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1.  Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Associate with Microbiogical Agents in Periodontal Disease: Our Experience 
Periodontics has evolved from a simplistic model to a more complex interplay between infection and host response. Genetic factors have been a new addition to the list of risk factors for periodontal diseases. The processes leading to destruction and regeneration of the destroyed tissues are of great interest to both researchers and clinicians.
The selective susceptibility of subjects for periodontitis has remained an enigma and wide varieties of risk factors have been implicated for the manifestation and progression of periodontitis. Emerging pathway models suggest that gene-environment interactions are etiologically important in disease pathogenesis. The current practical utility of genetic knowledge in periodontitis is limited.
Allelic variants at multiple gene loci probably influence periodontitis susceptibility. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key modulator of host responses to microbial infection and a major modulator of extracellular matrix catabolism and bone resorption, and polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster have been associated with an increased risk of developing severe adult periodontitis.
The aim of this study was to test if polymorphisms of genes of IL-1α+4845 and IL-1β +3954 were linked with periodontitis, in a case-control study population, delimited to a specific geographic area, in association with microbiological findings.
The polymorphisms observed in IL-1α+4845 and IL-1β+3954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was significantly different among the study groups (healthy controls, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis with p<0.05, d.f.=1.
We found a significant correlation between the severe form of periodontitis and the presence of composite genotype (p < 0.05, d.f.=1, calculated among healthy vs. severe). Furthermore a statistically significant association between the presence of bacteria and periodontitis was detected (p<0.05, d.f.=1). In the current investigation findings were concordant with literature observations.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6962
PMCID: PMC4025165  PMID: 24843315
Periodontal disease; Single nucleotide polymorphisms; Interleukin-1; Genetic factors; Oral Microbiology.
2.  Odontostomatologic management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a retrospective multicentric study 
Introduction
Today, we frequently find patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), a prophylaxis against the occurrence of thromboembolic events. An oral surgeon needs to know how to better manage such patients, in order to avoid hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications.
Materials and methods
A group of 193 patients (119 men aged between 46 and 82 and 74 women aged between 54 and 76) undergoing OAT for more than 5 years were managed with a standardized management protocol and a 2-months follow-up. The aim of the present study was to apply a protocol, which could provide a safe intra- and postoperative management of patients on OAT.
Results
Among the 193 patients, only 2 had postoperative complications.
Conclusions
We think that the protocol used in the present study can be used for complete safety in the treatment of this type of patients.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-5-5
PMCID: PMC3160425  PMID: 21771331
Oral Anticoagulant Therapy (OAT); Tranexamic Acid; Oral Surgery
3.  Surgical treatment of gingival overgrowth with 10 years of follow-up 
Head & Face Medicine  2010;6:19.
Background
In some pathological conditions, gingivitis caused by plaque accumulation can be more severe, with the result of an overgrowth. Nevertheless, the overgrowth involves the gingival margin with extension to the inter-dental papilla. The lesion may involve the inter-proximal spaces, and become so extensive that the teeth are displaced and their crowns covered. Severe overgrowth may lead to impairment in aesthetic and masticatory functions, requiring surgical excision of the excessive tissue. Aim of this study is to describe an operative protocol for the surgical treatment of localized gingival overgrowth analyzing the surgical technique, times and follow-up.
Methods
A total of 20 patients were enrolled and underwent initial, non surgical, periodontal treatment and training sessions on home oral hygiene training. The treatment plan involved radical exeresis of the mass followed by positioning of an autograft of connective tissue and keratinized gingiva.
Results
During 10 years of follow-up, all the grafts appeared well vascularized, aesthetically satisfactory, and without relapse.
Conclusions
Periodontal examinations, surgical procedures, and dental hygiene with follow-up are an essential part of the treatment protocol. However, additional effort is needed from the patient. Hopefully, the final treatment result makes it all worthwhile.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-6-19
PMCID: PMC2931464  PMID: 20704737

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