Regenerative medicine is an emerging field of biotechnology that combines various aspects of medicine, cell and molecular biology, materials science and bioengineering in order to regenerate, repair or replace tissues.
The oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery have a role in the treatment of traumatic or degenerative diseases that lead to a tissue loss: frequently, to rehabilitate these minuses, you should use techniques that have been improved over time. Since 1990, we started with the use of growth factors and platelet concentrates in oral and maxillofacial surgery; in the following period we start to use biomaterials, as well as several type of scaffolds and autologous tissues. The frontier of regenerative medicine nowadays is represented by the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): overcoming the ethical problems thanks to the use of mesenchymal stem cells from adult patient, and with the increasingly sophisticated technology to support their manipulation, MSCs are undoubtedly the future of medicine regenerative and they are showing perspectives unimaginable just a few years ago. Most recent studies are aimed to tissues regeneration using MSCs taken from sites that are even more accessible and rich in stem cells: the oral cavity turned out to be an important source of MSCs with the advantage to be easily accessible to the surgeon, thus avoiding to increase the morbidity of the patient.
The future is the regeneration of whole organs or biological systems consisting of many different tissues, starting from an initial stem cell line, perhaps using innovative scaffolds together with the nano-engineering of biological tissues.
Regenerative medicine; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Bone regeneration; Dental Pulp Stem Cells; human Periapical Cysts Mesenchymal Stem Cells; hPCy-MSCs.
There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant.
For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included.
Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls.
In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss.
Incomplete tears; Meniscus in situ; Anatomic single bundle; Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
In the present work we analyzed the hormonal (salivary Cortisol; sC), immune (salivary Immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and cardiovascular (Heart rate, HR, and systolic blood pressure, SBP) responses induced by stress conditions in oral surgeons, randomly recruited according to their expertise level.
Materials and methods
Each surgeon performed three different surgical procedures with increasing degrees of technical difficulty and under time-limited conditions, to assess whether these variants may influence the risks of stress-induced secondary hypertension among the involved health professionals. sC and sIgA samples and cardiovascular function measurements were taken up before, during, and two hours after every surgery. Salivary samples and cardiovascular measurements were taken also during non-surgical days, as baseline controls.
We observed that more experienced surgeons showed a higher stress management ability compared to those with less experience or, generally, younger, which are more exposed to the risks of developing secondary hypertension. Nevertheless, indipendently of sex and experience, oral surgeons are constantly exposed to high risks of developing stress-related diseases.
On the basis of the issues addressed and the results obtained, we have highlighted the importance of the investigated stress biomarkers to monitor and to prevent stress-related pathologies among oral surgeons. This approach is aimed to emphasize the significance of these specific stress-biomarkers, which represent a powerful instrument to evaluate stress levels in oral surgeons, and that may help to reduce the most severe life-threatening risks to which they are daily exposed. In conclusion, final goal of this study is to suggest an useful guideline to monitor the stress levels of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in order to improve their quality of life, which is inevitably reflected on the quality of the performances provided and, finally, to prevent possible mistakes in their daily activities.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of decellularized organs possesses the characteristics of the ideal tissue-engineering scaffold (i.e., histocompatibility, porosity, degradability, non-toxicity). We previously observed that the muscle acellular scaffold (MAS) is a pro-myogenic environment in vivo. In order to determine whether MAS, which is basically muscle ECM, behaves as a myogenic environment, regardless of its location, we analyzed MAS interaction with both muscle and non-muscle cells and tissues, to assess the effects of MAS on cell differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein treatment of C2C12 cells cultured within MAS induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro, thus suggesting that MAS does not irreversibly commit cells to myogenesis. In vivo MAS supported formation of nascent muscle fibers when replacing a muscle (orthotopic position). However, heterotopically grafted MAS did not give rise to muscle fibers when transplanted within the renal capsule. Also, no muscle formation was observed when MAS was transplanted under the xiphoid process, in spite of the abundant presence of cells migrating along the laminin-based MAS structure. Taken together, our results suggest that MAS itself is not sufficient to induce myogenic differentiation. It is likely that the pro-myogenic environment of MAS is not strictly related to the intrinsic properties of the muscle scaffold (e.g., specific muscle ECM proteins). Indeed, it is more likely that myogenic stem cells colonizing MAS recognize a muscle environment that ultimately allows terminal myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, MAS may represent a suitable environment for muscle and non-muscle 3D constructs characterized by a highly organized structure whose relative stability promotes integration with the surrounding tissues. Our work highlights the plasticity of MAS, suggesting that it may be possible to consider MAS for a wider range of tissue engineering applications than the mere replacement of volumetric muscle loss.
extracellular matrix; niche; osteogenic differentiation; myogenic differentiation; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine
Introduction: An increased production of oxidizing species related to reactive oral diseases, such as chronic apical periodontitis, could have systemic implications such as an increase in cardiovascular morbidity.
Based on this consideration, we conducted a prospective study to assess whether subjects affected by chronic periodontitis presented with higher values of oxidative stress than reference values before endodontic treatment, and whether endodontic treatment can reduce the oxidative imbalance and bring it back to normal in these subjects.
Materials and methods: The authors recruited 2 groups of patients from private studies and dental clinics: these patients were recruited randomly. The oxidative balance in both patients with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and healthy control patients was determined by measuring the oxidant status, using an identification of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, while the antioxidant status in these patients was determined using a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test. Both these tests were carried on plasma samples taken from enrolled patients. Values were measured both before the endodontic treatment of the patients with chronic apical periodontitis, and 30 and 90 days after treatment, and compared to those obtained from healthy control patients.
Results: It was found that, on recruitment, the patients with chronic apical periodontitis exhibited significantly higher levels of oxidative stress than control patients, as determined by the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Furthermore, the d-ROMs test values were shown to decrease and the BAP test values to increase over time in patients with chronic apical periodontitis following endodontic therapy. As the levels of oxidative stress in these patients tended to reduce and return to normal by 90 days following treatment.
Conclusions: This study has demonstrated a positive association between chronic apical periodontitis and oxidative stress. Subjects affected by chronic apical periodontitis are exposed to a condition of oxidative stress, which is extremely dangerous to general health. Moreover, one can infer from these findings that through proper endodontic therapy, a good oxidative balance can be restored, thereby avoiding the risk of contracting the abovementioned diseases.
Oxidative stress; chronic apical periodontitis; endodontic treatment.
Introduction. The mechanical strength and the surface hardness of commercially available yttrium-doped zirconia were investigated. Furthermore, a comparative study of eight different ceramic veneers, to be used for the production of two-layered all-ceramic restorative systems, was carried out. Materials and Methods. Four types of zirconia specimens were analyzed, according to a standard ISO procedure (ISO 6872). Besides, two-layered zirconia-veneer specimens were prepared for three-point bending tests. Results. A strong effect of the surface roughness on the mechanical strength of zirconia specimens was observed. Finally, a comparative study of eight commercially available veneering ceramics shows different modes of failure between the selected veneers. Conclusion. The results indicate that close attention should be paid to the preparation of zirconia-based crowns and bridges by CAD/CAM process, because surface roughness has an important effect on the mechanical strength of the material. Finally, the results of the mechanical tests on two-layered specimens represent an important support to the choice of the veneering ceramic.
We provide a detailed description of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human periapical cysts, which we have termed hPCy-MSCs. These cells have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic surfaces. hPCy-MSCs possess high proliferative potential and self-renewal capacity properties. We characterised the immunophenotype of hPCy-MSCs (CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD13+, CD29+, CD44+, CD45-, STRO-1+, CD146+) by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. hPCy-MSCs possess the potential to differentiate into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells in vitro. Multi-potentiality was evaluated with culture-specific staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for osteo/odontogenic and adipogenic markers. This is the first report to indicate that human periapical cysts contain cells with MSC-like properties. Taken together, our findings indicate that human periapical cysts could be a rich source of MSCs.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cyst; periapical inflammatory tissues; mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human periapical cyst (hPCy-MSCs); osteogenic differentiation; adipogenic differentiation; odontogenic cyst.
Grafting of autologous adipose tissue can be recommended in some cases of facial plastic surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that can also affect the orbit. Enucleation of the eye can cause atrophy of the corresponding hemiface and decreased orbital growth.
We report a case of a female patient with a medical history of surgical enucleation of the right eyeball, who had received rhabdomyosarcoma radiation therapy in her youth. The patient presented with a depression in the right zygomatic region. We took a dermal-fat flap from the abdominal region, which had been previously treated.
The surgical outcome, 48 hours, and much clearly 31 days after the surgery, revealed that the right zygomatic region had returned to its proper anatomical shape, although there were still signs of postoperative edema.
Very damaged tissues, like those exposed to radiation therapy, are generally not suitable for grafting of adipose tissue.
In the described case, we achieved a technically and aesthetically satisfying result despite the patient's medical history involving several perplexities about the use of autologous dermal-fat tissues, because of prior radiation therapy exposure. The clinical case shows that even a region exposed to radiation therapy can be a valid receiving bed for dermal-fat grafting.
Dermal-fat grafts; Oncological surgery; Plastic surgery
Rhinoplasty "open" represents a surgical technique to access to the internal structures of the nose; it is an alternative to more traditional "closed" rhinoplasty. However, both these techniques have some advantages and some disadvantages. In this work the authors describe a case that shows the steps of a new surgical technique: the “semi-open” rhinoplasty.
The "semi-open" technique is performed by making an incision to access on the mucosa of both the nostrils, and through this access we separate the cartilages of the columella from the alar cartilages, debriding them at the domus. With such access we can perform any type of rhinoplasty surgery with functional or aesthetic purposes.
Traditional techniques have undoubtedly some advantages and some disadvantages. The "semi-open" technique has the several advantages of the open technique, and it does not involve the presence of post-surgical scars.
This innovative technique provides great predictability and minimal postoperative discomfort, with no aesthetic damage.
Rhinoplasty; Maxillofacial technique; Plastic surgery
Due to the request of numerous patients to improve the aspect of the perioral area in combination with other types of cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, we started to use autologous fillers. In fact, there are numerous potential fillers that can be utilized during various operations executed in many bodily areas, such as the breast, abdomen, and face. The muscular fascia as well as the dense connective tissue which the surgeon encounters in various bodily areas during some stages of the operation, in fact, can be removed and replaced both by themselves or superimposed in order to increase their thickness. The insertion of the grafts is carried out by using a needle, but other methods can also be used with the same success. The consistency of the area treated, after a few days of edema, is very similar to the host area, and the volume obtained remains uniform in time (our followup is after 24 months). The time utilized for the removal and the insertion in the chosen area was only a few minutes. The result was extremely satisfactory in all the 30 patients treated, and there was no complication or side effects.
The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case.
The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum.
The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery.
We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons.
Introduction. White Sponge Nevus (WSN) is a rare pathology with a pathogenesis on genetic basis, a benign course and a localization affecting the mucosal keratin.
WSN is usually a symptomless pathology: when pain is present, some authors reported reduction of symptoms by taking penicillin or oral tetracycline rinses, suggesting that a bacterial overinfection could be at the base of possible painful symptoms.
Case Report. We describe 2 patients affected by WSN, father and son: they presented two different oral diseases associated with an infection by Staphylococcus aureus. So, we have performed a careful oral hygiene to reduce infection in the oral cavity. In the following days we prescribed 2 rinses a day with a mouthwash containing chlorhexidine digluconate at two different percentages.
Discussion. Early diagnosis of this lesion is important, because it allows us to exclude other more serious diseases. In the most part of cases, WSN requires no treatment because of its benign and asymptomatic behaviour: up to now, no protocol of treatment for this condition was standardized. Even if WSN is a painless condition, sometime a correlated painful symptomatology was reported.
Conclusions. In our experience, we have achieved excellent results even with chlorhexidine digluconate rinses, considering that our treated cases were both infected by Staphylococcus aureus.
We hypothesize that the corrugated plaques and the altered texture of the mucosa create the right conditions for the colonization and the development of microbial species such as saprophytic bacteria or fungal species.
White Sponge Nevus; Staphylococcus Aureus; Oral disease
Introduction. Maxillary bone losses often require additional regenerative procedures: as a supplement to the procedures of tissue regeneration, a platelet concentrate called PRF (Platelet Rich Fibrin) was tested for the first time in France by Dr. Choukroun.
Aim of the present study is to investigate, clinically and histologically, the potential use of PRF, associated with deproteinized bovine bone (Bio-Oss), as grafting materials in pre-implantology sinus grafting of severe maxillary atrophy, in comparison with a control group, in which only deproteinized bovine bone (Bio-Oss) was used as reconstructive material.
Materials and Methods. 60 patients were recruited using the cluster-sampling method; inclusion criteria were maxillary atrophy with residual ridge < 5mm. The major atrophies in selected patients involved sinus-lift, with a second-look reopening for the implant insertion phase. The used grafting materials were: a) Bio-Oss and b) amorphous and membranous PRF together with Bio-Oss. We performed all operations by means of piezosurgery in order to reduce trauma and to optimize the design of the operculum on the cortical bone. The reopening of the surgical area was scheduled at 3 different times.
Results. 72 sinus lifts were performed with subsequent implants insertions.
We want to underline how the histological results proved that the samples collected after 106 days (Early protocol) with the adding of PRF were constituted by lamellar bone tissue with an interposed stroma that appeared relaxed and richly vascularized.
Conclusions. The use of PRF and piezosurgery reduced the healing time, compared to the 150 days described in literature, favoring optimal bone regeneration. At 106 days, it is already possible to achieve good primary stability of endosseous implants, though lacking of functional loading.
Reconstructive Surgery; Platelet Rich Fibrin; Grafting Materials; Bone replacement.
Portable firearms have a relevant medico-legal interest, being a major cause of injury. Bullet entry wounds generally have a particular appearance, including contusion, skin introflection, and simple or excoriated ecchymosis. The skin wound is typically a hole with frayed margins, whose diameter is smaller than that of the bullet.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report the case of a 19-year-old man with ballistic trauma. Examination of the patient's lesions indicated that the bullet had entered from the left mandibular parasymphysis, creating a small hole without the typical bullet wipe and blackening. Subsequently, the bullet seemed to have fractured the left chin region immediately below the lower alveolar process, and it finally stopped in the submandibular area in the suprahyoid region of the neck.
This case is peculiar because the distinctive features of a firearm injury were absent; the lack of bleeding and edema made the case difficult to interpret without additional diagnostic investigations.
Ballistic trauma can manifest in different ways; therefore, internal trauma should be suspected even in the absence of clear external signs. This case report shows how an unusual bullet entry hole can mask quite serious injuries.
Ballistic trauma; Maxillofacial trauma; Firearm injury
Today, we frequently find patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), a prophylaxis against the occurrence of thromboembolic events. An oral surgeon needs to know how to better manage such patients, in order to avoid hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.
Materials and methods
A group of 193 patients (119 men aged between 46 and 82 and 74 women aged between 54 and 76) undergoing OAT for more than 5 years were managed with a standardized management protocol and a 2-months follow-up. The aim of the present study was to apply a protocol, which could provide a safe intra- and postoperative management of patients on OAT.
Among the 193 patients, only 2 had postoperative complications.
We think that the protocol used in the present study can be used for complete safety in the treatment of this type of patients.
Oral Anticoagulant Therapy (OAT); Tranexamic Acid; Oral Surgery
The expression non Hodgkin lymphoma is used to cover a wide group of lymphoid neoplasias unrelated to Hodgkin's disease, due to the huge histological variety and the tendency to affect organs and tissues that does not physiologically contain lymphoid cells.
The intraoral location is not frequent (3 - 5 percent of cases) and the initial manifestations of the disease rarely take place here.
We describe the case of a 73 years old Italian caucasian male who came to our attention with a tongue lesion. The clinical manifestation was macroglossia and bleeding, probably deriving from the tongue-bite injuries.
The patient had been complaining of dyspnea for 48 hours.
A tongue affected by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma rarely occurs. In spite of this, this possibility should always be considered for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions affecting such area.
A rapid diagnostic assessment, together with an adequate histopathologic verification, are indeed essential to improve the management and the prognosis of this disease.
Scar formation is a process consequent to the healing of soft tissues after a trauma. However, abnormal or disturbed collagen production can cause anomalies of the cutaneous surface and textural irregularities. In the presence of a depressed scar in deep tissue, we began to use a new simple technique. In the presence of adherent scars, a small incision is performed so that an undermining scissor can enter inside. The entire cicatricial area is undermined on a subcutaneous plane which, by separating the deep scar from the superficial one, completely frees it from the present adhesions so that the existing depression is totally eliminated. In order to avoid the recreation of relapses, stitches formed in a U-shape are made in Nylon or Monocril 2-3/0 are made with a large needle and are placed close together so that a wide aversion is achieved at the margins of the scar and a deep wound closure is obtained by adhering to the undermined tissue. These stitches will then be removed about 2 weeks later.
Depressed scar; plastic surgery; subcision technique
Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.
The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.
Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.
Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).
Oral Piercing; Oral diseases; Complications of oral piercing.
Fishing is one of the best known and practiced human activities. However, you should remember that, when casting the hook from the riverbank or grasping it to add bait, fishermen run a real risk of injury if the hook punctures the skin.
Briefly we describe a case where a young, 32-year-old fisherman who was reeling the hook back to shore when it hit him in the face and embedded itself in his upper eyelid. Upon examination, the eye was found to be unharmed and the hook was removed through a small incision and the aid of a local anesthetic.
In the light of this case report, we think it a good idea to advise our friends and patients who we know to be fishermen to wear some form of eye protection as a precaution.
Thousands of patients receive hyaluronic acid filler injections, and the effects are generally considered acceptable. The acid rarely causes cutaneous reactions, which are only occasionally reported in the literature.
The aim of the present work is to analyze a clinical case that has never been reported in the literature to our knowledge. This case is of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a cyst in the infrazygomatic region that was injected with non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid at another centre a few months ago.
Consequently, we made an external incision to remove the neoplasm: histological examination of the capsule revealed it to be a cutaneous metaplastic synovial cyst.
Eyelid bags are considered a sign of ageing, but they often appear prematurely due to the variety of causes that favor them. This brief report describes the case of a patient who was referred to us for the correction of a second degree bilateral palpebral ptosis that the patient had suffered from for several years and that in recent months had worsened to the point of interfering with vision and who, aside from modest eyelid bags, presented a massive protrusion of "preocular" fatty tissue. Despite the indication of classic blepharoplasty through a lower lid incision and, therefore, the possibility of removing excess skin, the patient opted instead only for the removal of the bulging fat. The patient's postoperative results were normal and the patient was extremely satisfied with both the correction of the ptosis and the "rejuvenating" effect of removing the protruding orbital fat in the eyelid.
Introduction. Anisocoria indicates a difference in pupil diameter. Etiologies of this clinical manifestation usually include systemic causes as neurological or vascular disorders, and local causes as congenital iris disorders and pharmacological effects.
Case Report. We present a case of a 47-year-old man, suffering from spastic tetraparesis. After the oral surgery under general anesthesia, the patient developed severe anisocoria: in particular, a ~4mm diameter increase of the left pupil compared to the right pupil.
We performed Computed Tomography (CT) in the emergency setting, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the brain and Magnetic Resonance Angiography of intracranial vessels. These instrumental examinations did not show vascular or neurological diseases. The pupils returned to their physiological condition (isocoria) after about 180 minutes.
Discussion and Conclusions. Literature shows that the cases of anisocoria reported during or after oral surgery are rare occurrences, especially in cases of simple tooth extraction. Anisocoria can manifest in more or less evident forms: therefore, it is clear that knowing this clinical condition is of crucial importance for a correct and timely resolution.
Anisocoria; Pupils reactions in Oral surgery; Emergencies in Oral Surgery.
Introduction. Hyperdontia is an odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by an excess in tooth number. It seems to occur more often in patients with hereditary factors concerning this anomaly: this case represents a rare form of hyperdontia, with bilateral multiple supernumerary teeth, with evident penetrance of the phenotype in the family unit engaged in the present study. The karyotype determination excludes a pathogenesis on chromosomal basis.
Case report. A 30 years old patient came to our observation with five impacted teeth (1.8, 2.8, 3.8, 4.7 and 4.8), as well as with the presence of an impacted supernumerary tooth (distomolar 4.9). The patient was suggested to allow us to perform a radiologic screening to his two sisters aged 17 and 13 years.
The X-ray photography showed that the elder sister had nine impacted teeth; these were 1.8 - 1.9 - 2.8 - 2.9 - 2.10 - 3.8 - 3.9 - 4.8 - 4.9; while the youngest sister had four impacted teeth, that is 1.8 - 1.9 - 2.8 - 2.9.
Conclusions. The value of the present case report can be used as a paradigm for the assessment of the hereditary factors predisposing the onset of hyperdontia, and for the consequent management by oral surgeon of family units in which the odontostomatologic anomaly was detected without any syndromic forms.
Hyperdontia; supernumerary teeth; impacted teeth.
The presence of tattoos on the skin of people of all ages is on the rise. On occasion, the tattoo is in close proximity to an area which has to undergo a surgical operation, therefore why not using the tattoo itself to cover the cicatrix?
The case we treated was that of a 39 year old female who, for a couple of years, had a large lipoma on her right shoulder which she never treated because it was beneath a large tattoo. During the surgical treatment of the lipoma, we followed the exact lines of the tattoo itself thus obtaining precise access for lipoma removal which minimized visible post operative cicatrix while maintaining the original tattoo design.
No similar case was found in literature.
Lipoma; Tattoo; Surgical cicatrix
While the principles of eyelid reconstruction are well-established, achieving good functional and aesthetic reconstruction remains challenging.
This communication presents a technique that we used on a young patient with an eyelid defect following a thermal burn. The patient was operated on to reconstruct the entire upper eyelid using, as a posterior lamella, a mucochondrial autologous graft taken from the ala of the nose as a tarsus and conjunctiva substitutes that were sutured to the Elevator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis and muscle. On the other hand, to reconstruct the anterior lamella, which consists of skin and muscle, the surgeons used a myocutaneous temporal flap taken from the region immediately lateral to the external canthus of the palpebral region, and which, after being isolated following a drawing of the upper eyelid to be reconstructed, was rotated and then sutured to the posterior lamella using the orbicularis oculi muscle as a pedicle.