A risk factor assessment that reliably predicts whether patients are predisposed to intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture has yet to be formulated. As such, the clinical management of unruptured IA remains unclear. Our aim was to determine whether impaired arterial distensibility and hypertrophic remodeling might be indicators of risk for IA rupture.
The study population (n=49) was selected from consecutive admissions for either unruptured IA (n=23) or ruptured IA (n=26) from January to December 2010. Hemodynamic measures were taken from every patient, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer. Unruptured IA and ruptured IA characteristics, including aneurysmal shape, size, angle, aspect ratio, and bottleneck factor, were measured and calculated from transverse brain CT angiography images. With ultrasound, the right common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured, as well as the lumen diameter during systole and diastole. Arterial wall strain, distensibility, stiffness index, and elastic modulus were calculated and compared between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
General demographic data did not differ between patients with unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs. Greater mean intima-media thickness (p=0.013), mean stiffness index (p=0.044), and mean elastic modulus (p=0.026) were observed for patients with ruptured IAs. Moreover, mean strain (p=0.013) and mean distensibility (p=0.024) were decreased in patients with ruptured IAs.
Patients with ruptured IAs demonstrated decreased arterial distensibility and increased intima-media thickness at the level of the carotid arteries. By measuring these parameters via ultrasound, it may be possible to predict whether patients with existing IAs might rupture and hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space.
ruptured; intracranial aneurysm; predisposing factors; elasticity; carotid intima-media thickness; ultrasound
Fascioliasis is a disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. Cholangitis is a common clinical manifestation. Although fascioliasis may show various radiological and clinical features, cases without biliary dilatation are rare.
We present unique ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) findings of a biliary fascioliasis case which doesn’t have biliary obstruction or cholestasis. Radiologically, curvilinear parasites compatible with juvenile and mature Fasciola hepatica within the gallbladder and common bile duct were found. The parasites appear as bright echogenic structures with no acoustic shadow on US and hypo-intense curvilinear lesions on T2 weighted MRCP images.
Imaging studies may significantly contribute to the diagnosis of patients with subtle clinical and laboratory findings, particularly in endemic regions.
fascioliasis; ultrasonography; magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
We describe herein a rare case of a primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the mediastinum of a 75-year-old man. Grossly, the tumor was located in the left upper anterior mediastinum. Transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy (TCNB) revealed small round-cell proliferation. The expression immunohistochemical analysis was confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. He was successfully treated with chemotherapy and is alive with no sign of recurrence for 17 months after the diagnosis.
This article is concerned with the evaluation of an adolescent breast mass using imaging methods.
A 14-year-old girl presented with progressive asymmetric enlargement of the left breast. She had felt a breast lump about 4 months earlier, and over the last 2 months it had been growing progressively. Tumor markers, including AFP, CEA, CA15-3, and CA125, were all normal. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoichyperechoic, solid mass. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast revealed a well marginated mass with hypointensity on T1-weighted images and mild hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, which showed mild contrast uptake. Biopsy revealed an undifferentiated malignant mesenchymal sarcoma. The patient underwent mastectomy with axillary lymph node sampling. After the operation, she received 3 cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Due to the rarity of breast sarcoma and inadequate imaging methods to establish an exact diagnosis, radiologists and clinicians may misdiagnose and merely follow these tumors. As in our case, the histology of the patient may be the leading factor in the management of these tumors. Even in very young patients, progressively growing breast masses should alert the clinician to check for malignancy verified by biopsy.
Breast lump; Sarcoma, undifferentiated; MRI; Adolescent breast cancer
Signet cell carcinoma, which is a subtype of adenocarcinoma, usually originates from the stomach. However, it can also originate from the colon, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, urinary bladder, and breast. We represent a 19-year-old boy diagnosed with signet cell tumour while he was being evaluated for an initial diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.
Introduction. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare complication. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common transformation. We describe a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. Case Report. A premenopausal 52-year-old female patient is diagnosed with vaginal bleeding. According to examination made on the women and the pelvic scanning, 7 cm mass is found on the right adnexa of the patient. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and debulking were the treatments completed on the patient. According to histopathological diagnosis, squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma is diagnosed as a reason for the mass in the right adnexa of the patient. Conclusion. The prognosis of the malign transformation of MCT depends on surgery stage; however it is extremely poor. The patient should receive chemotherapy regardless of stage. We have decided to administer second cycle carboplatin and paclitaxel treatments on the patient.
Prostate cancer commonly metastasizes bones and lymph nodes, but it very rarely spreads to the gastrointestinal tract. However, only five cases of prostate cancer metastatic to the stomach have been previously reported in the literature. We report a case of a 69-year-old man with metastatic prostate cancer who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) 4 years after the diagnosis. Esophagogastroscopy revealed multiple ulcerations in the gastric body and histopathological examination confirmed gastric metastasis that originated from prostate cancer. Chemotherapy could not be given because of patient's refusal. He was treated with LHRH agonist. We suggest that for a man with prostate cancer diagnosed with UGB, stomach metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of UGB.
Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal symptoms lacking a clear etiology may be rare manifestation of vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in children and adolescents and be potentially amenable to treatment.
Vitamin B12; psychosis; mood disorder; extrapyramidal symptoms
In this clinical retrospective study, we aimed to investigate our experinces and whether capitonnage is an effective therapy method for a pulmonary hydatid cyst or not.
Material and methods
A total of 412 patients with hydatid cyst operated in our hospitals were evaluated retrospectively between January 2003 and January 2011. In order to create a study group to compare the hydatid cyst operations with and without capitonnage in our department, 60 uncomplicated patients with the diagnosis of hydatid cyst who had undergone operations in the previous two years, were divided into two groups; while no capitonnage was performed and bronchial leaks were closed in one group, standard cystotomy plus the capitonnage operation was performed in the second group. All patients underwent surgery.
In many patients, one or more symptoms were present on admission (339 cases, 82%). Perforated cysts/ nonperfore cysts rate was statistically significant (p = 0.001). There was no statistical difference between patients with or without capitonnage in terms of morbidity rates between patients with or without capitonnage (p = 0.041). However, morbidity rates were higher in the group without capitonnage. There were found statistically significant between capitonnage and non capitonnage groups in terms of length of hospital stay (p=0.001).
In the surgical treatment, resection should be avoided as much as possible. An average time of 3-5 minutes should be allocated and capitonnage should be performed. Capitonnage should always be performed in the surgical treatment of hydatid cyst. We believe that povidone iodine per se provides sufficient disinfection.
Cyst; thoracotomy; capitonnage; albendazole
Right middle lobe syndrome is a rare entity in children, causing high morbidity. Our experience of these patients including their clinical and laboratory characteristics, indications forsurgical management, postoperative courses, and follow-up results was evaluated.
A retrospective analysis was performed involving 20 children with right middle lobe syndrome who were hospitalized and treated with surgical resection of the right middle lobe in Van Training and Research Hospital and Yüzüncüyil university hospital, Turkey, between January 2002 and January 2011.
The mean age of the patients was 10.5 years (range, 5 to 15 years). Twelve patients were boys and eight were girls. The most frequent symptom was chronic cough (75%). Hemoptysis was present in two (10%) patients. One patient was being treated for asthma. 25% positive cultures were identified among the patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently identified agent in sputum. All patients underwent chest computed tomography. There were bronchiectasis in 11 (55%) patients, atelectasis and bronchiectasis in five (25%) patients, and destroyed lung in four (20%) patients. A narrowed middle lobe bronchus was shown in 15 (75%) patients. Bronchoscopy was performed in 18 (90%) patients. Stenosis due to external compression was seen in 12 (60%) patients, hyperemia and bronchitis in two (10%) patients, granulation tissue in two (10%) patients, and dense secretions in two (10%) patients. A history of doctor-diagnosed tuberculosis was present in two (10%) patients. These patients had completed antituberculous treatment. The patients had been symptomatic for the last 1 to 10 years (mean, 4 years) and had received several medical treatments. All patients (totally 20 patients) underwent right middle lobe resection. In one patient, a bronchial abnormality was found intraoperatively. One patient died on postoperative day 10 due to a brain abscess. Three other patients had postoperative complications (15%). Mean duration of follow-up of the patients was 4.5 years (range, 2 months to 12 years). Seventeen patients were asymptomatic, and two patients had improved.
Children with right middle lobe syndrome unresponsive to medical treatment should undergo early lobe resection to avoid serious complications and the progression of the disease to other segments or lobes.
Atelectasis; bronchiectasis; children; pulmonary resection; right middle lobe
To analyze the frequency of pleural effusion and the effect on prognosis in children with acute bronchiolitis.
A total of 69 infants aged 1-24 months with acute bronchiolitis were studied between September 2009 and December 2010. All patients'age, sex, breastfeeding duration, exposure to smoking, history of using vitamin D, symptoms duration, physical examination and laboratory findings were recorded. Bronchiolitis score and predisposing factors that influence the disease process were determined. Thorax ultrasonography was carried out in all patients, who were evaluated on the 3rd and 7th day of the treatment.
Mean age of patients (43 boys, 26 girls) was 11.97 ± 0.69 months (median 11 months). Breastfeeding duration was 8.26 ± 0.56 months (median 8 months). According to bronchiolitis score, 52 patients (75.4%) had mild and moderate bronchiolitis and 17 (24.6%) had severe bronchiolitis; 34 patients (49.2%) had pleural effusion. There was no relation between pleural effusion and symptoms. Frequency of pleural effusion was significantly higher in patients with risk factors.
This study demonstrated that most of the acute bronchiolitis cases in the infants studied were accompanied by pleural effusion. Pleural effusion in acute bronchiolitis had no effects on prognosis.
Acute bronchiolitis; children; pleural effusion
Although the prevalence of bronchiectasis decreased significantly in developed countries, in less developed and in developing countries, it still represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to present our surgical experiences, the morbidity and mortality rates and outcome of surgical treatment for bronchiectasis.
We reviewed the medical records of 129 patients who underwent surgical resection for bronchiectasis between April 2002 and April 2010, at Van Training and Research Hospital, Thoracic Surgery Department. Variables of age, sex, symptoms, etiology, and surgical procedures, mortality, morbidity and the result of surgical therapy were analyzed retrospectively.
Mean age was 21.8 year (the eldest was 67 year, the youngest was 4 years-old). Male/female ratio was 1.86 and 75% of all patients were young population under the age of 40. Bilateral involvement was 14.7%, left/right side ratio according to localization was 2.1/1. The most common reason for bronchiectasis was recurrent infection. Surgical indications were as follows: recurrent infection (54%), hemoptysis (35%), empyema (6%), and lung abscess (5%). There was no operative mortality. Complications occurred in 29 patients and the morbidity rate was 22.4%. Complete resection was achieved in 110 (85.2%) patients. Follow-up data were obtained for 123 (95%) of the patients. One patient died during follow-up. The mean follow-up of this patient was 9 months. Mean postoperative hospitalization time was 9.15 ± 6.25 days. Significantly better results were obtained in patients who had undergone a complete resection.
Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality at any age. The involved bronchiectatic sites should be resected completely for the optimum control of symptoms.
Bronchiectasis; surgical management; morbidity
Today, in spite of the developments in imaging methods and antibiotherapy, childhood pleural empyema is a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, it has been shown that there has been an increase in the frequency of pleural empyema in children, and antibiotic resistance in microorganisms causing pleural empyema has made treatment difficult. Despite the many studies investigating thoracoscopic debridement and fibrinolytic treatment separately in the management of this disease, there is are not enough studies comparing these two treatments. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the efficacy of two different treatment methods in stage II and III empyema cases and to present a perspective for treatment options.
We excluded from the study cases with: i) thoracoscopic intervention and fibrinolytic agent were contraindicated; ii) immunosuppression or additional infection focus; iii) concomitant diseases, those with bronchopleural fistula diagnosed radiologically, and Stage I cases. This gave a total of 54 cases: 23 (42.6%) in stage II, and 31 (57.4%) cases in stage III. These patients were randomized into two groups of 27 cases each for debridement or fibrinolytic agent application by video-assisted thoracoscopic decortication (VATS). The continuity of symptoms after the operation, duration of thoracic tube in situ, and the length of hospital stay in the VATS group were of significantly shorter duration than in the streptokinase applications (P=0.0001). In 19 of 27 cases (70.37%) in which fibrinolytic treatment was applied and in 21 cases of 27 (77.77%) in which VATS was applied, the lung was fully expanded and the procedure was considered successful. There was no significant difference with respect to success rates between the two groups (P=0.533). The complication rate in our cases was 12.96% and no mortality was observed. Similar success rates in thoracoscopic drainage and enzymatic debridement, and the low cost of enzymatic drainage both served to highlight intrapleural streptokinase treatment as a reliable method in reducing the need for surgery in complicated empyema.
child; empyema; fibrinolysis; thoracoscopic decortication.
Objective: Clinical approach and therapeutic methods are important in cases with complicated hydatid cysts of the lung. This study was designed to retrospectively investigate cases with hydatid cysts, thereby discussing diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, and rates of morbidity and mortality in line with the literature. Methods: 176 cases with perforated hydatid cysts, who presented to our clinic and underwent surgery between 2003 and 2011, were included in the study. There were 71 (40.34%) females and 105 males (59.66%) with a mean age of 27.80±14.07. The most common symptom was dyspnea (44.31%) and the most common radiological finding was the water lily sign (21.02%). 88.06% of the cases were surgically treated by Cystotomy+closure of bronchial opening+ capitonnage, 3.97% by wedge resection, 4.54% by segmentectomy and 3.40% by lobectomy. Results: The cysts exhibited multiple localization in 24 cases (13.63%), bilateral localization in 14 cases (7.95%), with the most common localization (43.75%) being the right lower lobe. While the hydatid cyst rupture occurred due to delivery in three (1.70%), trauma in 11 (6.25%), and iatrogenic causes in seven (3.97%) cases, it occurred spontaneously in the rest of the cases (88.08%). Fourteen of the cases with spontaneously occurring rupture (7.95%) were detected to have received anthelmintic treatment for hydatid cyst during the preoperative period (albendazole). The rate of morbidity was 27.27% and the rate of mortality was 1.13% in our study. Two cases recurred during a one-year follow-up (1.13%). Conclusion: Hydatid cyst rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cases with pleural effusion, empyema, pneumothorax and pneumonia occurring in endemic regions. Symptoms occurring during and after perforation lead to errors in differential diagnosis. Performing the surgery without delay favorably affects postoperative morbidity and mortality. While parenchyma-preserving surgery is preferential, there is a need for resection in perforated hydatid cysts.
Hydatid cyst; rupture; management
Testicular cancer, like other histopathologic types, commonly metastasizes to the lungs, liver, and brain. Spread to soft tissue, however, is rare with only four cases with seminoma reported. However, one case with metastasis of testicular immature teratoma to soft tissue was documented previously.
We report the case of a 38-year-old man with recurrent immature teratoma of the testis who presented with a painless soft tissue mass in the left thigh previously treated with standard chemotherapy. After removal of the soft tissue mass, his serum alpha-fetoprotein level had returned to the normal range.
To our knowledge, this is the second case of immature teratoma of the testis metastasized to soft tissue.
Purposes and Clinical Relevance
We suggest that for a man with testicular cancer who has a soft tissue mass, metastasis of soft tissue from testicular cancer and other solid malignancies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass together with primary soft tissue sarcoma.
The aim of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) to assess diet quality and determine the relationship between the HEI-2005 and the energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,104 healthy adolescents, mean age of 15.8 ± 1.24 years. Dietary intake was measured with the 24-hour dietary recall method, and dietary quality was assessed by means of the HEI-2005. Diet quality scores ranged from 23.7 to 77.5. The mean score was found to be 51.5 ± 9.07 according to the HEI-2005. There were no differences according to gender; 42.8% had a poor diet and 57.2% had a diet that needs improvement. No subjects had a "good diet". Lower mean subgroup scores were found for whole grains, total vegetables, total fruits, dairy products, and meat and beans. Fruits and vegetables scores were significantly high in girls, whereas sodium, oil, and meat and beans scores were significantly high in boys. Total HEI-2005 scores were increasingly associated with parental education level when age and gender were adjusted. There was a negative correlation between HEI-2005 scores and age, total energy intake, and fat intake. Positive correlation was only observed in the HEI-2005 scores for protein and dietary fibre intakes. Consequently, the overall diet quality and nutritional habits of Turkish adolescents need modification and improvement. In the family, measures should be initiated by the government, including advertisements and campaigns.
Adolescent; diet quality; healthy eating index; nutrition
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Primary treatment is surgery, with breast conserving surgery (BCS) being widely used for early-stage disease. Due to changes in body image, depressive symptoms can occur after surgery. Here, we evaluate factors that affect patients’ decision on surgery, and investigate differences in the level of depression after mastectomy or BCS in a population of Turkish patients.
Patients and Methods
One hundred breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy or BCS and were followed up at our institution between 2007 and 2008 were included. Patients were questioned about their involvement in surgical decision-making. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria via a Structural Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). Severity of depression was evaluated by using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
Patients who were older than 50 years, had more than 1 child, a history of lactation, and a positive family history of breast cancer mostly preferred mastectomy. However, patients who sought a second opinion and further information on BCS preferred BCS (p < 0.005). There was no statistical correlation between marital status, first childbearing age, and educational status and the decision on surgery type (p > 0.005). Mastectomy patients were prone to depression, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.099).
Age, parenthood, lactation, and positive familial history, as well as thorough information about the type of surgery were important factors for the patients’ decision. After breast cancer surgery, patients might experience depression affecting treatment and quality of life. Therefore, adequate information and communication are essential.
Breast cancer; Treatment decision; Depression
Extra marginal-zone lymphomas of the lung is a very rare tumor and it originates from bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue. A 68-yr-old woman presented with productive cough and dyspnea. A thorax computed tomography scan showed a 9 × 10 cm in size mass in the left lung and pleural effusion in the lower lobe of left lung. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) revealed intense uptake foci at the upper and middle sites of left lung and slight uptake foci at the mediastinal lymph nodes which showed malignant involvement. After bronchoscopic biopsy, the diagnosis of pulmonary bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma was confirmed. At the end of the eight cycles weekly rituximab treatment, complete response was obtained by PET/CT findings. It is concluded that extended rituximab schedule is more effective and it would be beneficial to investigate the use of PET/CT in the diagnosis and evaluating of the treatment response of pulmonary BALT lymphoma.
BALT lymphoma; Rituximab; Extended Schedule; Positron-Emission Tomography
Knee joint pain is one of the most common complaints related to the skeletal system encountered by paediatricians. Knee joint pain generally occurs as the result of hypermobility and growing pains, though disorders manifesting as arthritis/arthralgia and orthopaedic problems should be considered in the differential diagnosis. A thorough and careful physical examination and laboratory and radiological findings are of importance for an accurate diagnosis. Although treatment should be based on the aetiology of the knee pain, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs can be used to alleviate the pain. A 7-year-old male patient presented with recurring pain in the left knee. Physical examination of the patient, laboratory tests, and radiological examination of the knee joint were normal; roentgenograms performed for a presumed hip joint problem revealed a focal cortical defect on the left femoral head and an increased effusion in the left hip joint space compared with the right counterpart. With this case report, we would like to highlight that paediatric health and diseases specialists (paediatricians) should consider hip joint pathologies when patients present with knee pain, particularly knee pain with an unidentified aetiology.
children; diagnosis; hip; joint pain; knee; referred pain
Although many drugs are available for the treatment of gastric ulcers, often these drugs are ineffective. Many antidepressant drugs have been shown to have antiulcer activity in various models of experimental ulcer. One such drug, the antidepressant mirtazapine, has been reported to have an antiulcer effect that involves an increase in antioxidant, and a decrease in oxidant, parameters. To date, however, there is no information available regarding the antiulcer activity for a similar antidepressant, fluvoxamine. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer effects of fluvoxamine and to determine its relationship with antioxidants.
Groups of rats fasted for 24 h received fluvoxamine (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), ranitidine (50 mg/kg) or distilled water by oral gavage. Indomethacin (25 mg/kg) was orally administered to the rats as an ulcerative agent. Six hours after ulcer induction, the stomachs of the rats were excised and an ulcer index determined. Separate groups of rats were treated with the same doses of fluvoxamine and ranitidine, but not with indomethacin, to test effects of these drugs alone on biochemical parameters. The stomachs were evaluated biochemically to determine oxidant and antioxidant parameters. We used one-way ANOVA and least significant difference (LSD) options for data analysis.
The 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of fluvoxamine exerted antiulcer effects of 48.5, 67.5, 82.1 and 96.1%, respectively, compared to the control rat group. Ranitidine showed an 86.5% antiulcer effect. No differences were observed in the absence of indomethacin treatment for any dose of fluvoxamine or for ranitidine. The levels of antioxidant parameters, total glutathione and nitric oxide, were increased in all fluvoxamine groups and in the ranitidine group when compared with the indomethacin-only group. In addition, fluvoxamine and ranitidine decreased the levels of the oxidant parameters, myeloperoxidase and malondialdeyhyde, in the stomach tissues of the rats when compared to indomethacin group.
We conclude that fluvoxamine has antiulcer effects, and that these occur by a mechanism that involves activation of antioxidant parameters and inhibition of some toxic oxidant parameters.
Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is an uncommon disease defined as gas-filled cysts that are found in the wall of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The exact causes of PI are still unclear, but it may associated with coexisting diseases, such as some GI disorders, connective tissue disease, some medication and drugs, and rarely malignancy. The most common localization is the small intestine. Gastric PI secondary to malignancy has been rarely documented. We report on a 94-year-old man with gastric PI associated with inoperable adenocarcinoma localized in the duodenum. Following the gastrojejunostomy and choledochojejunostomy bypass, his general condition improved and PI disappeared, but he died due to poor performance status and malignancy 6 mo later. We suggest that in patients presenting with PI, malignancy should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Pneumatosis intestinalis; Malignancy; Adenocarcinoma
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of zinc intake on the rat mandible and maxilla during growth and to compare these results with those of zinc-containing rats.
The study was carried out on 14 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Group I rats were fed with a Zn-deficient diet, and Group II rats with a Zn-containing diet. At the end of the fourth week on the experimental diet, all the rats were killed and blood samples were taken. Serum Zn levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Then, the skulls and mandibles were freed from soft tissues and measurements were made on the dry skulls, the mandibles, and teeth in both of the two groups.
The zinc-deficient group showed a significantly lower value in dry skull, mandible, and teeth measurements when compared with those of the Group II.
Changes in zinc intake might exert an effect on the growth of craniofacial structures. A low-zinc diet during adolescence might slow bone and teeth growth and enhance the risk of oral, periodontal, and orthodontic problems in later years.
Zinc; Craniofacial growth; Rats