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1.  Developmental Immunolocalization of the Klotho Protein in Mouse Kidney Epithelial Cells 
A defect in Klotho gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome that resembles rapid human aging. In this study, we investigated the detailed distribution and the time of the first appearance of Klotho in developing and adult mouse kidney. Kidneys from 16-(F16), 18-(F18) and 20-day-old (F20) fetuses, 1- (P1), 4- (P4), 7- (P7), 14- (P14), and 21-day-old (P21) pups and adults were processed for immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses. In the developing mouse kidney, Klotho immunoreactivity was initially observed in a few cells of the connecting tubules (CNT) of 18-day-old fetus (F) and in the medullary collecting duct (MCD) and distal nephron of the F16 developing kidney. In F20, Klotho immunoreactivity was increased in CNT and additionally observed in the outer portion of MCD and tip of the renal papilla. During the first 3 weeks after birth, Klotho-positive cells gradually disappeared from the MCD due to apoptosis, but remained in the CNT and cortical collecting ducts (CCD). In the adult mouse, the Klotho protein was expressed only in a few cells of the CNT and CCD in cortical area. Also, Klotho immunoreactivity was observed in the aquaporin 2-positive CNT, CCD, and NaCl cotransporter-positive distal convoluted tubule (DCT) cells and type B and nonA-nonB intercalated cells of CNT, DCT, and CCD. Collectively, our data indicate that immunolocalization of Klotho is closely correlated with proliferation in the intercalated cells of CNT and CCD from aging, and may be involved in the regulation of tubular proliferation.
PMCID: PMC3980205  PMID: 24704992
Klotho; developing kidney; aging; intercalated cell; tubular proliferation
2.  Rituximab-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in lymphoproliferative diseases: meta-analysis and examination of FDA safety reports 
Annals of Oncology  2010;22(5):1170-1180.
Background: Rituximab has been associated with hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBV-R). However, the characteristics and scope of this association remain largely undefined.
Methods: We completed a comprehensive literature search of all published rituximab-associated HBV-R cases and from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) MedWatch database. Literature and FDA cases were compared for completeness, and a meta-analysis was completed.
Results: One hundred and eighty-three unique cases of rituximab-associated HBV-R were identified from the literature (n = 27 case reports, n = 156 case series). The time from last rituximab to reactivation was 3 months (range 0–12), although 29% occurred >6 months after last rituximab. Within FDA data (n = 118 cases), there was a strong signal for rituximab-associated HBV-R [proportional reporting ratio = 28.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9–34.1; Empiric Bayes Geometric Mean = 26.4, 95% CI 21.4–31.1]. However, the completeness of data in FDA reports was significantly inferior compared with literature cases (P < 0.0001). Among HBV core antibody (HBcAb(+)) series, the pooled effect of rituximab-based therapy showed a significantly increased risk of HBV-R compared with nonrituximab-treated patients (odds ratio 5.73, 95% CI 2.01–16.33; Z = 3.33, P = 0.0009) without heterogeneity (χ2 = 2.12, P = 0.5473).
Conclusions: The FDA AERS provided strong HBV-R safety signals; however, literature-based cases provided a significantly more complete description. Furthermore, meta-analysis of HBcAb(+) series identified a more than fivefold increased rate of rituximab-associated HBV-R.
PMCID: PMC3082161  PMID: 21115603
FDA; HBV reactivation; hepatitis B virus; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; rituximab
3.  Anatomy and relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, a primitive snake with hindlimbs 
The anatomy of Pachyrhachis problematicus, an elongate, limb-reduced squamate from the Upper Cretaceous of Israel, is described and evaluated in detail. Previously considered a snake-like 'lizard' of uncertain affinities, it is here shown to be the most primitive snake, and the sister-group to all other snakes. Pachyrhachis exhibits numerous derived characters uniting it with modern snakes (scolecophidians and alethinophidians): e.g. mobile premaxilla-maxilla articulation, braincase enclosed by frontals and parietals, sagittal parietal crest, absence of tympanic recess, single postdentary bone, over 140 presacral vertebrae, and complete loss of shoulder girdle and forelimb. However, it is more primitive than all modern snakes in retaining some strikingly primitive (lizard-like) features: presence of a jugal, squamosal, normal sacral attachment, and well-developed hindlimb composed of femur, tibia, fibula, and tarsals. Pachyrhachis provides additional support for the hypothesis that snakes are most closely related to Cretaceous marine lizards (mosasauroids). Almost all of the derived characters proposed to unite snakes and mosasauroids are highly developed in Pachyrhachis: the mobile mandibular symphysis, intramandibular joint, long and recurved pterygoid teeth, quadrate suspended by the supratemporal, loosely united pelvic elements (ilium, ischium, and pubis), and separate astragalus and calcaneum.
PMCID: PMC1692386
4.  The phylogeny of varanoid lizards and the affinities of snakes 
Evidence that platynotan squamates (living varanoid lizards, snakes and their fossil relatives) are monophyletic is presented. Evolutionary relationships within this group are then ascertained through a cladistic analysis of 144 osteological characters. Mosasauroids (aigialosaurs and mosasaurs), a group of large marine lizards, are identified as the nearest relatives of snakes, thus resolving the long-standing problem of snake affinities. The mosasauroid–snake clade (Pythonomorpha) is corroborated by 40 derived characters, including recumbent replacement teeth, thecodonty, four or fewer premaxillary teeth, supratemporal–prootic contact, free mandibular tips, crista circumfenestralis, straight vertical splenio-angular joint, loss of posterior ramus of the coronoid, reduced basipterygoid processes, reduced interpterygoid vacuity, zygosphene–zygantral articulations, and absence of epiphyses on the axial skeleton and skull. After mosasauroids, the next closest relatives of snakes are varanids (Varanus, Saniwa and Saniwides) and lanthanotids (Lanthanotus and Cherminotus). Derived features uniting varanids and lanthanotids include nine cervical vertebrae and three or fewer pairs of sternal ribs. The varanid–lanthanotid–pythonomorph clade, here termed Thecoglossa, is supported by features such as the anteriorly positioned basal tubera, and the loss of the second epibranchial. Successive outgroups to thecoglossans are Telmasaurus, an unresolved polytomy (Estesia, Gobidermatidae and Helodermatidae), Paravaranus and Proplatynota. The 'necrosaurs' are demonstrated to be an artificial (polyphyletic) assemblage of primitive platynotans that are not particularly closely related to each other.
Snakes are presumed to have evolved from small, limbless, burrowing lizards and the inability of previous analyses to resolve the affinities of snakes has been attributed to extensive convergence among the numerous lineages of such lizards. The present study contradicts this claim, demonstrating that the problem is due instead to omission of critical fossil taxa. No modern phylogenetic analysis of squamate relationships has simultaneously included both mosasauroids and snakes: previous studies have therefore failed to identify the mosasauroid–snake association and the suite of derived characters supporting it. Mosasauroids are large aquatic animals with well-developed appendages, and none of the derived characters uniting mosasauroids and snakes is obviously correlated with miniaturization, limb reduction or fossoriality. Recognition that mosasauroids, followed by varanids and lanthanotids, are the nearest relatives of snakes will also facilitate studies of relationships within snakes, which until now have been hampered by uncertainty over the most appropriate (closely-related) lizard outgroups.
PMCID: PMC1691912
Lizards, Varanoid Polymorphism Phylogeny Parsimony Analysis
5.  Identification of DNA replication and cell cycle proteins that interact with PCNA. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1997;25(24):5041-5046.
The identity of DNA replication proteins and cell cycle regulatory proteins which can be found in complexes involving PCNA were investigated by the use of PCNA immobilized on Sepharose 4B. A column containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) bound to Sepharose was used as a control. Fetal calf thymus extracts were chromatographed on PCNA-Sepharose and BSA-Sepharose. The columns were washed and then eluted with 0.5 M KCl. The salt eluates were examined for the presence of both DNA replication proteins (Pol alpha, delta, straightepsilon, PCNA, RFC, RFA, DNA ligase I, NDH II, Topo I and Topo II) and cell cycle proteins (Cyclins A, B1, D1, D2, D3, E, CDK2, CDK4, CDK5 and p21) by western blotting with specific antibodies. The DNA replication proteins which bound to PCNA-Sepharose included DNA polymerase delta and straightepsilon, PCNA, the 37 and 40 kDa subunits of RFC, the 70 kDa subunit of RPA, NDH II and topoisomerase I. No evidence for the binding of DNA polymerase alpha, DNA ligase I or topoisomerase II was obtained. Of the cell cycle proteins investigated, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK5 were bound. This study presents strong evidence that PCNA is a component of protein complexes containing DNA replication, repair and cell cycle regulatory proteins.
PMCID: PMC147130  PMID: 9396813
6.  Differential inhibition of human placental DNA polymerases delta and alpha by BuPdGTP and BuAdATP. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1985;13(23):8623-8630.
The p-n-butylphenyl- and p-n-butylanilino- substituted analogs of dGTP and dATP, respectively, were tested as inhibitors of purified human placental DNA polymerases alpha and delta. It was observed that DNA polymerase alpha activity was potently inhibited by these analogs with I0.5 values as low as the nanomolar range, whereas DNA polymerase delta activity was poorly inhibited, with I0.5 values of ca. 100 micromolar. These results argue for a distinct identity of these two enzymes, and demonstrate the usefulness of these analogs as probes of DNA polymerase structures. In addition, these analogs provide a rapid method for the discrimination of the two enzyme activities and a means for the selective assay of DNA polymerase delta. Aphidicolin inhibited both DNA polymerases.
PMCID: PMC322157  PMID: 3936020
7.  Differential effects of dimethylsulfoxide on the activities of human DNA polymerases alpha and delta. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1986;14(4):1719-1726.
The effects of dimethylsulfoxide on the activities of purified human placental DNA polymerase alpha and DNA polymerase delta were examined. DNA polymerase alpha was inhibited by dimethylsulfoxide, whereas DNA polymerase delta was significantly activated, by as much as 6-fold. Kinetic data show that the effect of dimethylsulfoxide on DNA polymerase delta activity was due to a reduction in the apparent Km for its substrate, dTTP. This novel finding of the differential effects of dimethylsulfoxide on the activities of polymerases alpha and delta may be useful in their identification and differential assay.
PMCID: PMC339568  PMID: 3951994
8.  Molecular cloning of the cDNA for the catalytic subunit of human DNA polymerase delta. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1992;20(4):735-745.
The cDNA of human DNA polymerase delta was cloned. The cDNA had a length of 3.5 kb and encoded a protein of 1107 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 124 kDa. Northern blot analysis showed that the cDNA hybridized to a mRNA of 3.4 kb. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C-terminal 20 residues specifically immunoblotted the human pol delta catalytic polypeptide. A multiple sequence alignment was constructed. This showed that human pol delta is closely related to yeast pol delta and the herpes virus DNA polymerases. The levels of pol delta message were found to be induced concomitantly with DNA pol delta activity and DNA synthesis in serum restimulated proliferating IMR90 cultured cells. The human pol delta gene was localized to chromosome 19 by Southern blotting of EcoRI digested DNA from a panel of rodent/human cell hybrids.
PMCID: PMC312012  PMID: 1542570

Results 1-8 (8)