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HPB Surgery (2)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research (1)
Cherqui, Daniel (2)
Cherqui, Daniel (1)
Broelsch, Christoph E. (1)
Brown, Silas B. (1)
Chouillard, Elie K (1)
Emond, Jean C. (1)
Fagniez, Pierre-Louis (1)
Gumbs, Andrew A (1)
Jaeck, Daniel (1)
Michel, Mireille (1)
Panis, Yves (1)
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Roche, Alain (1)
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Schaal, Jean-Claude (1)
Whitington, Peter F. (1)
Year of Publication
Vascular clamping in liver surgery: physiology, indications and techniques
Chouillard, Elie K
Gumbs, Andrew A
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research
This article reviews the historical evolution of hepatic vascular clamping and their indications. The anatomic basis for partial and complete vascular clamping will be discussed, as will the rationales of continuous and intermittent vascular clamping.
Specific techniques discussed and described include inflow clamping (Pringle maneuver, extra-hepatic selective clamping and intraglissonian clamping) and outflow clamping (total vascular exclusion, hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow). The fundamental role of a low Central Venous Pressure during open and laparoscopic hepatectomy is described, as is the difference in their intra-operative measurements. The biological basis for ischemic preconditioning will be elucidated. Although the potential dangers of vascular clamping and the development of modern coagulation devices question the need for systemic clamping; the pre-operative factors and unforseen intra-operative events that mandate the use of hepatic vascular clamping will be highlighted.
Successful Arterial Embolisation of Giant Liver Haemangioma
A 28-year old man presented with a symptomatic giant haemangioma. On June 26, 1983, at laparotomy, no resection was attempted because the lesion involved the right lobe of the liver and a part of segments II and III. The patient underwent a right hepatic arterial embolisation with gelatine sponge particles. During follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic. Five-year review by CT-scan showed a diminution of the size of the haemangioma and hypertrophy of the left lobe. On October 21, 1988, the patient was reoperated on for liver abscess and complete necrosis of the haemangioma. A right hepatectomy was performed. In conclusion, the long-term effect of hepatic arterial embolisation, as demonstrated in our case by regular CT-scans, is useful in cases of diffuse haemangioma as an alternative to hazardous major liver resection. To our knowledge, the long-term effect of hepatic arterial embolisation on symptoms and tumor size have never been reported for giant liver haemangioma.
Segmental Liver Transplantation From Living Donors Report of the Technique and Preliminary Results in Dogs
Emond, Jean C.
Brown, Silas B.
Whitington, Peter F.
Broelsch, Christoph E.
A technique of orthotopic liver transplantation using a segmental graft from living donors was developed in the dog. Male mongrel dogs weighing 25–30 kg were used as donors and 10–15 kg as recipients. The donor operation consists of harvesting the left lobe of the liver (left medial and left lateral segments) with the left branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct, and the left hepatic vein. The grafts are perfused in situ through the left portal branch to prevent warm ischemia. The recipient operation consists of two phases: 1total hepatectomy with preservation of the inferior vena cava using total vascular exclusion of the liver and veno-venous bypass, 2implantation of the graft in the orthotopic position with anastomosis of the left hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava and portal, arterial and biliary reconstruction. Preliminary experiments consisted of four autologous left lobe transplants and nine non survival allogenic left lobe transplants. Ten survival experiments were conducted. There were no intraoperative deaths in the donors and none required transfusions. One donor died of sepsis, but all the other donor dogs survived without complication. Among the 10 grafts harvested, one was not used because of insufficient bile duct and artery. Two recipients died intraoperatively of air embolus and cardiac arrest at the time of reperfusion. Three dogs survived, two for 24 hours and one for 48 hours. They were awake and alert a few hours after surgery, but eventually died of pulmonary edema in 2 cases and of an unknown reason in the other. Four dogs died 2–12 hours postoperatively as a result of hemorrhage for the graft's transected surface. An outflow block after reperfusion was deemed to be the cause of hemorrhage in these cases. On histologic examination of the grafts, there were no signs of ischemic necrosis or preservation damage.
This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of living hepatic allograft donation. It shows that it is possible, in the dog, to safely harvest non ischemic segmental grafts with adequate pedicles without altering the vascularization and the biliary drainage of the remaining liver. We propose that this technique is applicable to human anatomy.
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