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author:("nadir, iran")
1.  Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:698461.
We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1) wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2) curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3) autoclaving for 8 minutes (4) bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used); (5) reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months), 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.
doi:10.1155/2013/698461
PMCID: PMC3878387  PMID: 24455717
2.  Impact of Unplanned Excision on Prognosis of Patients with Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma 
Sarcoma  2013;2013:498604.
Unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) outside comprehensive tumor management centers necessitates the need for wide reexcision to achieve adequate margins. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 135 patients with STS operated at our hospital with the goal of examining outcomes, in terms of local recurrence (LR) and metastasis rate (MR), of reexcision following unplanned excision of STS and comparing results with those of first-time planned surgery. Eighty-four patients had their first-time surgery and 51 patients had come to us following unplanned excision at prereferral hospital. Mean age of all patients was 41.8 ± 21.9 years. The LR and MR was 14.3% and 8.3%, respectively, in patients undergoing first resection, whereas it was 21.4% and 13.7%, respectively, in patients undergoing revision surgery. Average duration from previous unplanned excision was 8 months. Twelve patients were referred immediately after excised specimen revealed STS, while 39 patients presented after evident local recurrence. Wide reexcision was attempted in 48 patients while three patients need amputation. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered in all patients undergoing limb-sparing surgery. Ten patients needed adjuvant chemotherapy. We conclude that wide reexcision of STS has poorer outcomes compared to planned excision. Therefore, patients with soft tissue masses should be managed by multidisciplinary oncology team at specialized cancer centers.
doi:10.1155/2013/498604
PMCID: PMC3659434  PMID: 23737702
3.  Mortality from isolated coronary bypass surgery: a comparison of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the EuroSCORE risk prediction algorithms 
We compared the performances of the additive European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, EuroSCORE (AES) and logistic EuroSCORE (LES) with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' risk prediction algorithm in terms of discrimination and calibration in predicting mortality in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at a single institution in Pakistan. Both models were applied to 380 patients, operated upon at the Aga Khan University Hospital from August 2009 to July 2010. The actual mortality was 2.89%. The mean AES of all patients was 4.36 ± 3.58%, the mean LES was 5.96 ± 9.18% and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons' (STS) score was 2.30 ± 4.16%. The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test gave a P-value of 0.801 for AES, 0.699 for LES and 0.981 for STS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.866 for AES, 0.842 for LES and 0.899 for STS. STS outperformed AES and LES both in terms of calibration and discrimination. STS, however, underestimated mortality in the top 20% of patients having an STS score >2.88, thus overall STS estimates were lower than actual mortality. We conclude that STS is a more accurate model for risk assessment as compared to additive and logistic EuroSCORE models in the Pakistani population.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivr072
PMCID: PMC3290369  PMID: 22184465
European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation; Society of Thoracic Surgeons; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Risk stratification; Pakistan
4.  Managing soft tissue sarcomas in a developing country: are prognostic factors similar to those of developed world? 
Background
Managing soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in a developing country with limited financial resources and a poor health referral system is a challenge. Presenting late, these extremity STS are prone to recurrence despite apparently complete resection. This study aimed to explore and compare the impact of clinico-pathological factors on recurrence and survival in Pakistan with the corresponding figures quoted from the developed world.
Methods
An institutional review was performed on all patients with primary STS of the extremities operated on between 1994 and 2008. The prognostic influence of clinical, pathologic, and treatment variables on local recurrence free survival (LRFS), metastasis free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier survival curves.
Results
A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 41.8 ± 21.9 years were included in the study. The local recurrence rate was 14.3% after a median of 6 (mean 7.4) months. Metastases occurred in 7 patients (8.3%) and 65 patients were alive without evidence of disease after a mean follow-up of 52.6 ± 39.8 months. Tumor size > 5 cm, grade 3 tumors and margin < 10 mm significantly increased local recurrence rates. A margin ≥ 10 mm and age < 45 years significantly enhanced cumulative survival. Significant multivariate risk factors for metastases were margin < 10 mm and tumor grade G3.
Conclusions
Despite a poor health referral system in our country, our results are no different from those reported from the developed world. Surgical margins and tumor grade prognostically influenced LRFS, MFS and OS.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-188
PMCID: PMC3502247  PMID: 22974324
Soft tissue sarcoma; Developing country; Pakistan; Local recurrence; Prognostic factors; Survival
5.  Subacromial impingement syndrome 
Orthopedic Reviews  2012;4(2):e18.
Subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) represents a spectrum of pathology ranging from subacromial bursitis to rotator cuff tendinopathy and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The relationship between subacromial impingement and rotator cuff disease in the etiology of rotator cuff injury is a matter of debate. However, the etiology is multi-factorial, and it has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. Management includes physical therapy, injections, and, for some patients, surgery. No high-quality randomized controlled trials are available so far to provide possible evidence for differences in outcome of different treatment strategies. There remains a need for high-quality clinical research on the diagnosis and treatment of SAIS.
doi:10.4081/or.2012.e18
PMCID: PMC3395987  PMID: 22802986
subacromial impingement syndrome; subacromial bursitis; shoulder pain; rotator cuff tendinopathy.
6.  Emergency incisional hernia repair: a difficult problem waiting for a solution 
Background
Emergency repair of incarcerated incisional hernia with associated bowel obstruction in potentially or contaminated field is technically challenging due to edematous, inflamed and friable tissues with occasional need for concurrent bowel resection and carries high rates of post-operative infectious complications. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the wound related morbidity of use of permanent prosthetic mesh in emergency repair of incarcerated incisional hernia with associated bowel obstruction. We also describe a new technique of leaving the mesh exposed to heal by secondary intention with granulation tissue.
Methods
Between 2000 and 2010 a total of 60 patients underwent emergency surgery for incarcerated incisional hernia with associated bowel obstruction with placement of permanent prosthetic mesh. The wound was closed after hernia repair in 55 patients while it was left open to granulate in 5 patients.
Results
In the group of patients with primary wound closure, 11 patients developed superficial surgical site infection, 5 developed deep wound infection and one patient had cellulitis. These patients were treated with wound debridement and antibiotics. Mesh removal was required in one patient. There were no infections in the group of patients who had their surgical wounds left open. One patient in this group died on the fifth postoperative day from septicemia.
Conclusion
Use of permanent prosthetic mesh in emergency repair of incarcerated incisional hernia with associated bowel obstruction. in contaminated field is associated with high risk of wound infection.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-6-1
PMCID: PMC3261089  PMID: 22216761
Obstructed hernia; Incisional hernia; Emergency hernia repair
7.  Isolated adult hypoganglionosis presenting as sigmoid volvulus: a case report 
Introduction
Isolated hypoganglionosis is a rare cause of intestinal innervation defects. It is characterized by sparse and small myenteric ganglia, absent or low acetylcholinesterase activity in the lamina propria and hypertrophy of the muscularis mucosae, principally in the region of the colon and rectum. It accounts for 5% of all intestinal neuronal malformations. To the best of our knowledge, only 92 cases of isolated hypoganglionosis were reported from 1978 to 2009. Isolated hypoganglionosis usually manifests as enterocolitis or poor bowel function, and is diagnosed in infancy or childhood. We report the first case of isolated hypoganglionosis presenting with sigmoid volvulus in a 34-year-old woman.
Case presentation
A 34-year-old Asian woman had progressively increasing abdominal pain and had not passed stool or flatus for two days. A physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with sluggish gut sounds. A computerized tomography (CT) scan demonstrated gross dilatation of the sigmoid colon (maximal diameter 14.3 cm) suggestive of sigmoid volvulus. During emergency laparotomy, sigmoidectomy with a side-to-side colorectal anastomosis was performed. Histopathology of the resected specimen showed occasional ganglion cells and hypertrophied nerve bundles in the muscle layers, suggesting hypoganglionosis. Colonoscopy was performed, and multiple full-thickness biopsies were taken that showed hypoganglionosis of the entire large bowel. Our patient underwent total colectomy with an ileorectal anastomosis. Subsequently our patient reported a dramatic improvement in her bowel function.
Conclusions
Isolated hypoganglionosis is a rare cause of intestinal dysganglionosis and cannot be differentiated from Hirschsprung's disease based on clinical presentation. This case report describes an atypical presentation of the disease. A definitive diagnosis requires histopathological analysis of full-thickness intestinal biopsies. Treatment should be tailored to the extent of hypoganglionosis.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-445
PMCID: PMC3179760  PMID: 21902826

Results 1-7 (7)