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1.  Two-trocar appendectomy in children – description of technique and comparison with conventional laparoscopic appendectomy 
BMC Surgery  2016;16:52.
Background
The aim of the study was to describe the technique of two-trocar laparoscopic appendectomy and compare the outcome between two- and three-trocar techniques in children.
Methods
All children who underwent laparoscopic surgery for suspected appendicitis from 2006 to 2014 in a center for pediatric surgery were included in the study. Converted surgeries and patients with appendiceal abscess or concomitant intestinal obstruction were excluded. A total of 259 children underwent appendectomy with either two (35 %) or three (65 %) laparoscopic trocars according to the surgeons’ preference and intraoperative judgment. Patient demographics, clinical symptoms, surgery characteristics, and complications were reviewed.
Results
The mean age of the children was 10.4 years (range, 1–14 years). The mean follow-up time was 41.2 months (SD ± 29.2). No significant differences in age, gender, weight, or signs and symptoms were found between the two- and three-trocar groups. The mean surgery time was significantly shorter in the two-trocar group (47 min) than in the three-trocar group (66 min; p < 0.001). The rates of surgical complications were 2 % vs. 4 %, (p = 0.501), and the rates of postoperative complications were 0 % vs. 5 % (p = 0.054), in the two- and three-trocar groups. The overall incidence of postoperative wound infection was low (<1 %) and did not differ between groups.
Conclusions
Two-trocar laparoscopic appendectomy seems to be a safe and feasible technique with a low rate of postoperative wound infections. The present findings demonstrate that when the two-trocar technique could be applied, it is a good complement to the conventional three-trocar technique.
doi:10.1186/s12893-016-0170-1
PMCID: PMC4973551  PMID: 27491442
Acute abdomen; Appendicitis; Appendectomy; Children; Laparoscopy
2.  Gastroscopy in Pediatric Surgery: Indications, Complications, Outcomes, and Ethical Aspects 
Background. The aim of this study was to map gastroscopies performed at a single tertiary pediatric surgery centre to investigate indications, complications, outcomes, and ethical aspects. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of gastroscopies performed during two time periods (2001–2004 and 2011–2014) was conducted. Data regarding indications, outcomes, and complications of pediatric gastroscopies were analysed from a prospectively collected database. Results. The indications for gastroscopies changed over time. Therefore, 376 gastroscopies performed from 2011 through 2014 were studied separately. The median patient was four years old. The predominant indications were laparoscopic gastrostomy (40%), investigation of gastroenterological conditions (22%), obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract (20%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (15%), and other indications (3%). Percentages of gastroscopies with no positive findings for each condition were laparoscopic gastrostomy, 100%; gastroenterological conditions, 46%; obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 36%; GERD, 51%. Furthermore, gastroscopies did not lead to any further action or change in treatment in 45% of gastroenterological conditions and 72% of GERD cases. The overall complication rate was 1%. Conclusion. The results are valuable to educate pediatric surgeons and to inform health care planning when including gastroscopy within clinical practice.
doi:10.1155/2015/820340
PMCID: PMC4389833  PMID: 25883646
3.  Appendicitis in Children: Evaluation of the Pediatric Appendicitis Score in Younger and Older Children 
Surgery Research and Practice  2014;2014:438076.
Background. This study aimed to evaluate Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), diagnostic delay, and factors responsible for possible late diagnosis in children <4 years compared with older children who were operated on for suspected appendicitis. Method. 122 children, between 1 and 14 years, operated on with appendectomy for suspected appendicitis, were retrospectively analyzed. The cohort was divided into two age groups: ≥4 years (n = 102) and <4 years (n = 20). Results. The mean PAS was lower among the younger compared with the older patients (5.3 and 6.6, resp.; P = 0.005), despite the fact that younger children had more severe appendicitis (75.0% and 33.3%, resp.; P = 0.001). PAS had low sensitivity in both groups, with a significantly lower sensitivity among the younger patients. Parent and doctor delay were confirmed in children <4 years of age with appendicitis. PAS did not aid in patients with doctor delay. Parameters in patient history, symptoms, and abdominal examination were more diffuse in younger children. Conclusion. PAS should be used with caution when examining children younger than 4 years of age. Diffuse symptoms in younger children with acute appendicitis lead to delay and to later diagnosis and more complicated appendicitis.
doi:10.1155/2014/438076
PMCID: PMC4276704  PMID: 25574500
4.  Pre- and Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Video-Assisted Gastrostomy Tube Placement 
Surgery Research and Practice  2014;2014:871325.
Background. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of pre- and postoperative vomiting in children undergoing a Video-Assisted Gastrostomy (VAG) operation. Patients and Methods. 180 children underwent a VAG operation and were subdivided into groups based on their underlying diagnosis. An anamnesis with respect to vomiting was taken from each of the children's parents before the operation. After the VAG operation, all patients were followed prospectively at one and six months after surgery. All complications including vomiting were documented according to a standardized protocol. Results. Vomiting occurred preoperatively in 51 children (28%). One month after surgery the incidence was 43 (24%) in the same group of children and six months after it was found in 40 (22%). There was a difference in vomiting frequency both pre- and postoperatively between the children in the groups with different diagnoses included in the study. No difference was noted in pre- and postoperative vomiting frequency within each specific diagnosis group. Conclusion. The preoperative vomiting symptoms persisted after the VAG operation. Neurologically impaired children had a higher incidence of vomiting than patients with other diagnoses, a well-known fact, probably due to their underlying diagnosis and not the VAG operation. This information is useful in preoperative counselling.
doi:10.1155/2014/871325
PMCID: PMC4208457  PMID: 25379563
5.  Appendicostomy in Preschool Children with Anorectal Malformation: Successful Early Bowel Management with a High Frequency of Minor Complications 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:297084.
Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperatively bowel symptoms of antegrade colon enema through appendicostomies in preschool children with anorectal malformation (ARM). Method. 164 children with ARM operated on with posterior sagittal anorectal plasty were included. The malformations were classified according to Krickenbeck classification. Seventeen children in preschool age had an appendicostomy. The bowel symptoms according to the Krickenbeck follow-up were analysed pre- and postoperatively. All complications were registered. A questionnaire on the use of the appendicostomy was answered. Results. The median age (range) at the time of the appendicostomy was 4 (1–6) years. The observation time was 5 (0.5–14) years. The main indications for appendicostomy were incontinence and noncompliance to rectal enemas. Postoperatively there was a significant decrease in soiling and constipation (P < 0.001). The total complication rate was 43% with infections (29%), stenosis (12%), and retrograde leakage (0). The median time required for giving enema in the appendicostomy was 45 minutes (range: 15–120) once a day varying from 2 times/week to 3 times/day. And: complications are less frequent than in older children. Conclusion. Appendicostomy in preschool children with ARM is a way to achieve fecal cleanness before school start. The infection rate was high, but other complications are less frequent than in older children.
doi:10.1155/2013/297084
PMCID: PMC3794643  PMID: 24175287
6.  Rectal Atresia—Operative Management with Endoscopy and Transanal Approach: A Case Report 
Minimally Invasive Surgery  2011;2011:792402.
The aim of this study is to present the technique and outcome of the management of a newborn child with rectal atresia. A girl born with rectal atresia was diagnosed during physical examination and confirmed with X-ray. The anatomic appearance of the external anus, and lower pelvis was normal. The rectal ending was located 2 cm cranial from the anus and the distance between the rectal endings was 2 cm. A colostomy was established. At the age of five months the child was operated on with a rectal anastomosis using the endoscopic and transanal approach. Closure of the colostomy was performed at the age of ten months. The rectal anastomosis was treated with rectal dilatation weekly in order to avoid stricture. The patient was faecally continent at followup one and three months postoperatively. In conclusion, the endoscopic and transanal approach is an alternative to other surgical techniques in the management of rectal atresia.
doi:10.1155/2011/792402
PMCID: PMC3195957  PMID: 22091364
7.  Robotics versus laparoscopy - an experimental study of the transfer effect in maiden users 
Background
Robot-assisted laparoscopy (RL) is used in a wide range of operative interventions, but the advantage of this technique over conventional laparoscopy (CL) remains unclear. Studies comparing RL and CL are scarce. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that maiden users master surgical tasks quicker with the robot-assisted laparoscopy technique than with the conventional laparoscopy technique.
Methods
20 subjects, with no prior surgical experience, performed three different surgical tasks in a standardized experimental setting, repeated four times with each of the RL and CL techniques. Speed and accuracy were measured. A cross-over technique was used to eliminate gender bias and the experience gained by carrying out the first part of the study.
Results
The task "tie a knot" was performed faster with the RL technique than with CL. Furthermore, shorter operating times were observed when changing from CL to RL. There were no time differences for the tasks of grabbing the needle and continuous suturing between the two operating techniques. Gender did not influence the results.
Conclusion
The more advanced task of tying a knot was performed faster using the RL technique than with CL. Simpler surgical interventions were performed equally fast with either technique. Technical skills acquired during the use of CL were transferred to the RL technique. The lack of tactile feedback in RL seemed to matter. There were no differences between males and females.
doi:10.1186/1750-1164-4-3
PMCID: PMC2857839  PMID: 20370924
8.  Literature Review Comparing Laparoscopic and Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomies in a Pediatric Population 
Objective. This study compares laparoscopic and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in a paediatric population to test the hypothesis that there is a difference in the frequency of serious gastrointestinal complications between the two methods. Methods. All reports published between 1995 and 2009 on laparoscopic gastrostomy and PEG in children was included. Prospective and retrospective trials, comparing the two methods or dealing with one of them only were included. Endpoints were accidentally performed gastrointestinal fistula causing an emergency re-operation. The frequency of inadvertent gastroenteric fistulas using the two different techniques was calculated. Results. 822 publications were found when using the search terms: gastrostomy, gastrointestinal complications, and all child: 0–18 years. From these, 54 studies were extracted for this investigation. These studies reported a total of 4331 children undergoing gastrostomy operation, 1027 by using the laparoscopic technique and 3304 using the PEG technique. The number of serious gastrointestinal fistulas to colon or small bowel was 0% and .27%, respectively, P < .05. Conclusions. The results suggest that by performing laparoscopic gastrostomy in children it is possible to avoid the serious intestinal fistula complications caused by a blind puncture through the abdominal cavity when performing the PEG.
doi:10.1155/2010/507616
PMCID: PMC2836526  PMID: 20300186

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