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1.  Expandable Micro-motor Bur, design of a new device for least invasive extraction of broken teeth roots 
Background
Extraction of a broken tooth root is often a traumatic experience for both the practitioner and the patient. To extract broken roots, generally invasive approaches as open window surgeries or mucoperiosteal flap and/or removal of buccal bone are performed.
Presentation of the hypothesis
Expandable micro-motor bur (EMB) is a hypothetical design of a dental instrument proposed for removal of broken teeth roots that cannot be extracted by the routine closed methods and in which common instrumentations cannot afford to accomplish. Implication of EMB would introduce a new technique in removal of broken teeth roots in which surgical trauma is minimized and so post-extraction disorders. It would eliminate surgical invasion to the surrounding tissues; and also it would eliminate profound hand forces by the practitioner, consequently reduces stress for both the practitioner and the patient. It would eliminate high risk aftermaths such as operative morbidity (due to bone loss), maxillary sinus exposure and probable need for additional surgery as are indicative of some conventional open access approaches.
Testing the hypothesis
Further studies are needed to confirm its effect in clinical cases. The effectiveness of EMB should be verified firstly by animal experiments. The likelihood of its negative influence on nearby vascular and nerve system should be well evaluated.
Implications of the hypothesis
Implication of EMB would be of interest to both patients and the surgeon due to the following main achievements: a) no need for mucoperiosteal flap, hence preservation of soft tissue, b) no need for osteotomy, hence retention of buccal bone, c) less risk of sinus exposure, d) minimum chance of post operative infections due to eliminated surgeries in soft tissues and bones and e) in terms of esthetics, it will have a special meaning for immediate placement of dental implants. EMB’s structural components include Bur head, Spacers and Bur base. A micro motor would power its spin. In contrast to conventional surgical approaches, EMB procedure is conservative. It is anticipated that EMB would provide less traumatic and least post-operative complications in extraction of broken teeth roots.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-7-2
PMCID: PMC3641986  PMID: 23497515
Tooth extraction; Complicated root extraction; Expandable micro-motor bur; EMB
2.  Syringe micro vibrator (SMV) a new device being introduced in dentistry to alleviate pain and anxiety of intraoral injections, and a comparative study with a similar device 
Background
Neurologically, it is proven that stimulation of larger diameter fibers - e.g. using appropriate coldness, warmth, rubbing, pressure or vibration- can close the neural "gate" so that the central perception of itch and pain is reduced. This fact is based upon "Gate-control" theory of Melzack and Wall.
Presentation of the hypothesis
Syringe Micro Vibrator is a new design being introduced for the first time in the field of Dentistry. This device is a promising breakthrough in pain and anxiety management and may deliver solution for clinicians plagued with patient pain phobia. It has an off-set rotating micro vibration creator with ultra high frequency and ultra low altitude that can be easily placed on any standard dental syringe and some disposable syringes. This device was registered as an invention in dentistry and received Iran National Patent number of 63765.
Testing the hypothesis
By creating micro vibration, this device would be effective in reducing the pain and anxiety confronted with most types of intraoral injections as palatal, mandibular block, intraligamental and local infiltration. From the aspect of the patient pain management, this device contributes both physiologically (based on Gate Control Theory of pain) and psychologically (based on the device function as will be explained by dentist to the patient as a modern pain reducing technology). From the aspect of clinician, SMV motor provides vibrations with ultra high frequency to alleviate pain, but since it has ultra low vibration altitude, it has no adverse effect on the clinician dexterity and accuracy during injection and it does not interfere with pin point localization of injection site.
Implications of the hypothesis
Upon mounting on a conventional dental anesthesia injection syringe, SMV is switched on and the clinician then uses normal injection technique to administer the anesthetic. This device is not only a useful accessory device for ordinary patients, but also more useful for pediatric patients and those who have a phobia of intraoral injection or pain.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-5-1
PMCID: PMC3025000  PMID: 21211061

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