Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a new neuroimaging technique, which uses tissue magnetic susceptibility differences to generate a unique contrast, different from that of spin density, T1, T2, and T2*. In this review (the first of 2 parts), we present the technical background for SWI. We discuss the concept of gradient-echo images and how we can measure local changes in susceptibility. Armed with this material, we introduce the steps required to transform the original magnitude and phase images into SWI data. The use of SWI filtered phase as a means to visualize and potentially quantify iron in the brain is presented. Advice for the correct interpretation of SWI data is discussed, and a set of recommended sequence parameters for different field strengths is given.
(G2019S) mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Twelve- to sixteen-month-old (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice prepared by us displayed progressive degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic neurons and parkinsonism phenotypes of motor dysfunction. LRRK2 is a member of mixed lineage kinase subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs). We hypothesized that (G2019S) mutation augmented LRRK2 kinase activity, leading to overphosphorylation of downstream MAPK kinase (MKK) and resulting in activation of neuronal death signal pathway. Consistent with our hypothesis, (G2019S) LRRK2 expressed in HEK 293 cells exhibited an augmented kinase activity of phosphorylating MAPK kinase 4 (MKK4) at Ser257, and protein expression of active phospho-MKK4Ser257 was upregulated in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Protein level of active phospho-JNKThr183/Tyr185 and phospho-c-JunSer63, downstream targets of phospho-MKK4Ser257, was increased in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 mice. Upregulated mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bim and FasL, target genes of phospho-c-JunSer63, and formation of active caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were also observed in the SN of (G2019S) LRRK2 transgenic mice. Our results suggest that mutant (G2019S) LRRK2 activates MKK4-JNK-c-Jun pathway in the SN and causes the resulting degeneration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in PD transgenic mice.
Parkinson's disease; (G2019S) LRRK2; dopaminergic neurons; MKK4; JNK
A novel nucleoside analogue, 1-[(2S,4S-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]5-vinylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, or HDVD, was evaluated against a wide variety of herpesviruses and was found to be a highly selective inhibitor of replication of the gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HDVD had also a pronounced inhibitory activity against murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In contrast, replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was weakly inhibited by the compound, and no antiviral activity was determined against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). The HDVD-resistant virus phenotype contained point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV-1, MHV-68, and HVS isolates. These mutations conferred cross-resistance to other TK-dependent drugs, with the exception of an MHV-68 mutant (E358D) that exhibited resistance only to HDVD. HSV-1 and HVS TK-mutants isolated under selective pressure with bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU) also showed reduced sensitivity to HDVD. Oral treatment with HDVD and BVDU was assessed in an intranasal model of MHV-68 infection in BALB/c mice. In contrast to BVDU treatment, HDVD-treated animals showed a reduction in viral DNA loads and diminished viral gene expression during acute viral replication in the lungs in comparison to levels in untreated controls. The valyl ester prodrug of HDVD (USS-02-71-44) suppressed the latent infection in the spleen to a greater extent than HDVD. In the present study, HDVD emerged as a highly potent antiviral with a unique spectrum of activity against herpesviruses, in particular, gammaherpesviruses, and may be of interest in the treatment of virus-associated diseases.
Sustaining a high growth rate requires tumors to exploit resources in their microenvironment. One example of this is the extensive angiogenesis that is a typical feature of high-grade gliomas. Here, we show that expression of the constitutively active mutant epidermal growth factor receptor, ΔEGFR (EGFRvIII, EGFR*, de2-7EGFR) is associated with significantly higher expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factor interleukin (IL)-8 in human glioma specimens and glioma stem cells. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of ΔEGFR in different glioma cell lines caused up to 60-fold increases in the secretion of IL-8. Xenografts of these cells exhibit increased neovascularization, which is not elicited by cells overexpressing wildtype (wt)EGFR or ΔEGFR with an additional kinase domain mutation. Analysis of the regulation of IL-8 by site-directed mutagenesis of its promoter showed that ΔEGFR regulates its expression through the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activator protein 1 (AP-1) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP). Glioma cells overexpressing ΔEGFR showed constitutive activation and DNA binding of NF-κB, overexpression of c-Jun and activation of its upstream kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and overexpression of C/EBPβ. Selective pharmacological or genetic targeting of the NF-κB or AP-1 pathways efficiently blocked promoter activity and secretion of IL-8. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knock-down of either IL-8 or the NF-κB subunit p65, in ΔEGFR-expressing cells attenuated their ability to form tumors and to induce angiogenesis when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. On the contrary, the overexpression of IL-8 in glioma cells lacking ΔEGFR potently enhanced their tumorigenicity and produced highly vascularized tumors, suggesting the importance of this cytokine and its transcription regulators in promoting glioma angiogenesis and tumor growth.
glioblastoma; EGFR; ΔEGFR; angiogenesis; NF-κB; IL-8
Multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes have recently been identified and shown to contribute to cell death in tissue injury. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an FDA-approved therapeutic modality used for various inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate dynamic responses of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in stroke and to determine whether the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes can be targeted with IVIg for therapeutic intervention. Primary cortical neurons were subjected to glucose deprivation (GD), oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) or simulated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Ischemic stroke was induced in C57BL/6J mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion. Neurological assessment was performed, brain tissue damage was quantified, and NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome protein levels were evaluated. NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome components were also analyzed in postmortem brain tissue samples from stroke patients. Ischemia-like conditions increased the levels of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins, and IL-1β and IL-18, in primary cortical neurons. Similarly, levels of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins, IL-1β and IL-18 were elevated in ipsilateral brain tissues of cerebral I/R mice and stroke patients. Caspase-1 inhibitor treatment protected cultured cortical neurons and brain cells in vivo in experimental stroke models. IVIg treatment protected neurons in experimental stroke models by a mechanism involving suppression of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Our findings provide evidence that the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes have a major role in neuronal cell death and behavioral deficits in stroke. We also identified NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition as a novel mechanism by which IVIg can protect brain cells against ischemic damage, suggesting a potential clinical benefit of therapeutic interventions that target inflammasome assembly and activity.
IVIg; ischemic stroke; inflammasome; cell death; caspase
Optical pacing has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative to electrical pacing in embryonic hearts. In this study, the feasibility of optically pacing an adult rabbit heart was explored. Hearts from adult New Zealand White rabbits (n = 9) were excised, cannulated and perfused on a modified Langendorff apparatus. Pulsed laser light (λ = 1851 nm) was directed to either the left or right atrium through a multimode optical fiber. An ECG signal from the left ventricle and a trigger pulse from the laser were recorded simultaneously to determine when capture was achieved. Successful optical pacing was demonstrated by obtaining pacing capture, stopping, then recapturing as well as by varying the pacing frequency. Stimulation thresholds measured at various pulse durations suggested that longer pulses (8 ms) had a lower energy capture threshold. To determine whether optical pacing caused damage, two hearts were perfused with 30 µM of propidium iodide and analyzed histologically. A small number of cells near the stimulation site had compromised cell membranes, which probably limited the time duration over which pacing was maintained. Here, short-term optical pacing (few minutes duration) is demonstrated in the adult rabbit heart for the first time. Future studies will be directed to optimize optical pacing parameters to decrease stimulation thresholds and may enable longer-term pacing.
(140.3460) Lasers; (170.3890) Medical optics instrumentation
In this initial report, we document preoperative outcomes of a behavioral lifestyle intervention delivered to patients prior to bariatric surgery. Participants (N = 240) were 86.7% female, 82.9% white, 52.3% married, and 85.8% had ≥ high school education. Mean BMI was 47.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2 and age was 45.2 ± 11 years. After completing a baseline assessment, patients were randomized to a 6-month, evidence-informed, manualized lifestyle intervention (LIFESTYLE, n = 121) or to preoperative care as usual (USUAL CARE, n = 119). At 6 months, 187 participants remained candidates for bariatric surgery and were included in the analyses. Results indicated that LIFESTYLE participants lost significantly more weight than those receiving USUAL CARE [8.3 ± 7.8 kg vs. 3.3 ± 5.5 kg, F(1,182) = 23.6, p < 0.0001], with an effect size of 0.72. LIFESTYLE patients were more likely to lose at least 5% of initial body weight than those in USUAL CARE (OR = 4.98, p < 0.0001), as were participants who were older (OR = 1.04, p = 0.01 for every year increase in age) or heavier (OR = 1.06, p = 0.02 for each unit increase in BMI). A behavioral lifestyle intervention for severely overweight individuals leads to clinically significant weight loss prior to bariatric surgery. Post-surgery follow-up will allow us to examine the impact of the preoperative intervention on postoperative outcomes.
Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. To understand the molecular genetic events underlying thyroid carcinogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that spontaneously develops follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PV mouse). This mutant mouse harbors a dominantnegative mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted PV). The PV mutation was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH). ThrbPV/PV mice exhibit highly elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and increased TH. We have previously shown that thyroidstimulating hormone is required, but not sufficient to induce metastatic follicular thyroid cancer in ThrbPV/PV mice. However, whether the elevated TH also contributes to the thyroid carcinogenesis of ThrbPV/PV mice was not elucidated. To understand the role of TH in thyroid carcinogenesis, we blocked the production of TH by treating ThrbPV/PV mice with propylthiouracil (ThrbPV/PV-PTU mice) and compared the development of thyroid cancer in ThrbPV/PV-PTU and untreated ThrbPV/PV mice. We found that thyroid tumor growth was reduced by ~42% in ThrbPV/PV-PTU mice as compared with ThrbPV/PV mice. Analysis by bromodeoxyuridine- nuclear labeling showed decreased incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine in thyroid tumor cells of ThrbPV/PV-PTU mice, indicative of decreased tumor cell proliferation. However, cleaved-caspase 3 staining showed no apparent changes in apoptosis of tumor cells in ThrbPV/PV-PTU mice. Molecular studies identified a marked attenuation of the PI3K–AKT–β-catenin signaling pathway that led to decreased protein levels of cyclin D2, thereby decreasing tumor cell proliferation in ThrbPV/PV-PTU mice. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase-2, a downstream target of β-catenin and a key regulator during tumor invasion and metastasis, was also decreased. Thus, the present study uncovers a critical role of TH in promoting the thyroid carcinogenesis of ThrbPV/PV mice via membrane signaling events. Importantly, these findings suggest that anti-thyroid drugs could be considered as possible therapeutic agents of thyroid cancer.
thyroid hormone; follicular thyroid carcinoma; animal model; protein kinase B/AKT; PTEN
Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), a major mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, targets various mitochondrial proteins for lysine deacetylation and regulates important cellular functions such as energy metabolism, aging, and stress response. In this study, we identified the human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1), a DNA repair enzyme that excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) from damaged genome, as a new target protein for Sirt3. We found that Sirt3 physically associated with OGG1 and deacetylated this DNA glycosylase and that deacetylation by Sirt3 prevented the degradation of the OGG1 protein and controlled its incision activity. We further showed that regulation of the acetylation and turnover of OGG1 by Sirt3 played a critical role in repairing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, protecting mitochondrial integrity, and preventing apoptotic cell death under oxidative stress. We observed that following ionizing radiation, human tumor cells with silencing of Sirt3 expression exhibited deteriorated oxidative damage of mtDNA, as measured by the accumulation of 8-oxoG and 4977 common deletion, and showed more severe mitochondrial dysfunction and underwent greater apoptosis in comparison with the cells without silencing of Sirt3 expression. The results reported here not only reveal a new function and mechanism for Sirt3 in defending the mitochondrial genome against oxidative damage and protecting from the genotoxic stress-induced apoptotic cell death but also provide evidence supporting a new mtDNA repair pathway.
Sirt3; OGG1; mitochondria; DNA repair; apoptosis
This article provides a brief review of multi-scale modeling at the molecular to cellular scale, with new results for heart muscle cells. A finite element-based simulation package (SMOL) was used to investigate the signaling transduction at molecular and sub-cellular scales (http://mccammon.ucsd.edu/smol/, http://FETK.org) by numerical solution of time-dependent Smoluchowski equations and a reaction-diffusion system. At the molecular scale, SMOL has yielded experimentally-validated estimates of the diffusion-limited association rates for the binding of acetylcholine to mouse acetylcholinesterase using crystallographic structural data. The predicted rate constants exhibit increasingly delayed steady-state times with increasing ionic strength and demonstrate the role of an enzyme’s electrostatic potential in influencing ligand binding. At the sub-cellular scale, an extension of SMOL solves a non-linear, reaction-diffusion system describing Ca2+ ligand buffering and diffusion in experimentally-derived rodent ventricular myocyte geometries. Results reveal the important role for mobile and stationary Ca2+ buffers, including Ca2+ indicator dye. We found that the alterations in Ca2+-binding and dissociation rates of troponin C (TnC) and total TnC concentration modulate subcellular Ca2+ signals. Model predicts that reduced off-rate in whole troponin complex (TnC, TnI, TnT) versus reconstructed thin filaments (Tn, Tm, actin) alters cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics under control conditions or in disease-linked TnC mutations. The ultimate goal of these studies is to develop scalable methods and theories for integration of molecular-scale information into simulations of cellular-scale systems.
JS-K is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing prodrug of the O2-arylated diazeniumdiolate family that has demonstrated pronounced cytotoxicity and antitumor properties in a variety of cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. The current study of the metabolic actions of JS-K was undertaken to investigate mechanisms of its cytotoxicity. Consistent with model chemical reactions, the activating step in the metabolism of JS-K in the cell is the dearylation of the diazeniumdiolate by glutathione (GSH) via a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The resulting product (CEP/NO anion) spontaneously hydrolyzes, releasing two equivalents of NO. The GSH/GSSG redox couple is considered to be the major redox buffer of the cell, helping maintain a reducing environment under basal conditions. We have quantified the effects of JS-K on cellular GSH content, and show that JS-K markedly depletes GSH, due to JS-K's rapid uptake and cascading release of NO and reactive nitrogen species. The depletion of GSH results in alterations in the redox potential of the cellular environment, initiating MAPK stress signaling pathways, and inducing apoptosis. Microarray analysis confirmed signaling gene changes at the transcriptional level and revealed alteration in the expression of several genes crucial for maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis, as well as cell proliferation and survival, including MYC. Pre-treating cells with the known GSH precursor and nucleophilic reducing agent N-acetylcysteine prevented the signaling events that lead to apoptosis. These data indicate that multiplicative depletion of the reduced glutathione pool and deregulation of intracellular redox balance are important initial steps in the mechanism of JS-K's cytotoxic action.
► JS-K is a NO-releasing prodrug, with anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. ► JS-K metabolism results in the arylation of cellular glutathione (GSH). ► Micromolar levels of JS-K in media significantly deplete the cellular GSH reserve. ► Deregulation of cells' redox balance is a key contributor to JS-K toxicity.
ATF, activating transcription factor; DAF-FM, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate; DCF-DA, 5-(and 6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; FBS, fetal bovine serum; GSH, glutathione; GSSG, glutathione disulfide (oxidized GSH); HBSS, Hank's balanced salt solution; IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis; JS-K, O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate; LC/MS, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; NO, nitric oxide; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; PARP, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SAPK/JNK, stress activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase.; Glutathione; Nitric oxide; Arylated diazeniumdiolate; Leukemia
Myostatin, or GDF8, is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. A non-functional myostatin mutation leads to a double muscling phenotype in some species, for example, mice, cattle and humans. Previous studies have indicated that there are loci in the genome that interact with myostatin to control backfat depth and other complex traits. We now report a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study designed to identify loci that interact with myostatin to impact growth traits in mice. Body weight and average daily gain traits were collected on F2 progeny derived from a myostatin-null C57BL/6 strain by M16i cross. In all, 44 main effect QTL were detected above a 5% genome-wide significance threshold when an interval mapping method was used. An additional 37 QTL were identified to significantly interact with myostatin, sex or reciprocal cross. A total of 12 of these QTL interacted with myostatin genotype. These results provide a foundation for the further fine mapping of genome regions that harbor loci that interact with myostatin.
QTL mapping; growth traits; epistasis; myostatin; mouse
Stafne bone cavity (SBC) was mostly described as a small oval radiolucency in the posterior mandibular region. To the best of our knowledge, the literature does not contain any report of the use of cone beam CT (CBCT) sialography for the diagnosis of this entity. The aim of this paper is to present a large, irregular and expanded atypical SBC, which made diagnosis difficult. A CBCT sialography was performed to get a definite diagnosis of this rare entity.
Stafne bone cavity; cone beam computed tomography; sialography
Thyroid carcinomas, the most common endocrine tumors in humans, have an increasing incidence in the U.S. and worldwide. There are four major types of thyroid cancers: papillary, follicular, anaplastic, and medullary carcinomas. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the identification of genetic alterations in thyroid carcinomas, particularly, papillary and medullary thyroid cancers. Mouse models of thyroid cancer are valuable tools in elucidating molecular genetic changes underlying thyroid carcinogenesis and in identifying potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Representative mouse models of papillary, follicular, and medullary carcinomas are reviewed here with particular emphasis on those for follicular thyroid carcinomas. Challenges for further development in the modeling of thyroid cancer will also be discussed.
thyroid cancer; thyroid hormone; mouse models
Inactivation and silencing of PTEN have been observed in multiple cancers, including follicular thyroid carcinoma. PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10) functions as a tumour suppressor by opposing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signalling pathway. Despite correlative data, how deregulated PTEN signalling leads to thyroid carcinogenesis is not known. Mice harbouring a dominant-negative mutant thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβPV/PV mice) spontaneously develop follicular thyroid carcinoma and distant metastases similar to human cancer. To elucidate the role of PTEN in thyroid carcinogenesis, we generated TRβPV/PV mice haploinsufficient for Pten (TRβPV/PVPten+/− mouse). PTEN deficiency accelerated the progression of thyroid tumour and increased the occurrence of metastasis spread to the lung in TRβPV/PVPten+/− mice, thereby significantly reducing their survival as compared with TRβPV/PVPten+/+ mice. AKT activation was further increased by two-fold in TRβPV/PVPten+/− mice thyroids, leading to increased activity of the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)–p70S6K signalling and decreased activity of the forkhead family member FOXO3a. Consistently, cyclin D1 expression was increased. Apoptosis was decreased as indicated by increased expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and decreased caspase-3 activity in the thyroids of TRβPV/PVPten+/− mice. Our results indicate that PTEN deficiency resulted in increased cell proliferation and survival in the thyroids of TRβPV/PVPten+/− mice. Altogether, our study provides direct evidence to indicate that in vivo, PTEN is a critical regulator in the follicular thyroid cancer progression and invasiveness.
thyroid cancer; Pten; carcinogenesis; mouse model; mutations
Correlative data suggest that thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) mutations could increase the risk of mammary tumor development, but unequivocal evidence is still lacking. To explore the role of TRβ mutants in vivo in breast tumor development and progression, we took advantage of a knock-in mouse model harboring a mutation in the Thrb gene encoding TRβ (ThrbPV mouse). Although in adult nulliparous females, a single ThrbPV allele did not contribute to mammary gland abnormalities, the presence of two ThrbPV alleles led to mammary hyperplasia in ~36% ThrbPV/PV mice. The ThrbPV mutation further markedly augmented the risk of mammary hyperplasia in a mouse model with high susceptibility to mammary tumors (Pten+/− mouse), as demonstrated by the occurrence of mammary hyperplasia in ~60% of Thrbpv/+Pten+/− and ~77% of ThrbPV/PV Pten+/− mice versus ~33% of Thrb+/+Pten+/− mice. The ThrbPV mutation increased the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) to increase cell proliferation and the expression of the STAT5 target gene encoding β-casein in the mammary gland. We next sought to understand the molecular mechanism underlying STAT5 overactivation by TRβPV. Cell-based studies with a breast cancer cell line (T47D cells) showed that thyroid hormone (T3) repressed STAT5 signaling in TRβ-expressing cells through decreasing STAT5-mediated transcription activity and target gene expression, whereas sustained STAT5 signaling was observed in TRβPV-expressing cells. Collectively, these findings show for the first time that a TRβ mutation promotes the development of mammary hyperplasia via aberrant activation of STAT5, thereby conferring a fertile genetic ground for tumorigenesis.
thyroid hormone receptor; breast cancer; mammary tumors; Pten; mouse models
Aberrant expression and mutations of thyroid hormone receptor genes (TRs) are closely associated with several types of human cancers. To test the hypothesis that TRs could function as tumor suppressors, we took advantage of mice with deletion of all functional TRs (TRα1−/− TRβ−/−mice). As these mice aged, they spontaneously developed follicular thyroid carcinoma with pathological progression from hyperplasia to capsular invasion, vascular invasion, anaplasia and metastasis to the lung, similar to human thyroid cancer. Detailed molecular analysis revealed that known tumor promoters such as pituitary tumor-transforming gene were activated and tumor suppressors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and p53 were suppressed during carcinogenesis. In addition, consistent with the human cancer, AKT–mTOR–p70S6K signaling and vascular growth factor and its receptor were activated to facilitate tumor progression. This report presents in vivo evidence that functional loss of both TRα1 and TRβ genes promotes tumor development and metastasis. Thus, TRs could function as tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer.
thyroid cancer; mouse model; mutations of thyroid hormone receptors
Evidence suggests that NK and NKT cells contribute to inflammation and mortality during septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). However, the specific contributions of these cell types to the pathogenesis of CLP-induced septic shock have not been fully defined. The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which NK and NKT cells mediate the host response to CLP. Control, NK cell-deficient, and NKT cell-deficient mice underwent CLP. Survival, cytokine production, and bacterial clearance were measured. NK cell trafficking and interaction with myeloid cells was also studied. Results show that mice treated with anti-asialoGM1 (NK cell deficient) or anti-NK1.1 (NK/NKT cell deficient) show less systemic inflammation and have improved survival compared with IgG-treated controls. CD1 knockout mice (NKT cell deficient) did not demonstrate decreased cytokine production or improved survival compared with wild type mice. Trafficking studies show migration of NK cells from blood and spleen into the inflamed peritoneal cavity where they appear to facilitate the activation of peritoneal macrophages (F4–80+GR-1−) and F4–80+Gr-1+ myeloid cells. These findings indicate that NK but not CD1-restricted NKT cells contribute to acute CLP-induced inflammation. NK cells appear to mediate their proinflammatory functions during septic shock, in part, by migration into the peritoneal cavity and amplification of the proinflammatory activities of specific myeloid cell populations. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms used by NK cells to facilitate acute inflammation during septic shock.
Background: Rituximab has been associated with hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBV-R). However, the characteristics and scope of this association remain largely undefined.
Methods: We completed a comprehensive literature search of all published rituximab-associated HBV-R cases and from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) MedWatch database. Literature and FDA cases were compared for completeness, and a meta-analysis was completed.
Results: One hundred and eighty-three unique cases of rituximab-associated HBV-R were identified from the literature (n = 27 case reports, n = 156 case series). The time from last rituximab to reactivation was 3 months (range 0–12), although 29% occurred >6 months after last rituximab. Within FDA data (n = 118 cases), there was a strong signal for rituximab-associated HBV-R [proportional reporting ratio = 28.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9–34.1; Empiric Bayes Geometric Mean = 26.4, 95% CI 21.4–31.1]. However, the completeness of data in FDA reports was significantly inferior compared with literature cases (P < 0.0001). Among HBV core antibody (HBcAb(+)) series, the pooled effect of rituximab-based therapy showed a significantly increased risk of HBV-R compared with nonrituximab-treated patients (odds ratio 5.73, 95% CI 2.01–16.33; Z = 3.33, P = 0.0009) without heterogeneity (χ2 = 2.12, P = 0.5473).
Conclusions: The FDA AERS provided strong HBV-R safety signals; however, literature-based cases provided a significantly more complete description. Furthermore, meta-analysis of HBcAb(+) series identified a more than fivefold increased rate of rituximab-associated HBV-R.
FDA; HBV reactivation; hepatitis B virus; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; rituximab
Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) has been reported to suppress metastasis without significantly affecting tumorigenicity in breast cancer and ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of BRMS1 in human melanoma progression and prognosis, we established tissue microarray and BRMS1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 41 dysplastic nevi, 90 primary melanomas and 47 melanoma metastases. We found that BRMS1 expression was significantly decreased in metastatic melanoma compared with primary melanoma or dysplastic nevi (P=0.021 and 0.001, respectively, χ2 test). In addition, reduced BRMS1 staining was significantly correlated with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages (P=0.011, χ2 test), but not associated with tumor thickness, tumor ulceration and other clinicopathological parameters. Furthermore, BRMS1 expression was significantly correlated with disease-specific 5-year survival of melanoma patients (P=0.007, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that BRMS1 staining was an independent prognostic factor for melanoma patients (relative risk=0.51; confidence interval =0.29–0.91; P=0.022). Moreover, we demonstrated that BRMS1 overexpression inhibited endothelial cell growth and tube formation ability by suppressing NF-κB activity and IL-6 expression in vitro. We also showed that knockdown of BRMS1 increased IL-6 expression and promoted endothelial cell growth and tube formation. In addition, our data revealed that the BRMS1-mediated IL-6 expression is dependent on NF-κB. Strikingly, our in vivo studies using nude mice confirmed that BRMS1 inhibited blood vessel formation and the recruitment of CD31-positive cells in matrigel plugs. Taken together, BRMS1 expression was decreased in metastatic melanomas, which resulted in deficient suppression of angiogenesis and contributed to melanoma progression. BRMS1 may serve an important prognostic marker and therapeutic target for melanoma patients.
BRMS1; melanoma; tumor progression; prognosis; angiogenesis
The Ets transcription factor, Fli-1 is activated in murine erythroleukemia and overexpressed in various human malignancies including Ewing's sarcoma, induced by the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/Fli-1. Recent studies by our group and others have demonstrated that Fli-1 plays a key role in tumorigenesis, and disrupting its oncogenic function may serve as a potential treatment option for malignancies associated with its overexpression. Herein, we describe the discovery of 30 anti-Fli-1 compounds, characterized into six functional groups. Treatment of murine and human leukemic cell lines with select compounds inhibits Fli-1 protein or mRNA expression, resulting in proliferation arrest and apoptosis. This anti-cancer effect was mediated, at least in part through direct inhibition of Fli-1 function, as anti-Fli-1 drug treatment inhibited Fli-1 DNA binding to target genes, such as SHIP-1 and gata-1, governing hematopoietic differentiation and proliferation. Furthermore, treatment with select Fli-1 inhibitors revealed a positive relationship between the loss of DNA-binding activity and Fli-1 phosphorylation. Accordingly, anti-Fli-1 drug treatment significantly inhibited leukemogenesis in a murine erythroleukemia model overexpressing Fli-1. This study demonstrates the ability of this drug-screening strategy to isolate effective anti-Fli-1 inhibitors and highlights their potential use for the treatment of malignancies overexpressing this oncogene.
erythroleukemia; Fli-1; drug inhibition
One of the proposed mechanisms of trastuzumab-induced regression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) tumours includes facilitation of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediates ADCC. We presented our pilot study of adding GM-CSF to trastuzumab in patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ metastatic breast cancer.
Patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer that progressed after trastuzumab +/− chemotherapy were continued on trastuzumab 2 mg kg–1 intravenous weekly and GM-CSF 250 μg m–2 subcutaneous daily. Patients were assessed for response every 8 weeks. Treatment was continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity.
Seventeen patients were evaluable (median age 48 years, range 27–75 years). The median number of metastatic sites was 2 (range 1–3); the most common site was the liver (n=10). The median number of prior regimens for metastatic disease was 2 (range 1–5). No objective disease response was observed, but five patients (29%) had stable disease for a median duration of 15.8 (range 10–53.9) weeks. The most common adverse event was rash at the injection site. No grade 4 or irreversible adverse event was seen.
The addition of GM-CSF to trastuzumab alone had a modest clinical benefit and acceptable safety profile in heavily pretreated patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2+ metastatic breast cancer.
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; HER2; metastatic breast cancer; trastuzumab
Tomosynthesis imaging requires projection images from different viewing angles. Conventional systems use a moving xray source to acquire the individual projections. Using a stationary distributed x-ray source with a number of sources that equals the number of required projections, this can be achieved without any mechanical motion. Advantages are a potentially faster image acquisition speed, higher spatial and temporal resolution and simple system design. We present distributed x-ray sources based on carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. The field emission cathodes deliver the electrons required for x-ray production. CNT emitters feature a stable emission at high current density, a cold emission, excellent temporal control of the emitted electrons and good configurability. We discuss the use of stationary sources for two applications: (i) a linear tube for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (sDBT), and (ii) a square tube for on-board tomosynthesis image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Results from high energy distributed sources up to 160kVp are also presented.
tomosynthesis; field emission; CNT; distributed sources; x-ray; mammography; image-guided radiation therapy
Uncertainty surrounds the effects of cerebral edema on outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
We used data from the INTERACT trial to determine the predictors and prognostic significance of “perihematomal” edema over 72 hours after ICH. INTERACT included 404 patients with CT-confirmed ICH and elevated systolic blood pressure (BP) (150–220 mm Hg) who had the capacity to commence BP lowering treatment within 6 hours of ICH. Baseline and repeat CT (24 and 72 hours) were performed using standardized techniques, with digital images analyzed centrally. Predictors of growth in edema were determined using generalized estimating equations, and its effects on clinical outcomes were estimated using a logistic regression model.
Overall, 270 patients had 3 sequential CT scans available for analyses. At baseline, there was a highly significant correlation between hematoma and perihematomal edema volumes (r2 = 0.45). Lower systolic BP and baseline hematoma volume were independently associated with absolute increase in perihematomal edema volume. History of hypertension, baseline hematoma volume, and earlier time from onset to CT were independently associated with relative increase in edema volume. Both absolute and relative increases in perihematomal edema growth were significantly associated with death or dependency at 90 days after adjustment for age, gender, and randomized treatment, but not when additionally adjusted for baseline hematoma volume.
The degree of, and growth in, perihematomal edema are strongly related to the size of the underlying hematoma of acute intracerebral hemorrhage, and do not appear to have a major independent effect in determining the outcome from this condition.
= American Heart Association;
= blood pressure;
= confidence interval;
= Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine;
= Glasgow Coma Scale;
= intracerebral hemorrhage;
= Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial;
= interquartile range;
= modified Rankin scale;
= National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale;
= standard deviation;
= standard error.
Microarray-based classifiers and associated signature genes generated from various platforms are abundantly reported in the literature; however, the utility of the classifiers and signature genes in cross-platform prediction applications remains largely uncertain. As part of the MicroArray Quality Control Phase II (MAQC-II) project, we show in this study 80–90% cross-platform prediction consistency using a large toxicogenomics data set by illustrating that: (1) the signature genes of a classifier generated from one platform can be directly applied to another platform to develop a predictive classifier; (2) a classifier developed using data generated from one platform can accurately predict samples that were profiled using a different platform. The results suggest the potential utility of using published signature genes in cross-platform applications and the possible adoption of the published classifiers for a variety of applications. The study reveals an opportunity for possible translation of biomarkers identified using microarrays to clinically validated non-array gene expression assays.
microarray; cross-platform; gene signature; classifier; MAQC; hepatotoxicity