The potent and selective proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has shown remarkable antitumor activity and is now entering clinical trials for several cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms by which bortezomib induces cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells still remain unclear. In this study, we show that bortezomib induced apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the downregulation of antiapoptotic molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, p-Bad, and p-AKT) and the upregulation of proapoptotic proteins (p21, p27, and cleaved-Bid) in ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, bortezomib stimulates Janus kinase (JAK) phosphorylation and activates heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), ultimately leading to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation. Phosphorylated STAT1 partially counteracted apoptosis induced by bortezomib in cancer cells. These findings suggest that the antitumor activity of bortezomib in ovarian cancer can be improved by inhibiting bortezomib-induced STAT1 phosphorylation. This effect can be achieved by STAT1 knockdown, HSP70 knockdown, JAK inhibition, or the addition of cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs. These results provide the first evidence that STAT1 phosphorylation can play a role in bortezomib resistance by exerting antiapoptotic effects. They also suggest the possibility to abolish or reduce bortezomib chemoresistance in ovarian cancer by the addition of cisplatin or JAK inhibitors.
bortezomib; ovarian cancer; cisplatin; HSP70; JAK1; STAT1
Ni nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in BaTiO3 epitaxial films using the laser molecular beam epitaxy. The processes involving the self-organization of Ni NCs and the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 were discussed. With the in situ monitoring of reflection high-energy electron diffraction, the nanocomposite films were engineered controllably by the fine alternation of the self-organization of Ni NCs and the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3. The transmission electron microscopy and the X-ray diffraction characterization confirmed that the composite film consists of the Ni NCs layers alternating with the (001)/(100)-oriented epitaxial BaTiO3 separation layers.
Laser molecular beam epitaxy; Nanocomposite film; Reflection high-energy electron diffraction; Self-organization; Epitaxial growth
Monodisperse FePt nanoparticles with size of 4.5 and 6.0 nm were prepared by simultaneous reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in benzylether. The crystallography structure, size, and composition of the FePt nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry measurements of individual particles indicate a broad compositional distribution in both the 4.5 and 6 nm FePt nanoparticles. The effects of compositional distribution on the phase-transition and magnetic properties of the FePt nanoparticles were investigated.
FePt; Nanoparticles; Compositional distribution; Magnetic properties
Laccate polypores of the Ganoderma lucidum species complex are widespread white rot fungi of economic importance, but isolates cannot be identified by traditional taxonomic methods. Parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) distinguished six lineages in this species complex. Each ITS lineage may represent one or more putative species. While some isolates have identical ITS sequences, all of them could be clearly differentiated by genetic fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). To investigate the suitability of RAPD markers for taxonomic identification and grouping of isolates of the G. lucidum complex, RAPD fragments (RAPDs) were used as phenotypic characters in numerical and parsimony analyses. Results show that data from RAPDS do not distinguish the same clades as ITS data do. Groupings based on analysis of RAPD data were very sensitive to the choice of the grouping method used, and no consistent grouping of isolates could be proposed. However, analysis with RAPDs did resolve several robust terminal clades containing putatively conspecific isolates, suggesting that RAPDs might be helpful for systematics at the lower taxonomic levels that are unresolved by ITS sequence data. The limitations of RAPDs for systematics are briefly discussed. The conclusion of this study is that ITS sequences can be used to identify isolates of the G. lucidum complex, whereas RAPDs can be used to differentiate between isolates having identical ITS sequences. The practical implications of these results are briefly illustrated.
The tumor suppressor p53 has an important role in inducing cell-intrinsic responses to DNA damage, including cellular senescence or apoptosis, which act to thwart tumor development. It has been shown, however, that senescent or dying cells are capable of eliciting inflammatory responses, which can have pro-tumorigenic effects. Whether DNA damage-induced p53 activity can contribute to senescence- or apoptosis-associated pro-tumorigenic inflammation is unknown. Recently, we generated a p53 knock-out rat via homologous recombination in rat embryonic stem cells. Here we show that in a rat model of inflammation-associated hepatocarcinogenesis, heterozygous deficiency of p53 resulted in attenuated inflammatory responses and ameliorated hepatic cirrhosis and tumorigenesis. Chronic administration of hepatocarcinogenic compound, diethylnitrosamine, led to persistent DNA damage and sustained induction of p53 protein in the wild-type livers, and much less induction in p53 heterozygous livers. Sustained p53 activation subsequent to DNA damage was accompanied by apoptotic rather than senescent hepatic injury, which gave rise to the hepatic inflammatory responses. In contrast, the non-hepatocarcinogenic agent, carbon tetrachloride, failed to induce p53, and caused a similar degree of chronic hepatic inflammation and cirrhosis in wild type and p53 heterozygous rats. These results suggest that although p53 is usually regarded as a tumor suppressor, its constant activation can promote pro-tumorigenic inflammation, especially in livers exposed to agents that inflict lasting mutagenic DNA damage.
DNA damage; p53; inflammation; cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma
Evidence for transcriptional activation of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is regarded as the gold standard for the presence of clinically relevant human papillomavirus (HPV), but detection of E6/E7 mRNA requires RNA extraction and PCR amplification - a challenging technique that is restricted to the research laboratory. The development of RNA in-situ hybridization (ISH) probes complementary to E6/E7 mRNA permits direct visualization of viral transcripts in routinely processed tissues and has opened the door for accurate HPV detection in the clinical care setting.
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 282 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) from various anatomic subsites were tested for the presence of HPV using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA ISH, and a RNA ISH assay (RNAscope®) targeting high risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA transcripts. The E6/E7 mRNA assay was also used to test an additional 25 oropharyngeal carcinomas where HPV status as recorded in the surgical pathology reports was equivocal due to conflicting detection results (i.e. p16 positive, DNA ISH negative).
By the E6/E7 mRNA method, HPV was detected in 49 of 282 (17%) HNSCCs including 43 of 77 (56%) carcinomas from the oropharynx, 2 of 3 (67%) metastatic HNSCCs of unknown primary site, 2 of 7 (29%) carcinomas from the sinonasal tract, and 2 of 195 (1%) carcinomas from other head and neck sites. P16 expression was strongly associated with the presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA: 46 of 49 HPV positive tumors exhibited p16 expression, whereas only 22 of 233 HPV negative tumors were p16 positive (94% versus 9%, p < .0001). There was also a high rate of concordance (99%) between the E6/E7 mRNA method and HPV DNA ISH. For the selected group of discordant HNSCCs (p16+/HPV DNA-), the presence of E6/E7 transcripts was detected in 21 of 25 (84%) cases.
The E6/E7 mRNA method confirmed the presence of transcriptionally active HPV-related HNSCC that has a strong predilection for the oropharynx and is strongly associated with high levels of p16 expression. Testing for HPV E6/E7 transcripts by RNA ISH is ideal because it confirms the presence of integrated and transcriptionally active virus, permits visualization of viral transcripts in tissues, and is technically feasible for routine testing in the clinical laboratory.
The long-standing challenge for forming Al-based BMGs and their matrix composites with a critical size larger than 1 mm have not been answered over the past three decades. In this paper, we reported formation of a series of BMG matrix composites which contain a high Al content up to 55 at.%. These composites can be cast at extraordinarily low cooling rates, compatible with maximum rod diameters of over a centimetre in copper mold casting. Our results indicate that proper additions of transition element Fe which have a positive heat of mixing with the main constituents La and Ce can appreciably improve the formability of the BMG matrix composites by suppressing the precipitation of Al(La,Ce) phase resulted from occurrence of the phase separation. However, the optimum content of Fe addition is strongly dependant on the total amount of the Al content in the Al-(CoCu)-(La,Ce) alloys.
We compared and evaluated the differences between two models for treating bilateral breast cancer (BBC): (i) dose–volume-based intensity-modulated radiation treatment (DV plan), and (ii) dose–volume-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy with generalised equivalent uniform dose-based optimisation (DV-gEUD plan).
The quality and performance of the DV plan and DV-gEUD plan using the Pinnacle3® system (Philips, Fitchburg, WI) were evaluated and compared in 10 patients with stage T2–T4 BBC. The plans were delivered on a Varian 21EX linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Milpitas, CA) equipped with a Millennium 120 leaf multileaf collimator (Varian Medical Systems). The parameters analysed included the conformity index, homogeneity index, tumour control probability of the planning target volume (PTV), the volumes V20 Gy and V30 Gy of the organs at risk (OAR, including the heart and lungs), mean dose and the normal tissue complication probability.
Both plans met the requirements for the coverage of PTV with similar conformity and homogeneity indices. However, the DV-gEUD plan had the advantage of dose sparing for OAR: the mean doses of the heart and lungs, lung V20
Gy, and heart V30
Gy in the DV-gEUD plan were lower than those in the DV plan (p<0.05).
A better result can be obtained by starting with a DV-generated plan and then improving it by adding gEUD-based improvements to reduce the number of iterations and to improve the optimum dose distribution.
Advances to knowledge
The DV-gEUD plan provided superior dosimetric results for treating BBC in terms of PTV coverage and OAR sparing than the DV plan, without sacrificing the homogeneity of dose distribution in the PTV.
The p63 gene regulates thymic epithelial cell (TEC) proliferation, whereas FoxN1 regulates their differentiation. However, their collaborative role in the regulation of TEC homeostasis during thymic aging is largely unknown. In murine models, the proportion of TAp63+, but not ΔNp63+, TECs was increased with age, which was associated with an age-related increase in senescent cell clusters, characterized by SA-β-Gal+ and p21+ cells. Intrathymic infusion of exogenous TAp63 cDNA into young wild-type (WT) mice led to an increase in senescent cell clusters. Blockade of TEC differentiation via conditional FoxN1 gene knockout accelerated the appearance of this phenotype to early middle age, whereas intrathymic infusion of exogenous FoxN1 cDNA into aged WT mice brought only a modest reduction in the proportion of TAp63+ TECs, but an increase in ΔNp63+ TECs in the partially rejuvenated thymus. Meanwhile, we found that the increased TAp63+ population contained a high proportion of phosphorylated-p53 TECs, which may be involved in the induction of cellular senescence. Thus, TAp63 levels are positively correlated with TEC senescence but inversely correlated with expression of FoxN1 and FoxN1-regulated TEC differentiation. Thereby, the p63-FoxN1 regulatory axis in regulation of postnatal TEC homeostasis has been revealed.
epithelial cell homeostasis; p63/p53 expression; conditional FoxN1 knockout; thymic aging; senescence
(G2019S) mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Twelve- to sixteen-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice prepared by us displayed progressive degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons and parkinsonism phenotypes of motor dysfunction. LRRK2 is a member of mixed lineage kinase subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs). We hypothesized that (G2019S) mutation augmented LRRK2 kinase activity, leading to overphosphorylation of downstream MAPK kinase (MKK) and resulting in activation of neuronal death signal pathway. Consistent with our hypothesis, (G2019S) LRRK2 expressed in HEK 293 cells exhibited an augmented kinase activity of phosphorylating MAPK kinase 4 (MKK4) at Ser257, and protein expression of active phospho-MKK4Ser257 was upregulated in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Protein level of active phospho-JNKThr183/Tyr185 and phospho-c-JunSer63, downstream targets of phospho-MKK4Ser257, was increased in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 mice. Upregulated mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bim and FasL, target genes of phospho-c-JunSer63, and formation of active caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were also observed in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Our results suggest that mutant (G2019S) LRRK2 activates MKK4-JNK-c-Jun pathway in the SN and causes the resulting degeneration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in PD transgenic mice.
Parkinson's disease; (G2019S) LRRK2; dopaminergic neurons; MKK4; JNK
The normal ANK protein has a strong influence on anti-calcification. It is known that TGF-β1 is also able to induce extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) elaboration via the TGF-β1-induced ank gene expression and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling acts as a downstream effector of TGF-β1. We hypothesized that the expression of the ank gene is regulated by mechanics through TGF-β1-p38 pathway. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of short-time mechanical tension-induced ank gene expression. We found that the continuous cyclic mechanical tension (CCMT) increased the ank gene expression in the endplate chondrocytes, and there was an increase in the TGF-β1 expression after CCMT stimulation. The ank gene expression significantly increased when treated by TGF-β1 in a dose-dependent manner and decreased when treated by SB431542 (ALK inhibitor) in a dose-dependent manner. Our study results indicate that CCMT-induced ank gene expressions may be regulated by TGF-β1 and p38 MAPK pathway.
Continuous cyclic mechanical tension (CCMT); Endplate chondrocytes; ank; TGF-β1; p38
We have found that daily subcutaneous injection with a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (20mg/kg) beginning at 4 weeks dramatically improves the phenotype in R6/2 mice. For example, we observed normalization of motor function in distance traveled, speed, the infrequency of pauses, and the ability to locomote in a straight line, and a rescue of a 15–20% striatal neuron loss at 10 weeks. As acute LY379268 treatment is known to increase cortical BDNF production, and BDNF is known to be beneficial for striatal neurons, we investigated if the benefit of daily LY379268 in R6/2 mice for striatal projection neurons was associated with increases in corticostriatal BDNF, with assessments done at 10 weeks of age after daily MTD treatment since the fourth week of life. We found that LY379268 increased BDNF expression in layer 5 neurons in motor cortex, which project to striatum, partly rescued a preferential loss of enkephalinergic striatal neurons, and enhanced substance P (SP) expression by SP striatal projection neurons. The enhanced survival of enkephalinergic striatal neurons was correlated with the cortical BDNF increase, but the enhanced SP expression by SP striatal neurons was not. Thus, LY379268 may protect the two main striatal projection neuron types by different mechanisms, enkephalinergic neurons by the trophic benefit of BDNF, and SP neurons by a mechanism not involving BDNF. The SP neuron benefit may perhaps instead involve the anti-excitotoxic action of mGluR2/3 receptor agonists.
Huntington's Disease; Therapy; mGluR2/3; Striatum; BDNF
Background. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted comparing the efficacy of rabeprazole 20 mg or omeprazole 20 mg once daily for patients with erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Until now, no study has synthesized all available data examining this issue. Method. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched (through December 2012). Eligible RCTs recruited adults with erosive GERD and reported endoscopic and symptomatic relief rates at the last point of follow-up. The effect of rabeprazole versus omeprazole was reported as relative risk (RR) of relief with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results. The search identified 605 citations, and six RCTs containing 1,895 patients were eligible. Endoscopic relief rates were not significantly different between rabeprazole 20 mg and omeprazole 20 mg in treatment trials of up to 8 weeks. Heartburn relief rates were significantly different between the two groups for 8-week treatment trials. Adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups for 8-week treatment trials. Conclusion. These data suggest that rabeprazole demonstrates a clinical advantage over omeprazole in symptomatic relief but no significant difference in endoscopic relief of erosive GERD for up to 8 weeks of treatment. Rabeprazole and omeprazole were both tolerated by GERD patients.
Voxelwise quantification of hepatic perfusion parameters from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging greatly contributes to assessment of liver function in response to radiation therapy. However, the efficiency of the estimation of hepatic perfusion parameters voxel-by-voxel in the whole liver using a dual-input single-compartment model requires substantial improvement for routine clinical applications. In this paper, we utilize the parallel computation power of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate the computation, while maintaining the same accuracy as the conventional method. Using CUDA-GPU, the hepatic perfusion computations over multiple voxels are run across the GPU blocks concurrently but independently. At each voxel, non-linear least squares fitting the time series of the liver DCE data to the compartmental model is distributed to multiple threads in a block, and the computations of different time points are performed simultaneously and synchronically. An efficient fast Fourier transform in a block is also developed for the convolution computation in the model. The GPU computations of the voxel-by-voxel hepatic perfusion images are compared with ones by the CPU using the simulated DCE data and the experimental DCE MR images from patients. The computation speed is improved by 30 times using a NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU compared to a 2.67 GHz Intel Xeon CPU processor. To obtain liver perfusion maps with 626400 voxels in a patient’s liver, it takes 0.9 min with the GPU-accelerated voxelwise computation, compared to 110 min with the CPU, while both methods result in perfusion parameters differences less than 10−6. The method will be useful for generating liver perfusion images in clinical settings.
dynamic contrast enhanced imaging; hepatic perfusion; compartmental model; nonlinear least squares fitting; GPU; convolution
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of monochrome liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with different resolutions on observer performance during detection of small solitary pulmonary nodules.
Chest images of digital radiography were selected online from the hospital's picture archiving and communication system. Of the 164 images selected, small solitary non-calcified pulmonary nodules were present in 63 images and absent in 101 images. Observer performance was assessed among 3 extremely experienced, 3 very experienced and 3 moderately experienced radiologists, who independently interpreted these images on 2, 3 and 5 megapixel greyscale LCDs. A five-point confidence level rating scale was used to represent the presence of nodules: definite absence, probable absence, indetermination, probable presence and definite presence. The observers were requested to rank each image on the given display according to the presence of the pulmonary nodule. Observer performance was analysed in terms of receiver operating characteristics (ROCs).
The areas under the ROC curves which represented the observer performance for the 2, 3 and 5 megapixel LCDs were found to be 0.705, 0.722 and 0.764, respectively, for the extremely experienced radiologists; 0.687, 0.712 and 0.721, respectively, for the very experienced radiologists; and 0.689, 0.696 and 0.711, respectively, for the moderately experienced radiologists. These differences were not statistically significant.
The observer performances for detection of small solitary non-calcified pulmonary nodules by radiologists with varying degrees of experience were comparable between the 2, 3 and 5 megapixel monochrome LCDs.
Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, however, the pathogenic factors and mechanisms are not fully understood. Pulmonary emphysema is one of the major components of COPD and is thought to result from oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance and lung epithelial (LE) cell apoptosis. In our previous studies, COPD patients were noted to have higher levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than controls. In addition, transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF developed pulmonary emphysema and exposure to PlGF in LE cells induced apoptosis. Furthermore, intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) on to PlGF wild type mice induced emphysema, but not in PlGF knockout mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPE generates pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PlGF expression in LE cells. The elevation of PlGF then leads to LE cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether PPE induces PlGF expression, whether PlGF induces apoptosis and whether the downstream mechanisms of PlGF are related to LE cell apoptosis. We found that PPE increased PlGF secretion and expression both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, PlGF-induced LE cell apoptosis and PPE-induced emphysema in the mice were mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways. Given these findings, we suggest that the increase in PlGF and PlGF-induced JNK and p38 MAPK pathways contribute to PPE-induced LE cell apoptosis and emphysema. Regulatory control of PlGF and agents against its downstream signals may be potential therapeutic targets for COPD.
placenta growth factor; chronic pulmonary obstructive disease; emphysema; apoptosis
Frank Burr Mallory’s landmark observation in 1911 on the histopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was the first identification of a link between an inflammation and ALD. In this review, we summarize recent advances regarding the origins and roles of various inflammatory components in ALD. Metabolism of ethanol generates a number of metabolites, including acetate, reactive oxygen species, acetaldehyde, and epigenetic changes, that can induce inflammatory responses. Alcohol and its metabolites can also initiate and aggravate inflammatory conditions by promoting gut leakiness of microbial products, by sensitizing immune cells to stimulation and by activating innate immune pathways, such as complement. Chronic alcohol consumption also sensitizes non-immune cells, e.g., hepatocytes, to inflammatory signals and impairs their ability to respond to protective signals. Based on these advances, a number of inflammatory targets have been identified with potential for therapeutic intervention in ALD, presenting new opportunities and challenges for translational research.
Ethanol; liver injury; hepatic macrophage; cytokines; complement; inflammasome
Chronic inflammation induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plays a key role in the development
of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9),
interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 may be associated with chronic inflammation in AMD.
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates inflammation via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B
(NF-κB) signaling, and resveratrol has been reported to prevent Aβ-induced retinal
degeneration; therefore, we investigated whether this action was mediated via
activation of SIRT1 signaling. Human adult retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells
were exposed to Aβ, and overactivation and knockdown of SIRT1 were performed to
investigate whether SIRT1 is required for abrogating Aβ-induced inflammation. We
found that Aβ-induced RPE barrier disruption and expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9
were abrogated by the SIRT1 activator SRT1720, whereas alterations induced by Aβ in
SIRT1-silenced RPE cells were not attenuated by SRT1720. In addition, SRT1720
inhibited Aβ-mediated NF-κB activation and decrease of the NF-κB inhibitor, IκBα. Our
findings suggest a protective role for SIRT1 signaling in Aβ-dependent retinal
degeneration and inflammation in AMD.
Amyloid-beta; SRT1720; Age-related macular degeneration; Barrier integrity; Tight junction; Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2), a member of the karyopherin family, has a central role in nucleocytoplasmic transport and is overexpressed in many cancers. Our previous study identified KPNA2 as significantly upregulated in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC), correlating with poor survival of patients. However, the precise mechanism of this effect remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of KPNA2 in the proliferation and tumorigenicity of EOC cells, and its clinical significance in tumor progression. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed high expression levels of KPNA2 in 162 out of 191 (84.8%) fresh EOC tissues, which was significantly correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, differentiation, histological type, recurrence, and prognosis of EOC patients. Our results showed that upregulation of KPNA2 expression significantly increased the proliferation and tumorigenicity of EOC cells (EFO-21 and SK-OV3) in vitro and in vivo, by promoting cell growth rate, foci formation, soft agar colony formation, and tumor formation in nude mice. By contrast, knockdown of KPNA2 effectively suppressed the proliferation and tumorigenicity of these EOC cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results also indicated that the molecular mechanisms of the effect of KPNA2 in EOC included promotion of G1/S cell cycle transition through upregulation of c-Myc, enhanced transcriptional activity of c-Myc, activation of Akt activity, suppression of FOXO3a activity, downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, and upregulation of CDK regulator cyclin D1. Our results show that KPNA2 has an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenicity of EOC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this disease.
KPNA2; epithelial ovarian carcinoma; proliferation; tumorigenicity; c-Myc; FOXO3a
Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by an abnormal expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats encoding polyglutamine (polyQ) in the first exon of the huntingtin (htt) gene. Despite considerable efforts, the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease (HD) remains largely unclear due to a paucity of models that can reliably reproduce the pathological characteristics of HD. Here, we report a neuronal cell model of HD using the previously established tetracycline regulated rat neuroprogenitor cell line, HC2S2. Stable expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) tagged-htt exon 1 (referred to as 28Q and 74Q, respectively) in the HC2S2 cells did not affect rapid neuronal differentiation. However, compared to the cells expressing wild type htt, the cell line expressing mutant htt showed an increase in time-dependent cell death and neuritic degeneration, and displayed increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Increased protein aggregation during the process of neuronal aging or when the cells were exposed to oxidative stress reagents was detected in the cell line expressing 74Q but not in its counterpart. These results suggest that the neuroprogenitor cell lines mimic the major neuropathological characteristics of HD and may provide a useful tool for studying the neuropathogenesis of HD and for high-throughput screening of therapeutic compounds.
Huntington’s disease; pathogenesis; huntingtin; polyglutamine; neuron; neuroprogenitor
Excitotoxic injury to striatum by dysfunctional cortical input or aberrant glutamate uptake may contribute to Huntington’s Disease (HD) pathogenesis. Since corticostriatal terminals possess mGluR2/3 autoreceptors, whose activation dampens glutamate release, we tested the ability of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to improve the phenotype in R6/2 HD mice with 120–125 CAG repeats. Daily subcutaneous injection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of LY379268 (20mg/kg) had no evident adverse effects in WT mice, and diverse benefits in R6/2 mice, both in a cohort of mice tested behaviorally until the end of R6/2 lifespan and in a cohort sacrificed at 10 weeks of age for blinded histological analysis. MTD LY379268 yielded a significant 11% increase in R6/2 survival, an improvement on rotarod, normalization and/or improvement in locomotor parameters measured in open field (activity, speed, acceleration, endurance, and gait), a rescue of a 15–20% cortical and striatal neuron loss, normalization of SP striatal neuron neurochemistry, and to a lesser extent enkephalinergic striatal neuron neurochemistry. Deficits were greater in male than female R6/2 mice, and drug benefit tended to be greater in males. The improvements in SP striatal neurons, which facilitate movement, are consistent with the improved movement in LY379268-treated R6/2 mice. Our data indicate that mGluR2/3 agonists may be particularly useful for ameliorating the morphological, neurochemical and motor defects observed in HD.
Huntington’s Disease; Therapy; mGluR2/3; Striatum; Akinesia
We previously reported that CagA can be translocated into B cells in Helicobacter pylori (HP) coculture media, and the translocation appears biologically significant as activation of the relevant cellular pathways was noticed. In this study, we further explore if CagA can be detected in malignant B cells of HP-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Expression of CagA was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. CagA expression was further confirmed by western blot analysis. The association between CagA expression in malignant B cells and tumor response to HP eradication therapy (HPE) was evaluated in 64 stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma patients. We detected CagA expression in 31 (48.4%) of 64 patients: 26 (68.4%) of the 38 HP-dependent cases and 5 (19.2%) of the 26 HP-independent cases (P<0.001). Patients with CagA expression responded to HPE quicker than those without (median time to complete remission, 3.0 vs 6.5 months, P=0.025). Our results indicated that CagA can be translocated into malignant B cells of MALT lymphoma, and the translocation is clinically and biologically significant.
MALT lymphoma; CagA; stomach; antibiotics
Relapse risk assessment and individual treatment recommendations remain suboptimal for breast cancer patients. In the light of existing preclinical and clinical data, we studied NT5E (5′-nucleotidase, ecto) expression and NT5E CpG island methylation in breast cancer.
We used RT–PCR, qPCR, methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing to analyse NT5E in breast carcinoma cell lines and primary and breast carcinomas.
NT5E CpG island methylation was inversely associated with NT5E expression in breast carcinoma cell lines. In clinical series, patients whose primary tumours had NT5E CpG island methylation were less likely to develop metastasis (P=0.003, OR=0.34, 95% CI: 0.17–0.69). In 3/4 paired samples, NT5E was methylated in primary tumours and demethylated in CNS metastases. Patients progressing to non-visceral as compared with visceral metastases were more likely to have NT5E CpG island methylation in primary tumours (P=0.01, OR=11.8). Patients with tumours lacking detectable methylation had shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.001, HR=2.7) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.001, HR=3). The favourable prognostic value of NT5E methylation was confirmed in oestrogen receptor negative (P=0.011, HR=3.27, 95% CI: 1.31–8.12) and in triple negative cases (P=0.004; HR=6.2, 95% CI: 1.9–20). Moreover, we observed a more favourable outcome to adjuvant chemotherapy in patients whose tumours were positive for NT5E CpG island methylation: DFS (P=0.0016, HR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.8–14.37) and OS (P=0.0005, HR=7.4, 95% CI: 2.416–23.08).
NT5E CpG island methylation is a promising breast cancer biomarker.
NT5E; breast cancer; metastasis; epigenetics; triple-negative breast cancer