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1.  Polymicrobial subdural empyema: involvement of Streptococcus pneumoniae revealed by lytA PCR and antigen detection 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0920103344.
The authors report a case of a subdural empyema (SDE) caused by a coinfection with Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus pneumoniae, initially considered a S intermedius infection only. An otherwise healthy 11-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after 5 days of illness. Symptoms were consistent with classical SDE symptoms and progressed rapidly with finally somnolence before the first neurosurgical procedure despite relevant antibiotic treatment. Primary MRI showed an interhemispheric SDE and a postoperative control CT scan showed progression of the empyema infratentorially. The empyema was evacuated twice, day 8 and 18, with good results. Primary samples showed growth of S intermedius only. The severity of the clinical picture elicited supplementary samples, which were additionally positive for S pneumoniae by an in-house specific lytA PCR and/or a commercial antigen test.
doi:10.1136/bcr.09.2010.3344
PMCID: PMC3062830  PMID: 22707602
2.  Internal gallbladder drainage prevents development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model: a randomized study 
Background
Acute cholecystitis can be the result of retention of bile in the gallbladder with possible secondary infection and ischaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether internal drainage of the gallbladder could protect against the development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model.
Materials and methods
Twenty pigs were randomized to either internal drainage (drained) or not (undrained). Day 0 acute cholecystitis was induced by ligation of the cystic artery and duct together with inoculation of bacteria. Four days later the pigs were killed and the gallbladders were removed and histologically scored for the presence of cholecystitis. Bile and blood samples were collected for bacterial culturing and biochemical analyses.
Results
The histological examination demonstrated statistical significant differences in acute cholecystitis development between groups, the degree of inflammation being highest in undrained pigs. There were no differences in bacterial cultures between the two groups.
Conclusion
Internal drainage of the gallbladder protected against the development of acute cholecystitis in the present pig model. These findings support the theory that gallstone impaction of the cystic duct plays a crucial role as a pathogenetic mechanism in the development of acute cholecystitis and suggest that internal drainage may be a way to prevent and treat acute cholecystitis.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-4-4
PMCID: PMC2890535  PMID: 20504296
3.  Neisseria gonorrhoeae Endocarditis Confirmed by Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays Performed on Aortic Valve Tissue▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2008;47(3):865-867.
The Aptima Combo 2 assay is proposed as a rapid method of diagnosing Neisseria gonorrhoeae endocarditis or other suspected disseminated gonococcal disease.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01704-08
PMCID: PMC2650910  PMID: 19109481
4.  Psychosocial impact of Chlamydia trachomatis testing in general practice 
Background
Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are widespread, and each year many tests are performed in general practice.
Aim
First, to quantify the magnitude of stigmatisation, problems related to partner, and anxiety of infertility among men and women tested for C. trachomatis in general practice. Second, to investigate the effect of a C. trachomatis test result on planned future condom use.
Design of study
Comparative cross-sectional study.
Setting
General practices in Aarhus County, Denmark.
Method
Men and women tested for C. trachomatis in general practice were given a questionnaire about feelings of stigmatisation, fear of partner's reaction, fear of future infertility and other psychosocial side effects related to being infected or not infected with C. trachomatis.
Results
A total of 277 participated in the study. The response rates were 61% (82/135) and 54% (195/365) among infected and non-infected individuals, respectively. Among the infected individuals 32% (9/28) of the men's partners and 35% (19/54) of the women's partners were upset about the test result, 9% (5/54) of the women and 11% (3/28) of the men split with their partner, 59% (32/54) of the women and 54% (15/28) of the men expressed nervousness about infertility, and 91% (19/21) of the women but only 56% (5/9) of the men said that they would use a condom more often in the future. All these figures were significantly lower for both men and women having C. trachomatis negative test results.
Conclusion
A chlamydia test affects the individual in terms of sexuality, relation to partner, reproduction, and future contraceptive strategy. The influence is highest among women and individuals with a positive test result. These findings should be taken into account in screening programmes targeting young women and men.
PMCID: PMC1874522  PMID: 16882376
Chlamydia trachomatis; general practice; psychosocial factors; screening

Results 1-5 (5)