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author:("aullo, Marco")
1.  Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of a Bioactive Polyphenolic Fraction Isolated from the Brewing Process 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:36042.
There is increasing interest in identifying natural bioactive compounds that can improve mitochondrial functionality and regulate apoptosis. The brewery industry generates wastewater that could yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. Polyphenols act as antioxidants and have been documented to protect the human body from degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. The main aims of our research were to determine the phenolic profile of a crude extract obtained (at pilot scale) from a brewery waste stream and to evaluate the biochemical activity of this extract on the mitochondrial function of a cancer cell line (SH-SY5Y). This work is a basic translational pilot study. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay, which revealed that 2.30% of the extract consisted of phenolic compounds. The polyphenols, identified and quantified by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS), were mainly flavonoids. After cell culture, the tumoral cells treated with the polyphenolic extract showed enhanced mitochondrial oxidative function, which is likely related to a decrease in oxidative stress and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. This type of brewery waste stream, properly treated, may be a promising source of natural antioxidants to replace the synthetic antioxidants currently used in the food industry.
doi:10.1038/srep36042
PMCID: PMC5081531  PMID: 27786308
2.  Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation 
Stem Cells International  2016;2016:7230987.
Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL) contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1%) was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H2O2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.
doi:10.1155/2016/7230987
PMCID: PMC5059612  PMID: 27774106
3.  Biomimetic hydroxyapatite used in the treatment of periodontal intrabony pockets: clinical and radiological analysis 
Annali di Stomatologia  2016;7(1-2):16-23.
Summary
Aim
Hydroxyapatite (PA) has a chemical composition and physical structure very similar to natural bone and therefore it has been considered to be the ideal biomaterial able to ensure a biomimetic scaffold to use in bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study is to clinically test hydroxyapatite used as osteoconductive biomaterial in the treatment of periodontal bone defects. Clinical and radiological evaluations were conducted at 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery.
Materials and methods
Forty patients with 2- and 3-wall intrabony pockets were enrolled in this study. PPD, CAL, radiographic depth (RD) and angular defects were preoperatively measured. After surgery, patients were re-evaluated every 6 months for 18 months. Statistical analyses were also performed to investigate any differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements.
Results
Paired t-test samples conducted on the data obtained at baseline and 18 months after, showed significant (p<0.01) differences in each measurement performed. The role of preoperative RD was demonstrated to be a significant key factor (p<0.01). A relevant correlation between preoperative PPD and CAL gain was also found.
Conclusions
Within the limitations of this study, the absence of anatomical variables, except the morphology of the bone defect, emphasizes the importance of the proper surgical approach and the graft material used.
doi:10.11138/ads/2016.7.1.016
PMCID: PMC4955919  PMID: 27486507
biomimetic; hydroxyapatite; intrabony pockets; clinical; radiological
4.  Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(2):e0148225.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM) in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I), one of the main components of dental pulp ECM.
Methods
DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF) supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining.
Results
When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions.
Significance
These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148225
PMCID: PMC4755593  PMID: 26882351
5.  A comparative, randomized, controlled study on clinical efficacy and dental staining reduction of a mouthwash containing Chlorhexidine 0.20% and Anti Discoloration System (ADS) 
Annali di Stomatologia  2015;6(2):35-42.
Summary
Introduction
A good control of bacterial plaque is an essential factor for the success of periodontal therapy, therefore it is the main objective that the clinician together with the patient must get to have a healthy periodontium. The plaque control with mouthwashes is the most important home therapy as it helps to reduce the formation of plaque between the mechanical removal with a toothbrush.
Aim
Authors analyzed the clinical data from a trial carried out with 3 different mouthwashes containing 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX). In addition, the ADS (Anti Discoloration System - Curaden Healthcare) was tested in comparison with the other mouthwashes without this system.
Materials and methods
We tested antiplaque activity showed by 3 of the most commercialized mouthwashes, moreover, we tested the ability in reducing the dental staining related to the oral assumption of Chlorhexidine.
Discussion and conclusion
Our results demonstrated the clinical efficacy of the 3 mouthwashes with CHX. Particularly performing was the anti discoloration system (Curaden Healthcare), with a clinical detection of dental stainings significantly less than the others tested. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of ADS system in the reduction of tooth staining, without a loss of antiplaque activity with respect to the competing mouthwashes containing CHX.
PMCID: PMC4525103  PMID: 26330902
dental plaque; oral hygiene; dental education; Chlorhexidine; dental pigmentation; dental staining
6.  Successful use of a topical mixture with ozolipoile in the treatment of actinic ulcers 
Purpose
Post-radiation skin damage is the result of alterations produced in the irradiated zone. There are different studies aimed at verifying the effectiveness of several kinds of molecules in the treatment of radiation-induced skin damage. The purpose of this study is to test a mixture with a formulation containing several natural active ingredients on actinic ulcers in patients receiving radiation therapies.
Patients and methods
The authors recruited 13 patients, and randomly divided them into a test group (T1) and a control group (T2). The patients in both groups were undergoing radiotherapy. The T1 group was treated with a mixture called ozolipoile, whereas the T2 group was administered hyaluronic acid gel followed by non-ablative laser therapy. We evaluated the obtained results, the time of clinical healing, the reduction of pain, and each side effect, comparing all data between the T1 and T2 groups.
Results
The average Visual Analog Scale results showed decrease in pain in both groups; however, while the T1 group showed a significant decrease in the values, the T2 group reported a more gradual reduction in the values, without ever reaching the minimum values obtained with the treatment with ozolipoile.
Conclusion
Treatment of actinic ulcers with ozolipoile mixture leads to faster control of pain and to better healing of small-size ulcers.
doi:10.2147/CCID.S67826
PMCID: PMC4386775  PMID: 25848312
actinic ulcers; radiation-induced ulcers; skin wound; ozonide; wound healing
7.  The Regenerative Medicine in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: The Most Important Innovations in the Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells 
Regenerative medicine is an emerging field of biotechnology that combines various aspects of medicine, cell and molecular biology, materials science and bioengineering in order to regenerate, repair or replace tissues.
The oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery have a role in the treatment of traumatic or degenerative diseases that lead to a tissue loss: frequently, to rehabilitate these minuses, you should use techniques that have been improved over time. Since 1990, we started with the use of growth factors and platelet concentrates in oral and maxillofacial surgery; in the following period we start to use biomaterials, as well as several type of scaffolds and autologous tissues. The frontier of regenerative medicine nowadays is represented by the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs): overcoming the ethical problems thanks to the use of mesenchymal stem cells from adult patient, and with the increasingly sophisticated technology to support their manipulation, MSCs are undoubtedly the future of medicine regenerative and they are showing perspectives unimaginable just a few years ago. Most recent studies are aimed to tissues regeneration using MSCs taken from sites that are even more accessible and rich in stem cells: the oral cavity turned out to be an important source of MSCs with the advantage to be easily accessible to the surgeon, thus avoiding to increase the morbidity of the patient.
The future is the regeneration of whole organs or biological systems consisting of many different tissues, starting from an initial stem cell line, perhaps using innovative scaffolds together with the nano-engineering of biological tissues.
doi:10.7150/ijms.10706
PMCID: PMC4278878  PMID: 25552921
Regenerative medicine; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Bone regeneration; Dental Pulp Stem Cells; human Periapical Cysts Mesenchymal Stem Cells; hPCy-MSCs.
8.  Muscle Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Is a Multipotent Environment 
The multipotency of scaffolds is a new concept. Skeletal muscle acellular scaffolds (MAS) implanted at the interface of Tibialis Anterior/tibial bone and masseter muscle/mandible bone in a murine model were colonized by muscle cells near the host muscle and by bone-cartilaginous tissues near the host bone, thus highlighting the importance of the environment in directing cell homing and differentiation. These results unveil the multipotency of MAS and point to the potential of this new technique as a valuable tool in musculo-skeletal tissue regeneration.
doi:10.7150/ijms.10761
PMCID: PMC4402437  PMID: 25897295
ECM scaffold; tissue engineering; skeletal muscle; bone; cartilage
9.  Bioimpedance Detection of Oral Lichen Planus Used as Preneoplastic Model 
Journal of Cancer  2015;6(10):976-983.
Introduction: Bioimpedance is a measure of the electrical properties of biological tissues. In the last two decades bioimpedance has been successfully introduced in clinical diagnosis of cancer. It has been demonstrated that tumoral tissues often show lower bioimpedance values than healthy tissues.
The aim of this work is to assess the bioimpedentiometric differences between healthy and Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) affected oral mucosa, taking attention to the erosive form which may represent a potential pre-cancerous condition.
Methods: 52 patients affected by OLP were recruited for bioimpedance examination of oral mucosa. Four electrical properties, resistance (R), reactance (Xc), phase angle (θ) and impedance (Z) of the tongue and of the intraoral mucosa, were measured.
Results: We observed a significant increase of Z and a significant decrease of θ values in correspondence of OLP lesions compared to healthy oral mucosa, and a marked decrease of Z values in correspondence of erosive OLP lesions.
Conclusions: These results provide evidence of the usefulness of bioimpedance assay for the characterization of healthy and clinically OLP affected mucosa. Bioimpedance is a valid aid in the early detection and clinical monitoring of the suspicious lesions which could lead to a potentially malignant evolution.
The present research article is a valuable addition to the scientific literature of cancer prevention, and our findings can be considered extremely encouraging as they represent the initial step for a more wide clinical study for better define the different cut-off values in the different precancerous conditions occurring in the oral mucosa.
doi:10.7150/jca.11936
PMCID: PMC4565846  PMID: 26366210
Oral Pathology; Early Diagnosis; Oral Cancer; Cancer Prevention
10.  Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty 
Background
There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant.
Methods
For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included.
Results
Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls.
Conclusions
In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss.
doi:10.14740/jocmr2048w
PMCID: PMC4285063  PMID: 25584102
Incomplete tears; Meniscus in situ; Anatomic single bundle; Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
11.  Correlation between Surgeon's Experience, Surgery Complexity and the Alteration of Stress Related Physiological Parameters 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112444.
Introduction
In the present work we analyzed the hormonal (salivary Cortisol; sC), immune (salivary Immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and cardiovascular (Heart rate, HR, and systolic blood pressure, SBP) responses induced by stress conditions in oral surgeons, randomly recruited according to their expertise level.
Materials and methods
Each surgeon performed three different surgical procedures with increasing degrees of technical difficulty and under time-limited conditions, to assess whether these variants may influence the risks of stress-induced secondary hypertension among the involved health professionals. sC and sIgA samples and cardiovascular function measurements were taken up before, during, and two hours after every surgery. Salivary samples and cardiovascular measurements were taken also during non-surgical days, as baseline controls.
Results
We observed that more experienced surgeons showed a higher stress management ability compared to those with less experience or, generally, younger, which are more exposed to the risks of developing secondary hypertension. Nevertheless, indipendently of sex and experience, oral surgeons are constantly exposed to high risks of developing stress-related diseases.
Conclusions
On the basis of the issues addressed and the results obtained, we have highlighted the importance of the investigated stress biomarkers to monitor and to prevent stress-related pathologies among oral surgeons. This approach is aimed to emphasize the significance of these specific stress-biomarkers, which represent a powerful instrument to evaluate stress levels in oral surgeons, and that may help to reduce the most severe life-threatening risks to which they are daily exposed. In conclusion, final goal of this study is to suggest an useful guideline to monitor the stress levels of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in order to improve their quality of life, which is inevitably reflected on the quality of the performances provided and, finally, to prevent possible mistakes in their daily activities.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112444
PMCID: PMC4224481  PMID: 25379944
12.  Muscle acellular scaffold as a biomaterial: effects on C2C12 cell differentiation and interaction with the murine host environment 
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of decellularized organs possesses the characteristics of the ideal tissue-engineering scaffold (i.e., histocompatibility, porosity, degradability, non-toxicity). We previously observed that the muscle acellular scaffold (MAS) is a pro-myogenic environment in vivo. In order to determine whether MAS, which is basically muscle ECM, behaves as a myogenic environment, regardless of its location, we analyzed MAS interaction with both muscle and non-muscle cells and tissues, to assess the effects of MAS on cell differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein treatment of C2C12 cells cultured within MAS induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro, thus suggesting that MAS does not irreversibly commit cells to myogenesis. In vivo MAS supported formation of nascent muscle fibers when replacing a muscle (orthotopic position). However, heterotopically grafted MAS did not give rise to muscle fibers when transplanted within the renal capsule. Also, no muscle formation was observed when MAS was transplanted under the xiphoid process, in spite of the abundant presence of cells migrating along the laminin-based MAS structure. Taken together, our results suggest that MAS itself is not sufficient to induce myogenic differentiation. It is likely that the pro-myogenic environment of MAS is not strictly related to the intrinsic properties of the muscle scaffold (e.g., specific muscle ECM proteins). Indeed, it is more likely that myogenic stem cells colonizing MAS recognize a muscle environment that ultimately allows terminal myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, MAS may represent a suitable environment for muscle and non-muscle 3D constructs characterized by a highly organized structure whose relative stability promotes integration with the surrounding tissues. Our work highlights the plasticity of MAS, suggesting that it may be possible to consider MAS for a wider range of tissue engineering applications than the mere replacement of volumetric muscle loss.
doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00354
PMCID: PMC4176465  PMID: 25309452
extracellular matrix; niche; osteogenic differentiation; myogenic differentiation; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine
13.  Influence of Endodontic Treatment on Systemic Oxidative Stress 
Introduction: An increased production of oxidizing species related to reactive oral diseases, such as chronic apical periodontitis, could have systemic implications such as an increase in cardiovascular morbidity.
Based on this consideration, we conducted a prospective study to assess whether subjects affected by chronic periodontitis presented with higher values of oxidative stress than reference values before endodontic treatment, and whether endodontic treatment can reduce the oxidative imbalance and bring it back to normal in these subjects.
Materials and methods: The authors recruited 2 groups of patients from private studies and dental clinics: these patients were recruited randomly. The oxidative balance in both patients with chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) and healthy control patients was determined by measuring the oxidant status, using an identification of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, while the antioxidant status in these patients was determined using a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test. Both these tests were carried on plasma samples taken from enrolled patients. Values were measured both before the endodontic treatment of the patients with chronic apical periodontitis, and 30 and 90 days after treatment, and compared to those obtained from healthy control patients.
Results: It was found that, on recruitment, the patients with chronic apical periodontitis exhibited significantly higher levels of oxidative stress than control patients, as determined by the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Furthermore, the d-ROMs test values were shown to decrease and the BAP test values to increase over time in patients with chronic apical periodontitis following endodontic therapy. As the levels of oxidative stress in these patients tended to reduce and return to normal by 90 days following treatment.
Conclusions: This study has demonstrated a positive association between chronic apical periodontitis and oxidative stress. Subjects affected by chronic apical periodontitis are exposed to a condition of oxidative stress, which is extremely dangerous to general health. Moreover, one can infer from these findings that through proper endodontic therapy, a good oxidative balance can be restored, thereby avoiding the risk of contracting the abovementioned diseases.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6663
PMCID: PMC3880985  PMID: 24396280
Oxidative stress; chronic apical periodontitis; endodontic treatment.
14.  Three-Point Bending Tests of Zirconia Core/Veneer Ceramics for Dental Restorations 
Introduction. The mechanical strength and the surface hardness of commercially available yttrium-doped zirconia were investigated. Furthermore, a comparative study of eight different ceramic veneers, to be used for the production of two-layered all-ceramic restorative systems, was carried out. Materials and Methods. Four types of zirconia specimens were analyzed, according to a standard ISO procedure (ISO 6872). Besides, two-layered zirconia-veneer specimens were prepared for three-point bending tests. Results. A strong effect of the surface roughness on the mechanical strength of zirconia specimens was observed. Finally, a comparative study of eight commercially available veneering ceramics shows different modes of failure between the selected veneers. Conclusion. The results indicate that close attention should be paid to the preparation of zirconia-based crowns and bridges by CAD/CAM process, because surface roughness has an important effect on the mechanical strength of the material. Finally, the results of the mechanical tests on two-layered specimens represent an important support to the choice of the veneering ceramic.
doi:10.1155/2013/831976
PMCID: PMC3596922  PMID: 23533415
15.  Cells Isolated from Human Periapical Cysts Express Mesenchymal Stem Cell-like Properties 
We provide a detailed description of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human periapical cysts, which we have termed hPCy-MSCs. These cells have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic surfaces. hPCy-MSCs possess high proliferative potential and self-renewal capacity properties. We characterised the immunophenotype of hPCy-MSCs (CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD13+, CD29+, CD44+, CD45-, STRO-1+, CD146+) by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. hPCy-MSCs possess the potential to differentiate into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells in vitro. Multi-potentiality was evaluated with culture-specific staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for osteo/odontogenic and adipogenic markers. This is the first report to indicate that human periapical cysts contain cells with MSC-like properties. Taken together, our findings indicate that human periapical cysts could be a rich source of MSCs.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.6662
PMCID: PMC3831120  PMID: 24250252
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cyst; periapical inflammatory tissues; mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human periapical cyst (hPCy-MSCs); osteogenic differentiation; adipogenic differentiation; odontogenic cyst.
16.  Use of dermal-fat grafts in the post-oncological reconstructive surgery of atrophies in the zygomatic region: clinical evaluations in the patients undergone to previous radiation therapy 
Head & Face Medicine  2012;8:33.
Introduction
Grafting of autologous adipose tissue can be recommended in some cases of facial plastic surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that can also affect the orbit. Enucleation of the eye can cause atrophy of the corresponding hemiface and decreased orbital growth.
Case report
We report a case of a female patient with a medical history of surgical enucleation of the right eyeball, who had received rhabdomyosarcoma radiation therapy in her youth. The patient presented with a depression in the right zygomatic region. We took a dermal-fat flap from the abdominal region, which had been previously treated.
Results
The surgical outcome, 48 hours, and much clearly 31 days after the surgery, revealed that the right zygomatic region had returned to its proper anatomical shape, although there were still signs of postoperative edema.
Discussion
Very damaged tissues, like those exposed to radiation therapy, are generally not suitable for grafting of adipose tissue.
Conclusions
In the described case, we achieved a technically and aesthetically satisfying result despite the patient's medical history involving several perplexities about the use of autologous dermal-fat tissues, because of prior radiation therapy exposure. The clinical case shows that even a region exposed to radiation therapy can be a valid receiving bed for dermal-fat grafting.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-8-33
PMCID: PMC3527323  PMID: 23217096
Dermal-fat grafts; Oncological surgery; Plastic surgery
17.  Semi-open rhinoplasty: a new Maxillofacial technique 
Head & Face Medicine  2012;8:13.
Background
Rhinoplasty "open" represents a surgical technique to access to the internal structures of the nose; it is an alternative to more traditional "closed" rhinoplasty. However, both these techniques have some advantages and some disadvantages. In this work the authors describe a case that shows the steps of a new surgical technique: the “semi-open” rhinoplasty.
Methods
The "semi-open" technique is performed by making an incision to access on the mucosa of both the nostrils, and through this access we separate the cartilages of the columella from the alar cartilages, debriding them at the domus. With such access we can perform any type of rhinoplasty surgery with functional or aesthetic purposes.
Discussions
Traditional techniques have undoubtedly some advantages and some disadvantages. The "semi-open" technique has the several advantages of the open technique, and it does not involve the presence of post-surgical scars.
Conclusions
This innovative technique provides great predictability and minimal postoperative discomfort, with no aesthetic damage.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-8-13
PMCID: PMC3411475  PMID: 22546278
Rhinoplasty; Maxillofacial technique; Plastic surgery
18.  Simple Technique for Augmentation of the Facial Soft Tissue 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:262989.
Due to the request of numerous patients to improve the aspect of the perioral area in combination with other types of cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, we started to use autologous fillers. In fact, there are numerous potential fillers that can be utilized during various operations executed in many bodily areas, such as the breast, abdomen, and face. The muscular fascia as well as the dense connective tissue which the surgeon encounters in various bodily areas during some stages of the operation, in fact, can be removed and replaced both by themselves or superimposed in order to increase their thickness. The insertion of the grafts is carried out by using a needle, but other methods can also be used with the same success. The consistency of the area treated, after a few days of edema, is very similar to the host area, and the volume obtained remains uniform in time (our followup is after 24 months). The time utilized for the removal and the insertion in the chosen area was only a few minutes. The result was extremely satisfactory in all the 30 patients treated, and there was no complication or side effects.
doi:10.1100/2012/262989
PMCID: PMC3351012  PMID: 22649284
19.  Clinical case-study describing the use of skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the auricular concha to cover large defects of the nose 
Head & Face Medicine  2012;8:10.
Background
The composite graft from the conchal cartilage is a graft that is often used, especially in surgery on the nose, due to its capacity to resolve problems of cover and tissue deficit, arising from the removal of neoplasms or as the result of trauma, burns or following over-aggressive rhinoplasty. We have started to use skin-perichondrium-cartilage graft from the ear to cover large areas of the nose with very satisfying results as well as we describe in the reported clinical case.
Methods
The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum, which had previously been removed, using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum. After this, the skin edges of the fistula were turned to recreate the inner lining of the nose and form a vascular base of wide area to accept the composite graft. The case concerns a female 74-year old patient who had undergone several oncological surgery for a relapsing basal cell carcinoma on the dorsum of the nose. The operation consisted of reconstruction of the cartilaginous nasal septum using two vestibular labial mucosa flaps to reconstruct the mucosa, and cartilage from the ear conch for the cartilaginous septum.
Results
The perichondrial cutaneous graft has shown in this surgical case very favorable peculiarities that make it usable even in facial plastic surgery.
Conclusions
We believe that the positive experience that we achieved in the use of composite grafts for the reconstruction of large areas of the nose could be interesting for others surgeons.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-8-10
PMCID: PMC3323463  PMID: 22429738
20.  Oral Infection by Staphylococcus Aureus in Patients Affected by White Sponge Nevus: A Description of Two Cases Occurred in the Same Family 
Introduction. White Sponge Nevus (WSN) is a rare pathology with a pathogenesis on genetic basis, a benign course and a localization affecting the mucosal keratin.
WSN is usually a symptomless pathology: when pain is present, some authors reported reduction of symptoms by taking penicillin or oral tetracycline rinses, suggesting that a bacterial overinfection could be at the base of possible painful symptoms.
Case Report. We describe 2 patients affected by WSN, father and son: they presented two different oral diseases associated with an infection by Staphylococcus aureus. So, we have performed a careful oral hygiene to reduce infection in the oral cavity. In the following days we prescribed 2 rinses a day with a mouthwash containing chlorhexidine digluconate at two different percentages.
Discussion. Early diagnosis of this lesion is important, because it allows us to exclude other more serious diseases. In the most part of cases, WSN requires no treatment because of its benign and asymptomatic behaviour: up to now, no protocol of treatment for this condition was standardized. Even if WSN is a painless condition, sometime a correlated painful symptomatology was reported.
Conclusions. In our experience, we have achieved excellent results even with chlorhexidine digluconate rinses, considering that our treated cases were both infected by Staphylococcus aureus.
We hypothesize that the corrugated plaques and the altered texture of the mucosa create the right conditions for the colonization and the development of microbial species such as saprophytic bacteria or fungal species.
PMCID: PMC3222090  PMID: 22211089
White Sponge Nevus; Staphylococcus Aureus; Oral disease
21.  Platelet Rich Fibrin (P.R.F.) in Reconstructive Surgery of Atrophied Maxillary Bones: Clinical and Histological Evaluations 
Introduction. Maxillary bone losses often require additional regenerative procedures: as a supplement to the procedures of tissue regeneration, a platelet concentrate called PRF (Platelet Rich Fibrin) was tested for the first time in France by Dr. Choukroun.
Aim of the present study is to investigate, clinically and histologically, the potential use of PRF, associated with deproteinized bovine bone (Bio-Oss), as grafting materials in pre-implantology sinus grafting of severe maxillary atrophy, in comparison with a control group, in which only deproteinized bovine bone (Bio-Oss) was used as reconstructive material.
Materials and Methods. 60 patients were recruited using the cluster-sampling method; inclusion criteria were maxillary atrophy with residual ridge < 5mm. The major atrophies in selected patients involved sinus-lift, with a second-look reopening for the implant insertion phase. The used grafting materials were: a) Bio-Oss and b) amorphous and membranous PRF together with Bio-Oss. We performed all operations by means of piezosurgery in order to reduce trauma and to optimize the design of the operculum on the cortical bone. The reopening of the surgical area was scheduled at 3 different times.
Results. 72 sinus lifts were performed with subsequent implants insertions.
We want to underline how the histological results proved that the samples collected after 106 days (Early protocol) with the adding of PRF were constituted by lamellar bone tissue with an interposed stroma that appeared relaxed and richly vascularized.
Conclusions. The use of PRF and piezosurgery reduced the healing time, compared to the 150 days described in literature, favoring optimal bone regeneration. At 106 days, it is already possible to achieve good primary stability of endosseous implants, though lacking of functional loading.
doi:10.7150/ijms.5119
PMCID: PMC3498752  PMID: 23155361
Reconstructive Surgery; Platelet Rich Fibrin; Grafting Materials; Bone replacement.
22.  Short report of an unusual ballistic trauma 
INTRODUCTION
Portable firearms have a relevant medico-legal interest, being a major cause of injury. Bullet entry wounds generally have a particular appearance, including contusion, skin introflection, and simple or excoriated ecchymosis. The skin wound is typically a hole with frayed margins, whose diameter is smaller than that of the bullet.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report the case of a 19-year-old man with ballistic trauma. Examination of the patient's lesions indicated that the bullet had entered from the left mandibular parasymphysis, creating a small hole without the typical bullet wipe and blackening. Subsequently, the bullet seemed to have fractured the left chin region immediately below the lower alveolar process, and it finally stopped in the submandibular area in the suprahyoid region of the neck.
DISCUSSION
This case is peculiar because the distinctive features of a firearm injury were absent; the lack of bleeding and edema made the case difficult to interpret without additional diagnostic investigations.
CONCLUSION
Ballistic trauma can manifest in different ways; therefore, internal trauma should be suspected even in the absence of clear external signs. This case report shows how an unusual bullet entry hole can mask quite serious injuries.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.08.009
PMCID: PMC3215265  PMID: 22096751
Ballistic trauma; Maxillofacial trauma; Firearm injury
23.  Odontostomatologic management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a retrospective multicentric study 
Introduction
Today, we frequently find patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), a prophylaxis against the occurrence of thromboembolic events. An oral surgeon needs to know how to better manage such patients, in order to avoid hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.
Materials and methods
A group of 193 patients (119 men aged between 46 and 82 and 74 women aged between 54 and 76) undergoing OAT for more than 5 years were managed with a standardized management protocol and a 2-months follow-up. The aim of the present study was to apply a protocol, which could provide a safe intra- and postoperative management of patients on OAT.
Results
Among the 193 patients, only 2 had postoperative complications.
Conclusions
We think that the protocol used in the present study can be used for complete safety in the treatment of this type of patients.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-5-5
PMCID: PMC3160425  PMID: 21771331
Oral Anticoagulant Therapy (OAT); Tranexamic Acid; Oral Surgery
24.  Non-Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the tongue: unusual intra-oral location 
Introduction
The expression non Hodgkin lymphoma is used to cover a wide group of lymphoid neoplasias unrelated to Hodgkin's disease, due to the huge histological variety and the tendency to affect organs and tissues that does not physiologically contain lymphoid cells.
The intraoral location is not frequent (3 - 5 percent of cases) and the initial manifestations of the disease rarely take place here.
Case presentation
We describe the case of a 73 years old Italian caucasian male who came to our attention with a tongue lesion. The clinical manifestation was macroglossia and bleeding, probably deriving from the tongue-bite injuries.
The patient had been complaining of dyspnea for 48 hours.
Conclusion
A tongue affected by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma rarely occurs. In spite of this, this possibility should always be considered for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions affecting such area.
A rapid diagnostic assessment, together with an adequate histopathologic verification, are indeed essential to improve the management and the prognosis of this disease.
doi:10.1186/1758-3284-3-1
PMCID: PMC3022892  PMID: 21205320
25.  Surgical Treatment of Depressed Scar: A Simple Technique 
Scar formation is a process consequent to the healing of soft tissues after a trauma. However, abnormal or disturbed collagen production can cause anomalies of the cutaneous surface and textural irregularities. In the presence of a depressed scar in deep tissue, we began to use a new simple technique. In the presence of adherent scars, a small incision is performed so that an undermining scissor can enter inside. The entire cicatricial area is undermined on a subcutaneous plane which, by separating the deep scar from the superficial one, completely frees it from the present adhesions so that the existing depression is totally eliminated. In order to avoid the recreation of relapses, stitches formed in a U-shape are made in Nylon or Monocril 2-3/0 are made with a large needle and are placed close together so that a wide aversion is achieved at the margins of the scar and a deep wound closure is obtained by adhering to the undermined tissue. These stitches will then be removed about 2 weeks later.
PMCID: PMC3119380  PMID: 21698056
Depressed scar; plastic surgery; subcision technique

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