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1.  Endovascular retreatment of a splenic artery aneurysm refilled by collateral branches of the left gastric artery: a case report 
Introduction
A rare case of a splenic artery aneurysm refilled by a hypertrophic branch originating from the left gastric artery retreated with an endovascular approach is reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature.
Case presentation
A hilum splenic artery aneurysm of a 43-year-old Caucasian woman was treated with endovascular ligature. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed after 1 month revealed reperfusion of the aneurysm and a new angiogram demonstrated a hypertrophic vessel from her left gastric artery supplying the sac of the aneurysm. It was catheterized by splenic hilum branches and it was embolized with coil and glue. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed after 3 months confirmed complete exclusion of the sac of the aneurysm.
Conclusions
Our patient represents the first rare case of a splenic artery aneurysm refilled from a branch of her left gastric artery not visible at first at angiography or at contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed after 1 month; it was revealed at the second angiography and it was definitively embolized. These eventualities and possibilities of treatment, although rare, should be kept in mind for each patient with similar presentation.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-436
PMCID: PMC4301936  PMID: 25515847
Endovascular treatment; Left gastric artery supplying; Splenic aneurysm
2.  Postoperative “Chimney” for Unintentional Renal Artery Occlusion after EVAR 
Renal artery obstruction during endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm using standard device is a rare but life-threatening complication and should be recognized and repaired rapidly in order to maintain renal function. Both conventional surgery and endovascular stenting have been reported. We report a case of late postoperative bilateral “chimney” to resolve a bilateral thrombosis of the renal artery following an uncomplicated endovascular aortic repair.
doi:10.1155/2014/170198
PMCID: PMC4247940  PMID: 25478283
3.  A Case of Continuous Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for Abdominal Infected Lymphocele after Kidney Transplantation 
Lymphocele is a common complication after kidney transplantation. Although superinfection is a rare event, it generates a difficult management problem; generally, open surgical drainage is the preferred method of treatment but it may lead to complicated postoperative course and prolonged healing time. Negative pressure wound therapy showed promising outcomes in various surgical disciplines and settings. We present a case of an abdominal infected lymphocele after kidney transplantation managed with open surgery and negative pressure wound therapy.
doi:10.1155/2014/742161
PMCID: PMC4206933  PMID: 25374744
4.  Vascular Fluorescence Imaging Control for Complex Renal Artery Aneurysm Repair Using Laparoscopic Nephrectomy and Autotransplantation 
Intraoperative fluorescent imaging using indocyanine green enables vascular surgeons to confirm the location and states of the reconstructed vessels during surgery. Complex renal artery aneurysm repair involving second order branch vessels has been performed with different techniques. We present a case of ex vivo repair and autotransplantation combining the advantages of minimally invasive surgery and indocyanine green enhanced fluorescence imaging to facilitate vascular anatomy recognition and visualization of organ reperfusion.
doi:10.1155/2014/563408
PMCID: PMC4142551  PMID: 25177511
5.  Open fenestration for complicated acute aortic B dissection 
Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery  2014;3(4):418-422.
Acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) is a serious cardiovascular emergency in which morbidity and mortality are often related to the presence of complications at clinical presentation. Visceral, renal, and limb ischemia occur in up to 30% of patients with ABAD and are associated with higher in-hospital mortality. The aim of the open fenestration is to resolve the malperfusion by creating a single aortic lumen at the suprarenal or infrarenal level. This surgical procedure is less invasive than total aortic replacement, thus not requiring extracorporeal support and allowing preservation of the intercostal arteries, which results in decreased risk of paraplegia. Surgical aortic fenestration represents an effective and durable option for treating ischemic complications of ABAD, particularly for patients with no aortic dilatation. In the current endovascular era, this open technique serves as an alternative option in case of contraindications or failure of endovascular management of complicated ABAD.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2225-319X.2014.07.08
PMCID: PMC4128920  PMID: 25133107
Acute type B aortic dissection; open fenestration; malperfusion
6.  Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: long-term follow-up of endovascular versus open repair 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2014;10(2):273-282.
Introduction
To compare early and long-term outcomes of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) versus open repair (OPEN). Design: Prospective observational, per protocol, non-randomized, with retrospective analyses.
Material and methods
Between 2000 and 2005, a total of 311 patients having EVAR or OPEN repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified and included in this prospective single-center observational study. A propensity score-based optimal-matching algorithm was employed, and 138 patients undergoing EVAR procedures were matched (1: 1) to OPEN repair.
Results
Open repair showed higher hospital mortality (17% vs. 6%, p = 0.004), respiratory failure (p < 0.026), transfusion requirement (p < 0.001), and intensive care unit admission (27% vs. 7%, p < 0.001), and longer hospitalization (p < 0.001). Median follow-up was 70 months (25th to 75th percentile, 24 to 101). Actuarial survival estimates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 93%, 74%, 49% for the OPEN group compared to 89%, 69%, 59% for the EVAR group (p = 0.465). A significant difference between groups was observed in younger patients (< 75 years) only (p < 0.044). Late complication and re-intervention rates were significantly higher in EVAR patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Freedom from late complications at 1, 5 and 10 years was 96%, 92%, 86%, and 84%, 70%, 64% for OPEN and EVAR procedures, respectively.
Conclusions
Our experience confirms the excellent results of the EVAR procedures, offering excellent early and long-term results in terms of safety and reduction of mortality. Patients < 75 years seem to benefit from EVAR not only in the immediate postoperative period but even in a long-term perspective.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2014.42579
PMCID: PMC4042047  PMID: 24904660
abdominal aortic aneurysms; long-term results; aneurysm mortality
7.  Bedside Tool for Predicting the Risk of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery: The POAF Score 
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common complication after cardiac surgery. The present study aim was to derive an effective bedside tool to predict postoperative AF and its related complications.
Methods and Results
Data of 17 262 patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery were retrieved at 3 European university hospitals. A risk score for postoperative AF (POAF score) was derived and validated. In the overall series, 4561 patients (26.4%) developed postoperative AF. In the derivation cohort age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emergency operation, preoperative intra‐aortic balloon pump, left ventricular ejection fraction <30%, estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min per m2 or dialysis, and any heart valve surgery were independent AF predictors. POAF score was calculated by summing weighting points for each independent AF predictor. According to the prediction model, the incidences of postoperative AF in the derivation cohort were 0, 11.1%; 1, 20.1%; 2, 28.7%; and ≥3, 40.9% (P<0.001), and in the validation cohort they were 0, 13.2%; 1, 19.5%; 2, 29.9%; and ≥3, 42.5% (P<0.001). Patients with a POAF score ≥3, compared with those without arrhythmia, revealed an increased risk of hospital mortality (5.5% versus 3.2%, P=0.001), death after the first postoperative day (5.1% versus 2.6%, P<0.001), cerebrovascular accident (7.8% versus 4.2%, P<0.001), acute kidney injury (15.1% versus 7.1%, P<0.001), renal replacement therapy (3.8% versus 1.4%, P<0.001), and length of hospital stay (mean 13.2 versus 10.2 days, P<0.001).
Conclusions
The POAF score is a simple, accurate bedside tool to predict postoperative AF and its related or accompanying complications.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000752
PMCID: PMC4187480  PMID: 24663335
antiarrhythmic prevention; atrial fibrillation; cardiac surgery; risk stratification
8.  Gene Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Endothelial Cells from Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease Is Reduced after Surgical Revascularization and Pharmacological Treatment 
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by immunological activity, in which endothelial dysfunction represents an early event leading to subsequent inflammatory vascular damage. We investigated gene expression of the adhesion molecules (AMs) ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and β1-integrin in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from venous blood (circulating EC, cEC) and purified from femoral plaques (pEC) obtained from 9 patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) submitted to femoral artery thrombendarterectomy (FEA). In addition, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the same subjects, we investigated gene expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β, and IL-10. Patients were longitudinally evaluated 1 month before surgery, when statin treatment was established, at the time of surgery, and after 2 and 5 months. All AM mRNA levels, measured by means of real-time PCR, in cEC diminished during the study, up to 41–50% of initial levels at followup. AM mRNA expression was significantly higher in pEC than in cEC. During the study, in PBMCs, TGF-β and IL-10 mRNA levels remained unchanged while IFN-γ and IL-4 levels increased; however, the ratio IFN-γ/IL-4 showed no significant modification. In PAD patients, FEA and statin treatment induce a profound reduction of AM expression in cEC and affect cytokine mRNA expression in PBMCs.
doi:10.1155/2013/412761
PMCID: PMC3600181  PMID: 23533763
9.  Gross hematuria caused by a congenital intrarenal arteriovenous malformation: a case report 
Introduction
We report the case of a woman who presented with gross hematuria and was treated with a percutaneous embolization.
Case presentation
A 48-year-old Caucasian woman presented with gross hematuria, left flank pain, and clot retention. The patient had no history of renal trauma, hypertension, urolithiasis, or recent medical intervention with percutaneous instrumentation. The patient did not report any bleeding disorder and was not taking any medication. Her systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were normal at presentation. The patient had anemia (8 mg/dL) and tachycardia (110 bpm). She underwent color and spectral Doppler sonography, multi-slice computed tomography, and angiography of the kidneys, which showed a renal arteriovenous malformation pole on top of the left kidney.
Conclusions
The feeding artery of the arteriovenous malformation was selectively embolized with a microcatheter introduced using a right transfemoral approach. By using this technique, we stopped the bleeding, preserved renal parenchymal function, and relieved the patient's symptoms. The hemodynamic effects associated with the abnormality were also corrected.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-510
PMCID: PMC3206864  PMID: 21982481
11.  Microdialysis assessment of peripheral metabolism in critical limb ischemia after endovascular revascularization 
Background
Critical limb ischemia is a chronic pathologic condition defined by the lack of blood flow in peripheral circulation. Microdialysis is a well-known and sensitive method for the early detection of tissue ischemia. The aim of the present study was to use microdialysis in order to analyse cellular metabolism changes after peripheral endovascular revascularization.
Methods
Ten patients diagnosed with critical limb ischemia was enrolled. CMA 60 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) catheter with a 20 kDa cut-off was placed subcutaneously on the anterior aspect of the foot of both limbs. Samples were collected starting 12-hours before surgery and throughout the following 72-hours, using a CMA 600 (CMA® - Solna, Sweden) microdialysis analyser.
Results
Technical revascularization was successful in all cases. The cannulation was well tolerated in all patients. The site of catheter insertion healed easily in few days without infective complications in any case. Two patients underwent major amputation. After revascularization, glucose showed a strong increase (mean, 5.86 ± 1.52 mMol/L, p = .008). No restoration of the circadian rhythm was noted in patients who underwent major amputation. Glycerol concentration curves were not deductibles in both the ischemic and the control limbs (mean, 148.43 ± 42.13 mMol/L vs 178.44 ± 75.93 mMol/L, p = .348). Within the first 24-hours after revascularization, lactate concentration raised strongly (6.58 ± 1.56 mMol/L, p = .002): thereafter, it immediately decreased to a concentration similar to the control level (1.71 ± 1.69 mMol/L). In both patients who underwent major amputation, lactate did not show the typical peak of the successful revascularization. The trend of the lactate/pyruvate ratio after a brief initial decrease of the ratio increased again in both the patients who finally underwent amputation.
Conclusions
Restoration of glucose and glycerol circadian rhythm, coupled with low lactate concentration and lactate/pyruvate ratio seemed to be linked to good surgical outcome.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-3-17
PMCID: PMC2809054  PMID: 20043828
12.  Complications after endovascular stent-grafting of thoracic aortic diseases 
Background
To update our experience with thoracic aortic stent-graft treatment over a 5-year period, with special consideration for the occurrence and management of complications.
Methods
From December 2000 to June 2006, 52 patients with thoracic aortic pathologies underwent endovascular repair; there were 43 males (83%) and 9 females, mean age 63 ± 19 years (range 17–87). Fourteen patients (27%) were treated for degenerative thoracic aortic aneurysm, 12 patients (24%) for penetrating aortic ulcer, 8 patients (15%) for blunt traumatic injury, 7 patients (13%) for acute type B dissection, 6 patients (11%) for a type B dissecting aneurysm; 5 patients (10%) with thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms were excluded from the analyses. Fifteen patients (32%) underwent emergency treatment. Overall, mean EuroSCORE was 9 ± 3 (median 15, range 3–19). All procedures were performed in the theatre under general anesthesia. All complications occurring during hospitalisation were recorded. Follow-up protocol featured CT-A, and chest X-rays 1, 4 and 12 months after intervention, and annually thereafter.
Results
Primary technical success was achieved in all patients; procedures never aborted because of access difficulty. Conversion to standard open repair was never required. Mean duration of the procedure was 119 ± 75 minutes (median 90, range 45–285). Mean blood loss was 254 mL (range 50–1200 mL). The mean length of the aorta covered by the SGs was 192 ± 21 mm (range 100–360). The LSA was over-stented in 17 cases (17/47, 36%). Overall 30-day operative mortality was 6.4% (3/47). Major complications included pneumonia (n = 9), cerebrovascular accidents (n = 4), arrhythmia (n = 4), acute renal failure (n = 3), and colic ischemia (n = 1). Overall, endoleak rate was 14%.
Conclusion
Although this report is a retrospective and not comparative analysis of thoracic aortic repair, the combined minor and major morbidity rate was lower than previous reported to results of either electively and emergency performed conventional repair.
doi:10.1186/1749-8090-1-26
PMCID: PMC1574296  PMID: 16968547
13.  Surgical treatment of malignant involvement of the inferior vena cava 
Background
Resection and replacement of the inferior vena cava to remove malignant disease is a formidable procedure. The purpose of this review is to describe our experience with regard to patient selection, operative technique, and early and late outcome.
Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed a 12-year series of 11 patients; there were 10 males, with a mean age 57 ± 13 years (range 27–72) who underwent caval thrombectomy and/or resection for primary (n = 9) or recurrent (n = 2) vena cava tumours. Tumour location and type, clinical presentation, the segment of vena cava treated, graft patency, and tumour recurrence and survival data were collected. Late follow-up data were available for all patients. Graft patency was determined before hospital discharge and in follow-up by CT scan or ultrasonography. More than 80% of patients had symptoms from their caval involvement. The most common pathologic diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma (n = 6), and hepatocarcinoma (n = 2). In all but 2 patients, inferior vena cava surgical treatment was associated with multivisceral resection, including extended nephrectomy (n = 5), resection of neoplastic mass (n = 3), major hepatic resection (n = 2), and adrenal gland resection (n = 1). Prosthetic repair was performed in 5 patients (45%).
Results
There were no early deaths. Major complications occurred in 1 patient (9%). Mean length of stay was 16 days. Late graft thrombosis or infection did not occur. The mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 6–60). There have been no other late graft-related complications. All late deaths were caused by the progression of malignant disease and the actuarial survival rate was 100% at 1 year. Mean survival was 31 months (median 15).
Conclusion
Aggressive surgical management may offer the only chance for cure or palliation for patients with primary or secondary caval tumours. Our experience confirms that vena cava surgery for tumours may be performed safely with low graft-related morbidity and good patency in carefully selected patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-3-19
PMCID: PMC1574333  PMID: 16911808

Results 1-13 (13)