Knowledge remains limited regarding cerebral blood flow autoregulation after cardiac arrest and during post-resuscitation hypothermia. We determined the relationship of cerebral blood flow to cerebral perfusion pressure in a swine model of pediatric hypoxic-asphyxic cardiac arrest during normothermia and hypothermia and tested novel measures of autoregulation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy.
Prospective, balanced animal study.
Basic physiology laboratory at an academic institution.
Eighty-four neonatal swine.
Piglets underwent hypoxic-asphyhxic cardiac arrest or sham surgery and recovered for 2 hours with normothermia followed by 4 hours of either moderate hypothermia or normothermia. In half of the groups, blood pressure was slowly decreased through inflation of a balloon catheter in the inferior vena cava to identify the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation at 6 hours post-resuscitation. In the remaining groups, blood pressure was gradually increased by inflation of a balloon catheter in the aorta to determine the autoregulatory response to hypertension. Measures of autoregulation obtained from standard laser-Doppler flowmetry and indices derived from near-infrared spectroscopy were compared.
Measurements and Main Results
Laser-Doppler flux was lower in post-arrest animals compared to sham-operated controls during the 2-hour normothermic period after resuscitation. During the subsequent 4-hour recovery, hypothermia decreased laser-Doppler flux in both the sham surgery and post-arrest groups. Autoregulation was intact during hypertension in all groups. With arterial hypotension, post-arrest, hypothermic piglets had a significant decrease in the perfusion pressure lower limit of autoregulation compared to post-arrest, normothermic piglets. The near-infrared spectroscopy-derived measures of autoregulation accurately detected loss of autoregulation during hypotension.
In a pediatric model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, delayed induction of hypothermia decreased cerebral perfusion and decreased the lower limit of autoregulation. Metrics derived from non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy accurately identified the lower limit of autoregulation during normothermia and hypothermia in piglets resuscitated from arrest.