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1.  Exposure to Inhalable, Respirable, and Ultrafine Particles in Welding Fume 
Annals of Occupational Hygiene  2012;56(5):557-567.
This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m−3 for inhalable and 1.29 mg m−3 for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m−3). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements
doi:10.1093/annhyg/mes025
PMCID: PMC3387834  PMID: 22539559
exposure; inhalable particles; manganese; respirable particles; UFP; welding fume

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