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1.  Effects of laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP) in patients with type 2 diabetes, one year follow-up 
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Surgery is one of the most effective treatments for morbid obesity. In a prospective cohort study, we examined the effects of Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) as a new restrictive technique on remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
During six years of study from June 2007 through December 2013, 62 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were recruited for our study to determine the effects of weight loss. Sixty patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 were selected for a one year follow up period. The amount of weight loss, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), changes in the lipid profile, HbA1c and blood pressure were assessed during this period. The primary outcomes were safety and the percentage of patients experiencing diabetes remission.
Sixty patients with the mean age of 39.7 ± 12.8 years, ranging from 18 to 62 years, were enrolled in the study for an average 12 months of follow up. The maximal weight loss of 57 kg was achieved at average after six months. FBS significantly decreased during this period, and after one year, remission of diabetes was achieved in 92 % of patients. In five patients, diabetes was controlled with decrease in taking oral medications.
Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) resulted in significant and sustained weight loss with minimal physiologic changes in gastrointestinal tract and ameliorated blood glucose control of type 2 diabetes in morbid obese patients.
PMCID: PMC4504399  PMID: 26185747
Laparoscopic gastric plication; Diabetes; Obesity; Bariatric surgery
2.  Twelve year experience of laparoscopic gastric plication in morbid obesity: development of the technique and patient outcomes 
Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) is a new restrictive bariatric surgery, previously introduced by the author. The aim of this study is to explain the modifications and to present the 12-year experience, regarding early and long term results, complications and cost.
We used LGP for morbid obesity during the past 12 years. Anterior plication (10 cases), one-row bilateral plication while right gastroepiploic artery included (42 cases), and excluded from the plication (104 cases) and two-row plication (644 cases). The gastric greater curvature was plicated using 2/0 prolen from fundus at the level of diaphragm preserving the His angle to just proximal to the pylorus. The anatomic and functional volume of stomach was 50cc and 25cc respectively in two-row method. Ordered postop visits also included evaluation of weight loss, complications, change of diet and control of exercise.
LGP was performed in 800 cases (mean age: 27.5, range: 12 to 65 years, nine under 18). Female to male ratio was 81% to 19% and average BMI was 42.1 (35-59). The mean excess weight loss (EWL) was 70% (40% to 100%) after 24 months and 55% (28% to 100%) after 5 years following surgery. 134 cases (16.7%) did not completed long term follow-up. The average time of follow up was 5 years (1 month to 12 years). 5.5% and 31% of cases complained from weight regain respectively during 4 and 12 years after LGP. The mean time of operation was 72 (49–152) minutes and average hospitalization time was 72 hours (24 hours to 45 days). The cost of operation was 2000 $ less than gastric banding or sleeve and 2500 $ less than gastric bypass. Eight patients out of 800 cases (1%) required reoperation due to complications like: micro perforation, obstruction and vomiting following adhesion of His angle. Other complications included hepatitis pneumonia, self-limiting intra-abdominal bleeding and hypocalcaemia.
The percentage of EWL in this technique is comparable to other restrictive methods. The technique is safe with 1.6% complication (1% reoperated), and 31% regain during 12 years. The cost of operation is less than the other methods.
PMCID: PMC3444326  PMID: 22913751
Morbid obesity; Laparoscopy; Gastric plication; Restriction

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