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1.  Interactions between immunity, proliferation and molecular subtype in breast cancer prognosis 
Genome Biology  2013;14(4):R34.
Background
Gene expression signatures indicative of tumor proliferative capacity and tumor-immune cell interactions have emerged as principal biology-driven predictors of breast cancer outcomes. How these signatures relate to one another in biological and prognostic contexts remains to be clarified.
Results
To investigate the relationship between proliferation and immune gene signatures, we analyzed an integrated dataset of 1,954 clinically annotated breast tumor expression profiles randomized into training and test sets to allow two-way discovery and validation of gene-survival associations. Hierarchical clustering revealed a large cluster of distant metastasis-free survival-associated genes with known immunological functions that further partitioned into three distinct immune metagenes likely reflecting B cells and/or plasma cells; T cells and natural killer cells; and monocytes and/or dendritic cells. A proliferation metagene allowed stratification of cases into proliferation tertiles. The prognostic strength of these metagenes was largely restricted to tumors within the highest proliferation tertile, though intrinsic subtype-specific differences were observed in the intermediate and low proliferation tertiles. In highly proliferative tumors, high tertile immune metagene expression equated with markedly reduced risk of metastasis whereas tumors with low tertile expression of any one of the three immune metagenes were associated with poor outcome despite higher expression of the other two metagenes.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that a productive interplay among multiple immune cell types at the tumor site promotes long-term anti-metastatic immunity in a proliferation-dependent manner. The emergence of a subset of effective immune responders among highly proliferative tumors has novel prognostic ramifications.
doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14-4-r34
PMCID: PMC3798758  PMID: 23618380
Breast cancer; gene signatures; hierarchical clustering; immune metagene; intrinsic subtypes; metagene tertiles; multivariable analysis; prognosis; proliferation metagene; survival analysis
2.  Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank 
Clinical Epidemiology  2010;2:51-56.
Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens.
PMCID: PMC2943174  PMID: 20865103
cohort profile; epidemiology; paraffin blocks; pathology
3.  Internal gallbladder drainage prevents development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model: a randomized study 
Background
Acute cholecystitis can be the result of retention of bile in the gallbladder with possible secondary infection and ischaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether internal drainage of the gallbladder could protect against the development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model.
Materials and methods
Twenty pigs were randomized to either internal drainage (drained) or not (undrained). Day 0 acute cholecystitis was induced by ligation of the cystic artery and duct together with inoculation of bacteria. Four days later the pigs were killed and the gallbladders were removed and histologically scored for the presence of cholecystitis. Bile and blood samples were collected for bacterial culturing and biochemical analyses.
Results
The histological examination demonstrated statistical significant differences in acute cholecystitis development between groups, the degree of inflammation being highest in undrained pigs. There were no differences in bacterial cultures between the two groups.
Conclusion
Internal drainage of the gallbladder protected against the development of acute cholecystitis in the present pig model. These findings support the theory that gallstone impaction of the cystic duct plays a crucial role as a pathogenetic mechanism in the development of acute cholecystitis and suggest that internal drainage may be a way to prevent and treat acute cholecystitis.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-4-4
PMCID: PMC2890535  PMID: 20504296
4.  XIAP-mediated Caspase Inhibition in Hodgkin's Lymphoma–derived B Cells 
The malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and HL-derived B cell lines were previously shown to be resistant to different apoptotic stimuli. We show here that cytochrome c fails to stimulate caspases-9 and -3 activation in cytosolic extracts of HL-derived B cells, which is due to high level expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that XIAP, apoptosis protease-activating factor–1, and caspase-3 are complexed in HL-derived B cell lysates. Even after stimulation with exogenous cytochrome c and dATP, XIAP impairs the proteolytic processing and activation of caspase-3. In cytosolic extracts, inhibition of XIAP by the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac)/DIABLO, or immunodepletion of XIAP restores cytochrome c–triggered processing and activation of caspase-3. Smac or a Smac-derived agonistic peptide also sensitized intact HL-derived B cells for the apoptotic action of staurosporine. Finally, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of primary tumor HL tissues also constitutively and abundantly express XIAP. The results of this paper suggest that high level XIAP expression is a hallmark of HL, which may play a crucial role in resistance to apoptosis.
doi:10.1084/jem.20021279
PMCID: PMC2194071  PMID: 12874265
cancer; tumor; apoptosis; mitochondria; Smac/DIABLO

Results 1-4 (4)