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1.  Ulcer, gastric surgery and pancreatic cancer risk: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case–Control Consortium (PanC4) 
Annals of Oncology  2013;24(11):2903-2910.
Peptic ulcer and its treatments have been associated to pancreatic cancer risk, although the evidence is inconsistent.
We pooled 10 case–control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case–control Consortium (PanC4), including 4717 pancreatic cancer cases and 9374 controls, and estimated summary odds ratios (OR) using multivariable logistic regression models.
The OR for pancreatic cancer was 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.23] for history of ulcer (OR = 1.08 for gastric and 0.97 for duodenal ulcer). The association was stronger for a diagnosis within 2 years before cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.43 for peptic, 1.75 for gastric, and 1.98 for duodenal ulcer). The OR was 1.53 (95% CI 1.15–2.03) for history of gastrectomy; however, the excess risk was limited to a gastrectomy within 2 years before cancer diagnosis (OR = 6.18, 95% CI 1.82–20.96), while no significant increased risk was observed for longer time since gastrectomy. No associations were observed for pharmacological treatments for ulcer, such as antacids, H2-receptor antagonists, or proton-pump inhibitors.
This uniquely large collaborative study does not support the hypothesis that peptic ulcer and its treatment materially affect pancreatic cancer risk. The increased risk for short-term history of ulcer and gastrectomy suggests that any such association is due to increased cancer surveillance.
PMCID: PMC3811904  PMID: 23970016
anti-ulcer drugs; case–control study; gastrectomy; pancreatic cancer; peptic ulcer; pooled analysis
2.  Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) 
Annals of Oncology  2012;23(11):2964-2970.
Pancreatitis is a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, an unknown fraction of the disease is thought to be a consequence of tumor-related duct obstruction.
Patients and methods
A pooled analysis of a history of pancreatitis and risk of pancreatic cancer was carried out considering the time interval between diagnoses and potential modification by covariates. Adjusted pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from 10 case–control studies (5048 cases of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 10 947 controls) taking part in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4).
The association between pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer was nearly three-fold at intervals of >2 years between diagnoses (OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.96–3.74) and much stronger at intervals of ≤2 years (OR: 13.56, 95% CI: 8.72–21.90) probably reflecting a combination of reverse causation and antecedent misdiagnosis of pancreas cancer as pancreatitis. The younger (<65 years) pancreatic cancer cases showed stronger associations with previous (>2 years) pancreatitis (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 2.53–6.04) than the older (≥65 years) cases (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.76; P value for interaction: 0.006).
Despite a moderately strong association between pancreatitis (diagnosed before >2 years) and pancreatic cancer, the population attributable fraction was estimated at 1.34% (95% CI: 0.612–2.07%), suggesting that a relatively small proportion of pancreatic cancer might be avoided if pancreatitis could be prevented.
PMCID: PMC3477881  PMID: 22767586
case–control studies; pancreatitis; pancreatic cancer; pooled analysis; risk factors
3.  Cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (Panc4) 
Annals of Oncology  2011;23(7):1880-1888.
To evaluate the dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer and to examine the effects of temporal variables.
We analyzed data from 12 case–control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case–Control Consortium (PanC4), including 6507 pancreatic cases and 12 890 controls. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) by pooling study-specific ORs using random-effects models.
Compared with never smokers, the OR was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.3) for former smokers and 2.2 (95% CI 1.7–2.8) for current cigarette smokers, with a significant increasing trend in risk with increasing number of cigarettes among current smokers (OR = 3.4 for ≥35 cigarettes per day, P for trend <0.0001). Risk increased in relation to duration of cigarette smoking up to 40 years of smoking (OR = 2.4). No trend in risk was observed for age at starting cigarette smoking, whereas risk decreased with increasing time since cigarette cessation, the OR being 0.98 after 20 years.
This uniquely large pooled analysis confirms that current cigarette smoking is associated with a twofold increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that the risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and duration of smoking. Risk of pancreatic cancer reaches the level of never smokers ∼20 years after quitting.
PMCID: PMC3387822  PMID: 22104574
case–control study; cigarette smoking; pancreatic cancer; pooled analysis
4.  Alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case–Control Consortium (PanC4) 
Annals of Oncology  2011;23(2):374-382.
Heavy alcohol drinking has been related to pancreatic cancer, but the issue is still unsolved.
To evaluate the role of alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 10 case–control studies (5585 cases and 11 827 controls) participating in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case–Control Consortium. We computed pooled odds ratios (ORs) by estimating study-specific ORs adjusted for selected covariates and pooling them using random effects models.
Compared with abstainers and occasional drinkers (<1 drink per day), we observed no association for light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (≤4 drinks per day) and pancreatic cancer risk; however, associations were above unity for higher consumption levels (OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2–2.2 for subjects drinking ≥9 drinks per day). Results did not change substantially when we evaluated associations by tobacco smoking status, or when we excluded participants who reported a history of pancreatitis, or participants whose data were based upon proxy responses. Further, no notable differences in pooled risk estimates emerged across strata of sex, age, race, study type, and study area.
This collaborative-pooled analysis provides additional evidence for a positive association between heavy alcohol consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.
PMCID: PMC3265544  PMID: 21536662
alcohol drinking; case–control studies; ethanol; pancreatic cancer; pooled analysis; risk factors
5.  Cigar and pipe smoking, smokeless tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) 
Annals of Oncology  2011;22(6):1420-1426.
Background: Cigarette smoking is the best-characterized risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, data are limited for other tobacco smoking products and smokeless tobacco.
Materials and methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of cigar and pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use and risk of pancreatic cancer using data from 11 case–control studies (6056 cases and 11 338 controls) within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Pooled odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional multiple logistic regression models adjusted for study center and selected covariates.
Results: Compared with never tobacco users, the OR for cigar-only smokers was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2–2.3), i.e. comparable to that of cigarette-only smokers (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4–1.6). The OR was 1.1 (95% CI 0.69–1.6) for pipe-only smokers. There was some evidence of increasing risk with increasing amount of cigar smoked per day (OR 1.82 for ≥ 10 grams of tobacco), although not with duration. The OR for ever smokeless tobacco users as compared with never tobacco users was 0.98 (95% CI 0.75–1.3).
Conclusion: This collaborative analysis provides evidence that cigar smoking is associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, while no significant association emerged for pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use.
PMCID: PMC3139985  PMID: 21245160
cigar; pancreatic cancer; pooled analysis; smokeless tobacco; tobacco; pipe
6.  Long term follow up of patients treated for Helicobacter pylori infection 
Gut  2005;54(11):1536-1540.
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection induces progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa that may lead to gastric cancer. Understanding long term effects resulting from the cure of this infection is needed to design cancer prevention strategies.
Methods: A cohort of 795 adults with preneoplastic gastric lesions was randomised to receive anti-H pylori treatment and/or antioxidants. At the end of six years of intervention, those who did not receive anti-H pylori treatment were offered it. Gastric biopsies were obtained at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 years. A histopathology score was utilised to document changes in gastric lesions. Non-linear mixed models were used to estimate the cumulative effect of H pylori clearance on histopathology scores adjusted for follow up time, interventions, and confounders.
Results: Ninety seven per cent of subjects were H pylori positive at baseline, and 53% were positive at 12 years. Subjects accumulated 1703 person years free of infection. A multivariate model showed a significant regression in histopathology score as a function of the square of H pylori negative time. Subjects who were H pylori negative had 14.8% more regression and 13.7% less progression than patients who were positive at 12 years (p = 0.001). The rate of healing of gastric lesions occurred more rapidly as years free of infection accumulated, and was more pronounced in less advanced lesions.
Conclusions: Preneoplastic gastric lesions regress at a rate equal to the square of time in patients rendered free of H pylori infection. Our findings suggest that patients with preneoplastic gastric lesions should be treated and cured of their H pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC1462952  PMID: 15985559
gastric atrophy; dysplasia; metaplasia; Helicobacter pylori; randomised trial
7.  Long-term colonization with single and multiple strains of Helicobacter pylori assessed by DNA fingerprinting. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1995;33(4):918-923.
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori establishes long-term chronic infections that can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcers, and cancer. The species is so diverse that distinctly different strains are generally recovered from each patient. To better understand the dynamics of long-term carriage, we characterized H. pylori isolates from initial and follow-up biopsy specimens from a patient population at high risk of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. Eighty-five isolates were obtained from 23 patients and were analyzed by genomic restriction enzyme analysis, arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprinting, (random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis), and/or restriction of specific PCR-amplified genes (restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis). A single strain was found in sequential biopsy specimens from 12 of 15 patients (80%) receiving sucralfate. In the remaining three patients treated with sucralfate, two strains were identified in two patients and three strains were identified in the third patient. In contrast, a single strain was found in sequential biopsy specimens from only three of eight patients (37%) receiving bismuth, metronidazole, and nitrofurantoin. Two strains were identified in five other patients receiving bismuth-antibiotic (63%). Immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori were present in the sera of all patients. Thus, H. pylori colonization can persist for long periods (up to at least 4 years), despite high titers of immunoglobulin G antibodies in serum. Resistance to metronidazole was noted in some strains before and/or after treatment, but all strains remained susceptible to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and nitrofurantoin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC228068  PMID: 7790461

Results 1-7 (7)