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1.  A dPIP5K Dependent Pool of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 Bisphosphate (PIP2) Is Required for G-Protein Coupled Signal Transduction in Drosophila Photoreceptors 
PLoS Genetics  2015;11(1):e1004948.
Multiple PIP2 dependent molecular processes including receptor activated phospholipase C activity occur at the neuronal plasma membranes, yet levels of this lipid at the plasma membrane are remarkably stable. Although the existence of unique pools of PIP2 supporting these events has been proposed, the mechanism by which they are generated is unclear. In Drosophila photoreceptors, the hydrolysis of PIP2 by G-protein coupled phospholipase C activity is essential for sensory transduction of photons. We identify dPIP5K as an enzyme essential for PIP2 re-synthesis in photoreceptors. Loss of dPIP5K causes profound defects in the electrical response to light and light-induced PIP2 dynamics at the photoreceptor membrane. Overexpression of dPIP5K was able to accelerate the rate of PIP2 synthesis following light induced PIP2 depletion. Other PIP2 dependent processes such as endocytosis and cytoskeletal function were unaffected in photoreceptors lacking dPIP5K function. These results provide evidence for the existence of a unique dPIP5K dependent pool of PIP2 required for normal Drosophila phototransduction. Our results define the existence of multiple pools of PIP2 in photoreceptors generated by distinct lipid kinases and supporting specific molecular processes at neuronal membranes.
Author Summary
PIP2 has been implicated in multiple functions at the plasma membrane. Some of these require its hydrolysis by receptor-activated phospholipase C, whereas others, such as membrane transport and cytoskeletal function, involve the interaction of the intact lipid with cellular proteins. The mechanistic basis underlying the segregation of these two classes of PIP2 dependent functions is unknown; it has been postulated that this might involve unique pools of PIP2 generated by distinct phosphoinsoitide kinases. We have studied this question in Drosophila photoreceptors, a model system where sensory transduction requires robust phospholipase C mediated PIP2 hydrolysis. We find that the activity of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 kinase encoded by dPIP5K is required to support normal sensory transduction and PIP2 dynamics in photoreceptors. Remarkably, non-PLC dependent functions of PIP2, such as vesicular transport and the actin cytoskeleton, were unaffected in dPIP5K mutants. Thus, dPIP5K supports a pool of PIP2 that is readily available to PLC, but has no role in sustaining other non-PLC mediated PIP2 dependent processes. These findings support the existence of at least two non-overlapping pools of PIP2 at the plasma membrane, and provide a platform for future studies of PIP2 regulation at the plasma membrane.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004948
PMCID: PMC4310717  PMID: 25633995
2.  Earthworm coelomocytes as nanoscavenger of ZnO NPs 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):259.
Earthworms can ‘biotransform’ or ‘biodegrade’ chemical contaminants, rendering them harmless in their bodies, and can bioaccumulate them in their tissues. They ‘absorb’ the dissolved chemicals through their moist ‘body wall’ due to the interstitial water and also ingest by ‘mouth’ while soil passes through the gut. Since the advent of the nanotechnology era, the environmental sink has been continuously receiving engineered nanomaterials as well as their derivatives. Our current understanding of the potential impact of nanomaterials and their natural scavenger is limited. In the present investigation, we studied the cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by coelomocytes especially by chloragocytes of Eisenia fetida and their role as nanoscavenger. Results from exposure to 100- and 50-nm ZnO NPs indicate that coelomocytes of the earthworm E. fetida show no significant DNA damage at a dose lower than 3 mg/l and have the potential ability to uptake ZnO NPs from the soil ecosystem and transform them into microparticles.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-259
PMCID: PMC4060845  PMID: 24959107
Coelomocytes; Eisenia fetida; Nanoscavenger; Biotransformation; Chloragocytes; Internalization
3.  Bilateral Mandibular Paramolars 
ABSTRACT
Supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple etiologies. These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. They can cause a variety of complications in the develo­ping dentition. Supernumerary teeth can present in various forms and in any region of the mandible or maxilla, but have a predisposition for the anterior maxilla. Here is the presentation of a case of unusual location of supernumerary teeth located in between mandibular first and second molar region bilaterally.
How to cite this article: Dhull KS, Dhull RS, Panda S, Acharya S, Yadav S, Mohanty G. Bilateral Mandibular Paramolars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):40-42.
doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1231
PMCID: PMC4144063  PMID: 25206236
Supernumerary tooth; Paramolars; Hyperdontia
4.  A Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Leiomyoma 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:425280.
Introduction. Leiomyoma uteri is one of the most common benign conditions for which women undergo hysterectomy every year. Fibroids found retroperitoneally are a rare entity, especially, primary retroperitoneal fibroid. Case Presentation. We report a case of 42-year-old para 1 who presented to our hospital with recurring retention of urine, lower abdominal and pelvic pain, and dyspareunia . Provisional diagnosis on the basis of examination and imaging was large subserosal fibroid with mild right-sided hydroureteronephrosis, due to pressure effect of the fibroid. Abdominal hysterectomy was done for the patient, and intraoperatively, a bulky uterus was found with multiple small fibroids on anterior and posterior walls, and a large fibroid approx. 10 × 8 cm was found arising from the posterior surface at the level of internal os retroperitoneally, which was confirmed by histopathology as leiomyoma. Conclusion. Retroperitoneal fibroids are rare neoplasms and treatment is surgical removal. Preoperative imaging can only give provisional diagnosis and can be misguiding. Final diagnosis of retroperitoneal fibroid can be made only intraoperatively.
doi:10.1155/2012/425280
PMCID: PMC3415088  PMID: 22900220
5.  At times, myomectomy is mandatory to effect delivery 
Background
Excision of a leiomyoma has never been a choice during caesarean section.
Method
Myomectomy of a massive fibroid was necessitated prior to delivering the baby.
Results
Delivery of a healthy was effected by Classical caesarean section.
Conclusion
Leiomyoma in pregnancy is not an unknown entity and is a cause of concern for being a source of excruciating pain, at times, during the ongoing gestation.
Although performed rarely, it is sometimes necessary to remove a large myoma to effect delivery of the baby during Cesarean section as is depicted in the case being presented hereunder.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-5-9
PMCID: PMC3217843  PMID: 22035449
pregnancy; leiomyoma; myomectomy
6.  Shortening the induction delivery interval with prostaglandins: a randomized controlled trial of solo or in combination 
Objective
To compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol alone with dinoprostone followed by misoprostol, all inserted intravaginally in induction of labor at term and the obstetrical outcome.
Material and Methods
A pilot study comprising 111 primigravidae, >37 gestational weeks with singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation having an unfavorable Bishop score admitted for labor induction, were considered and randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (n=55) with intravaginal 25mcg misoprostol 4 hourly (six doses at the most) and and group II (n=56), with dinoprostone 0.5mg followed eight hours later by 25mcg misoprostol induction to vaginal delivery time was found to be significantly different, being 14.8 h in group-I and shorter in group-II with a mean of 11.6 h. Vaginal delivery rates within 12 h (groups-I and −II: 47.2%, as compared to 60.7%, respectively) were found to be higher with dinoprostone-misoprostol induction, as well as vaginal delivery rates in 24 h, 80.0% and 91.1%. The need for oxytocin augmentation was more frequent in the misoprostol than in the dinoprostone-misoprostol group, (61.8%, and 39.3%), and all these observations were statistically significant. Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern occurred more frequently (18.2%) in group-I in contrast to 5.3% in group-II, as was the incidence rate of (18.2%) who had passage of meconium in group-I, this rate being significantly different from group-II having meconium passage in 3 cases, a rate of 5.3%.
Conclusion
Using dinoprostone followed by vaginal misoprostol is safe and effective for induction of labor with less need for oxytocin augmentation and shorter induction delivery interval.
doi:10.5152/jtgga.2011.20
PMCID: PMC3939111  PMID: 24591967
Labor induction; prostaglandin; intravaginal

Results 1-6 (6)