480.
Delusional misidentification syndromes may be superimposed on neurological or psychiatric disorders and include delusional beliefs that the people, objects, or places around the patient change or are made to change with one another. In this paper, an adolescent patient displaying Capgras syndrome, metamorphosis, reverse-intermetamorphosis, misidentification of reflection, and reduplicative paramnesia was presented. The findings that our patient struggled with visuospatial tests applied in the acute phase as well as the observation that she refused to meet her family face-to-face while accepting to speak on the phone may support the role of right hemisphere and visuospatial functions in the development of those syndromes. Further studies or case series evaluated more extensively are needed to reveal the relationship between right hemisphere functions and delusional misidentification syndromes.
PMCID: PMC4190062  PMID: 25328744
9.  Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder 
It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels.
PMCID: PMC4164291  PMID: 25228807
obsessive–compulsive disorder; vitamin B12; folate; homocysteine; obsession; compulsion
10.  Motivation for treatment in patients with substance use disorder: personal volunteering versus legal/familial enforcement 
Motivation for treatment on the part of patients with addictive disorders is known to affect their prognosis, and lack thereof is reported to be among the most common reasons for failed treatment adherence and relapse after treatment. This study evaluated the relationship between volunteering, personality, demographic factors, and motivation for treatment.
The study was conducted at a substance dependence center in the eastern part of Turkey. Forty-five patients (mean age 37.9±11.2 years) with a substance use disorder were included. They were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) Axis II disorders. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck depression and anxiety inventories, and motivation for treatment was measured using the Turkish version of the Texas Christian University Motivation for Treatment scale.
All patients had been using substances daily and 41 (88.9%) had been using multiple drugs. The most commonly used substance was heroin (n=18, 40%). Voluntary admission was a predictor of motivation for treatment (P<0.05). Having a personality disorder and higher depression scores were related to less motivation for treatment.
Motivation for treatment is affected by external factors such as type of admission and internal factors such as personality disorder and depression. Investigation of ways to encourage voluntary admission for treatment instead of enforced strategies may be helpful for achieving higher levels of motivation for treatment in substance users.
PMCID: PMC4155996  PMID: 25210453
substance use; motivation; treatment; voluntary; personality; depression
11.  Prognostic factors related with survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(31):10802-10812.
The prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer is poor and this cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although surgical resection is the only curative treatment of choice for pancreatic cancer, the majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, thus only 10%-15% of them are suitable for curative resection and the overall survival is less than 5%. Chemotherapy for metastatic disease is to palliate symptoms of patients and to improve survival. Therefore, prognostic factors are important and a correct definition of poor prognostic factors may help to guide more aggressive adjuvant or aggressive treatment protocols in patients with pancreatic cancer. This article reviews the prognostic factors affecting survival of patients with pancreatic cancer in the light of recent advances in the literature.
PMCID: PMC4138460  PMID: 25152583
Pancreatic cancer; Prognostic factors; Survival; Carbohydrate antigen 19-9; Treatment
12.  Dynamic multidetector computed tomography findings of hepatocellular carcinoma of hepatitis B virus-positive and -negative patients 
Cancer Imaging  2014;14(1):9.
The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate and compare multidetector computed tomography findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive and -negative patients.
Triphasic (arterial, portal venous, and delayed phases) dynamic multidetector computed tomography (CT) was performed in 83 patients with HCC, 48 of whom were HBV-positive. The diagnosis of HCC was established with typical CT imaging findings (68 patients) or histopathological evaluation (15 patients). Distribution of solitary, multiple, and diffuse HCC, portal/hepatic vein thrombosis, metastasis, and patients with high alpha-fetoprotein levels in the HBV-positive and -negative groups were compared using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Lesion size, alpha-fetoprotein levels, arterial, portal, delayed enhancement, and washout of lesions were compared using the Student’s t-test.
Hypervascular tumors were observed in 72 (87%) patients, and hypovascular tumors were found in 11 (13%) patients. The mean alpha-fetoprotein value of HBV-positive patients with HCC was significantly higher than the mean alpha-fetoprotein value of HBV-negative patients (P < 0.05). Portal/hepatic vein thrombosis and metastasis were more frequently observed in HBV-positive patients (P < 0.05). The frequencies of solitary, multiple, and diffuse lesions in HBV-positive and -negative patients were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The mean diameters, arterial, portal, and delayed phase attenuations, and washout of HCC were not significantly different (P > 0.05).
Multidetector CT imaging findings of HCC in HBV-positive and -negative patients are alike. Portal/hepatic vein thrombosis and metastasis are more frequently observed in HBV-positive patients. Alpha-fetoprotein levels are higher in HBV-positive patients.
PMCID: PMC4331841  PMID: 25608603
Multidetector computed tomography; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatitis B virus; Dynamic imaging
13.  Treatment options in patients with metastatic gastric cancer: Current status and future perspectives 
Despite advances in the treatment of gastric cancer, it remains the world’s second highest cause of cancer death. As gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for these patients. However, no standard palliative chemotherapy regimen has been accepted for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Palliative chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidine, platin compounds, docetaxel and epirubicin prolongs survival, and improves a high quality of life to a greater extent than best supportive care. The number of clinical investigations associated with targeted agents has recently increased. Agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have been widely tested. Trastuzumab was the first target drug developed, and pivotal phase III trials showed improved survival when trastuzumab was integrated into cisplatin/fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy was thus approved to be a new standard of care for patients with HER2-positive advanced esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, the evaluation of HER2 status in all patients with metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma should be considered. Other agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, and other biological pathways have also been investigated in clinical trials, but showed little impact on the survival of patients. In this review, systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapies for metastatic gastric cancer in the first- and second-line setting are summarized in the light of recent advances.
PMCID: PMC3983446  PMID: 24744580
Gastric cancer; Chemotherapy; Targeted therapy; Metastasis; Advanced-stage
14.  Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Lung with Cerebellar Metastasis Showing Full Response to Cisplatin and Docetaxel Therapy 
Introduction. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the lung is a very rare disease. We describe a new case of primary SRCC of the lung with cerebellar metastasis, which responded well to the therapeutic approach with cisplatin and docetaxel. Case Report. A 41-year-old female patient (nonsmoker) was consulted to our oncology outpatient clinic after cerebellar metastasectomy. The histopathological diagnosis was SRCC metastasis. The primary tumor was unknown. The PET-CT imaging showed a hypermetabolic mass in the right middle lobe of the lung and hypermetabolic mediastinal lymph node stations. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy showed no evidence of gastrointestinal system tumor. The clinical diagnosis of primary SRCC of the lung was made and the administration of six rounds of cisplatin and docetaxel treatment was planned. After the chemotherapy the PET-CT scan to evaluate the therapy response showed full metabolic regression of the primary tumor and the mediastinal lymph nodes. There was no evidence of new metastasis. Conclusion. Primary SRCC of the lung is a very rare disease with poor prognosis. There are not many cases in literature and no standardized chemotherapy protocols. Cisplatin and docetaxel may be a good treatment option.
PMCID: PMC3970380  PMID: 24716057
15.  Venous Intravasation as a Complication and Potential Pitfall During Hysterosalpingography: Re-Emerging Study with a Novel Classification 
Presently, hysterosalpingography (HSG) is used as a means to evaluate women with infertility and repetitive pregnancy loss. Venous intravasation is a complication and potential pitfall during HSG and analogous procedures including hysteroscopy. The aim of our study was to assess the venous intravasation and to obtain critical information for more secure and more accurate procedures. In particular, the primary goal of the present study was to compare HSG without and with intravasation to identify differences seen on HSG and to assess the predisposing factors of intravasation. The secondary goal was to describe clinical- and imaging-based novel classification of intravasation.
Materials and Methods:
This study included a patient cohort of 569 patients who underwent HSG between 2008 and 2011 at our center in the absence (control group) or presence (study group) of intravasation. Intravasation classified from level 0 (no intravasation) to level 3 (severe intravasation) was compared with preprocedural (demographic and clinical) and procedural (HSG) data. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software.
Of the 569 patients undergoing HSG, 528 showed no intravasation and 41 (7.2%) patients showed intravasation when associated with preprocedural (leukocytes, menometrorrhagia, secondary infertility, ectopic pregnancy, abortus, polycystic ovaries, endometriosis, and interventions) and procedural (pain, scheduling, endometrial-uterine nature, and spillage) parameters. Moreover, intravasation was lower in women with smooth endometrium, triangular uterus, and homogeneous peritoneal spillage. No association was found between age, tubal patency, increased pressure, and intravasation.
Using a novel classification method, intravasation can be observed in women during HSG and associates with preprocedural and procedural predisposing factors in subsumed conditions. This classification method will be useful for improving the efficiency and accuracy of HSG and related procedures by minimization of severe complications caused by intravasation.
PMCID: PMC3935269  PMID: 24605262
Complications; hysterosalpingography; novel classification; potential pitfalls venous intravasation
16.  Arterial distensibility in patients with ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms: Is it a predisposing factor for rupture risk? 
A risk factor assessment that reliably predicts whether patients are predisposed to intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture has yet to be formulated. As such, the clinical management of unruptured IA remains unclear. Our aim was to determine whether impaired arterial distensibility and hypertrophic remodeling might be indicators of risk for IA rupture.
The study population (n=49) was selected from consecutive admissions for either unruptured IA (n=23) or ruptured IA (n=26) from January to December 2010. Hemodynamic measures were taken from every patient, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. Unruptured IA and ruptured IA characteristics, including aneurysmal shape, size, angle, aspect ratio, and bottleneck factor, were measured and calculated from transverse brain CT angiography images. With ultrasound, the right common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured, as well as the lumen diameter during systole and diastole. Arterial wall strain, distensibility, stiffness index, and elastic modulus were calculated and compared between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
General demographic data did not differ between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. Greater mean intima-media thickness (p=0.013), mean stiffness index (p=0.044), and mean elastic modulus (p=0.026) were observed for patients with ruptured IAs. Moreover, mean strain (p=0.013) and mean distensibility (p=0.024) were decreased in patients with ruptured IAs.
Patients with ruptured IAs demonstrated decreased arterial distensibility and increased intima-media thickness at the level of the carotid arteries. By measuring these parameters via ultrasound, it may be possible to predict whether patients with existing IAs might rupture and hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space.
PMCID: PMC3762537  PMID: 23974299
ruptured; intracranial aneurysm; predisposing factors; elasticity; carotid intima-media thickness; ultrasound
17.  First Diagonal Coronary Artery: Left Ventricular Fistula Presenting as Unstable Angina 
Case Reports in Cardiology  2013;2013:908162.
Coronary artery fistulae are characterized by communications between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or another vascular structure. They are usually congenital, but acquired forms may occur. Most patients are usually asymptomatic. However, some studies have emphasized that the incidence of symptoms and complications increases with age, particularly after the age of 20 (Liberthson et al. 1979, Hong et al. 2004). We aimed to present a very rare form of fistula originating from the first diagonal artery and connecting into the left ventricle.
PMCID: PMC4008094  PMID: 24826299
18.  An incidental case of biliary fascioliasis with subtle clinical findings: US and MRCP findings 
Radiology and Oncology  2013;47(2):125-127.
Fascioliasis is a disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. Cholangitis is a common clinical manifestation. Although fascioliasis may show various radiological and clinical features, cases without biliary dilatation are rare.
Case report
We present unique ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings of a biliary fascioliasis case which doesn’t have biliary obstruction or cholestasis. Radiologically, curvilinear parasites compatible with juvenile and mature Fasciola hepatica within the gallbladder and common bile duct were found. The parasites appear as bright echogenic structures with no acoustic shadow on US and hypo-intense curvilinear lesions on T2 weighted MRCP images.
Imaging studies may significantly contribute to the diagnosis of patients with subtle clinical and laboratory findings, particularly in endemic regions.
PMCID: PMC3691091  PMID: 23801908
fascioliasis; ultrasonography; magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
19.  Thoracic Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: An Unusual Case and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Pulmonology  2013;2013:326871.
We describe herein a rare case of a primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the mediastinum of a 75-year-old man. Grossly, the tumor was located in the left upper anterior mediastinum. Transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy (TCNB) revealed small round-cell proliferation. The expression immunohistochemical analysis was confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. He was successfully treated with chemotherapy and is alive with no sign of recurrence for 17 months after the diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3674718  PMID: 23762725
20.  Are Breast Masses in Teenagers Always Benign? Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Sarcoma in a 14-Year-Old Girl 
Breast Care  2012;7(2):144-146.
This article is concerned with the evaluation of an adolescent breast mass using imaging methods.
Case Report
A 14-year-old girl presented with progressive asymmetric enlargement of the left breast. She had felt a breast lump about 4 months earlier, and over the last 2 months it had been growing progressively. Tumor markers, including AFP, CEA, CA15-3, and CA125, were all normal. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoichyperechoic, solid mass. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast revealed a well marginated mass with hypointensity on T1-weighted images and mild hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, which showed mild contrast uptake. Biopsy revealed an undifferentiated malignant mesenchymal sarcoma. The patient underwent mastectomy with axillary lymph node sampling. After the operation, she received 3 cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Due to the rarity of breast sarcoma and inadequate imaging methods to establish an exact diagnosis, radiologists and clinicians may misdiagnose and merely follow these tumors. As in our case, the histology of the patient may be the leading factor in the management of these tumors. Even in very young patients, progressively growing breast masses should alert the clinician to check for malignancy verified by biopsy.
PMCID: PMC3376362  PMID: 22740802
Breast lump; Sarcoma, undifferentiated; MRI; Adolescent breast cancer
21.  Signet Cell Carcinoma of Colon in a Nineteen-Year-Old Patient: A Case Report 
Signet cell carcinoma, which is a subtype of adenocarcinoma, usually originates from the stomach. However, it can also originate from the colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, urinary bladder, and breast. We represent a 19-year-old boy diagnosed with signet cell tumour while he was being evaluated for an initial diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.
PMCID: PMC3590504  PMID: 23509649
22.  Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Mature Cystic Teratoma 
Introduction. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare complication. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common transformation. We describe a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. Case Report. A premenopausal 52-year-old female patient is diagnosed with vaginal bleeding. According to examination made on the women and the pelvic scanning, 7 cm mass is found on the right adnexa of the patient. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and debulking were the treatments completed on the patient. According to histopathological diagnosis, squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma is diagnosed as a reason for the mass in the right adnexa of the patient. Conclusion. The prognosis of the malign transformation of MCT depends on surgery stage; however it is extremely poor. The patient should receive chemotherapy regardless of stage. We have decided to administer second cycle carboplatin and paclitaxel treatments on the patient.
PMCID: PMC3540696  PMID: 23320213
23.  Stomach Metastasis in a Patient with Prostate Cancer 4 Years after the Initial Diagnosis: A Case Report and a Literature Review 
Prostate cancer commonly metastasizes bones and lymph nodes, but it very rarely spreads to the gastrointestinal tract. However, only five cases of prostate cancer metastatic to the stomach have been previously reported in the literature. We report a case of a 69-year-old man with metastatic prostate cancer who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) 4 years after the diagnosis. Esophagogastroscopy revealed multiple ulcerations in the gastric body and histopathological examination confirmed gastric metastasis that originated from prostate cancer. Chemotherapy could not be given because of patient's refusal. He was treated with LHRH agonist. We suggest that for a man with prostate cancer diagnosed with UGB, stomach metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of UGB.
PMCID: PMC3517835  PMID: 23243531
24.  Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report 
Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment.
PMCID: PMC3404901  PMID: 22726236
Vitamin B12; psychosis; mood disorder; extrapyramidal symptoms
25.  Our eight-year surgical experience in patients with pulmonary cyst hydatid 
In this clinical retrospective study, we aimed to investigate our experinces and whether capitonnage is an effective therapy method for a pulmonary hydatid cyst or not.
Material and methods
A total of 412 patients with hydatid cyst operated in our hospitals were evaluated retrospectively between January 2003 and January 2011. In order to create a study group to compare the hydatid cyst operations with and without capitonnage in our department, 60 uncomplicated patients with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst who had undergone operations in the previous two years, were divided into two groups; while no capitonnage was performed and bronchial leaks were closed in one group, standard cystotomy plus the capitonnage operation was performed in the second group. All patients underwent surgery.
In many patients, one or more symptoms were present on admission (339 cases, 82%). Perforated cysts/ nonperfore cysts rate was statistically significant (p = 0.001). There was no statistical difference between patients with or without capitonnage in terms of morbidity rates between patients with or without capitonnage (p = 0.041). However, morbidity rates were higher in the group without capitonnage. There were found statistically significant between capitonnage and non capitonnage groups in terms of length of hospital stay (p=0.001).
In the surgical treatment, resection should be avoided as much as possible. An average time of 3-5 minutes should be allocated and capitonnage should be performed. Capitonnage should always be performed in the surgical treatment of hydatid cyst. We believe that povidone iodine per se provides sufficient disinfection.
PMCID: PMC3272688  PMID: 22328950
Cyst; thoracotomy; capitonnage; albendazole

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