Formaldehyde is an essential metabolic intermediate in human cells and can also enter into the body through environmental exposures. It is classified as a human and animal carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Previous research has demonstrated that formaldehyde is genotoxic, causing mutations in multiple genes. However, no exogenous formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts have been detected in animals after inhalation exposure, although formaldehyde can result in N6-deoxyadenosine, N2-deoxyguanosine and N4-deoxycytidine adducts in vitro. This can be partially attributed to the rapid metabolism of formaldehyde by glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzyme systems. Among the intermediates in the pathway of formaldehyde detoxication, S-hydroxymethylglutathione is a reactive species and has the potential to further conjugate with DNA bases. Here, we have demonstrated the formation of S-[1-(N2-deoxyguanosinyl)methyl]glutathione between glutathione and DNA in the presence of formaldehyde. This adduct is unique because of the involvement of S-hydroxymethylglutathione which is a key player during the detoxication of formaldehyde.
1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N′-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015 – 0.060 μg/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19 – 2.2 μg/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 μg/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 μg/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI.
1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA); biomarker; 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI); diisocyanate-induced asthma
Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) may serve as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed populations. However, the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We measured acid-hydrolyzed urine HDA levels along with dermal and breathing-zone levels of HDI in 48 automotive spray painters. These measurements were conducted over the course of an entire workday for up to three separate workdays that were spaced approximately 1 month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints and subsequent samples were collected during the workday. HDA levels varied throughout the day and ranged from nondetectable to 65.9 μg l−1 with a geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.10 μg l−1 ± 6.68. Dermal exposure and inhalation exposure levels, adjusted for the type of respirator worn, were both significant predictors of urine HDA levels in the linear mixed models. Creatinine was a significant covariate when used as an independent variable along with dermal and respirator-adjusted inhalation exposure. Consequently, exposure assessment models must account for the water content of a urine sample. These findings indicate that HDA exhibits a biphasic elimination pattern, with a half-life of 2.9 h for the fast elimination phase. Our results also indicate that urine HDA level is significantly associated with systemic HDI exposure through both the skin and the lungs. We conclude that urinary HDA may be used as a biomarker of exposure to HDI, but biological monitoring should be tailored to reliably capture the intermittent exposure pattern typical in this industry.
biomarkers; creatinine; dermal exposure; 1,6-hexamethylene diamine; 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate; inhalation exposure; urine analysis
Exposure to formaldehyde results in the formation of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) as a primary genotoxic effect. Although DPCs are biologically important and eight amino acids have been reported to form stable adducts with formaldehyde, the structures of these cross-links have not yet been elucidated. We have characterized formaldehyde-induced cross-links of Lys, Cys, His and Trp with dG, dA and dC. dT formed no cross-links, nor did Arg, Gln, Tyr or Asn. Reaction of formaldehyde with Lys and dG gave the highest yield of cross-linked products, followed by reaction with Cys and dG. Yields from the other coupling reactions were lower by a factor of 10 or more. Detailed structural examination by NMR and mass spectrometry established that the cross-links between amino acids and single nucleosides involve a formaldehyde-derived methylene bridge. Lys yielded two additional products with dG in which the linking structure is a 1,N2-fused triazino ring. The Lys cross-linked products were unstable at ambient temperature. Reactions between the reactive Nα-Boc-protected amino acids and the trinucleotides d(T1B2T3) where B2 is the target base G, A or C and reactions between dG, dA and dC and 8-mer peptides containing a single reactive target residue at position 5 yielded cross-linked products with structures inferred from high resolution mass spectrometry and fragmentation patterns that are consistent with those between Nα-Boc-protected amino acids and single nucleotides rigorously determined by NMR studies. These structures will provide a basis for investigation of the characteristics and properties of DPCs formed in vivo and will be helpful in identifying biomarkers for the evaluation of formaldehyde exposure both at site of contact and at distant sites.
Formaldehyde; DNA-protein crosslink; Structure Elucidation
Quantification of amines in biological samples is important for evaluating occupational exposure to diisocyanates. In this study, we describe the quantification of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in hydrolyzed plasma of 46 spray painters applying 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-containing paint in vehicle repair shops collected during repeated visits to their workplace and their relationship with dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI monomer. HDA was detected in 76% of plasma samples, as heptafluorobutyryl derivatives, and the range of HDA concentrations was ≤0.02–0.92 μg l−1. After log-transformation of the data, the correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI inhalation exposure measured on the same workday was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.026) compared with the correlation between plasma HDA levels and inhalation exposure occurring ∼20 to 60 days before blood collection (N = 29, r = 0.57, P = 0.0014). The correlation between plasma HDA levels and HDI dermal exposure measured on the same workday, although statistically significant, was low (N = 108, r = 0.22, P = 0.040) while the correlation between HDA and dermal exposure occurring ∼20 to 60 days before blood collection was slightly improved (N = 29, r = 0.36, P = 0.053). We evaluated various workplace factors and controls (i.e. location, personal protective equipment use and paint booth type) as modifiers of plasma HDA levels. Workers using a downdraft-ventilated booth had significantly lower plasma HDA levels relative to semi-downdraft and crossdraft booth types (P = 0.0108); this trend was comparable to HDI inhalation and dermal exposure levels stratified by booth type. These findings indicate that HDA concentration in hydrolyzed plasma may be used as a biomarker of cumulative inhalation and dermal exposure to HDI and for investigating the effectiveness of exposure controls in the workplace.
biomarker; dermal exposure; 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA); 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI); inhalation exposure; plasma
Trichloroethylene (TCE, CAS 79-01-6) is a widely used industrial chemical, and a common environmental pollutant. TCE is a well-known carcinogen in rodents and is classified as “probably carcinogenic to humans”. Several analytical methods have been proposed for detection of TCE metabolites in biological media utilizing derivatization-free techniques; however, none of them is suitable for simultaneous detection of both oxidative metabolites and glutathione conjugates of TCE in small volume biological samples. Here, we report a new combination of methods for assessment of major TCE metabolites: dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (DCVC), and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl) glutathione (DCVG). First, DCA and TCA were extracted with ether. Second, the remaining aqueous fraction underwent solid phase extraction for DCVC and DCVG. Then, DCA and TCA were measured by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography ion exchange negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, while DCVC and DCVG were measured by reverse phase positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This method was applied successfully to measure all 4 TCE metabolites in as little as 50 μl of serum from mice orally exposed to TCE (2,100 mg/kg, 2 hrs). Serum concentrations (mean±standard deviation) of the TCE metabolites obtained with this method are comparable or equivalent to those previously reported in the literature: DCA, 0.122±0.014 nmol/ml (limit of detection: 0.01 nmol/ml); TCA, 256±30 nmol/ml (0.4 nmol/ml); DCVG, 0.037±0.015 nmol/ml (0.001 nmol/ml); DCVC, 0.0024±0.0009 nmol/ml (0.001 nmol/ml). This method opens new opportunities to increase throughput and decrease number of animals required for mechanistic studies on TCE in rodents.
trichloroethylene metabolites; HPLC-ESI-MS/MS; dichloroacetic acid; trichloroacetic acid; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine; S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione; HILIC
The oxidation of guanine to 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2-Ih) is shown to be a major transformation in the oxidation of the single-stranded DNA 5-mer d(TTGTT) by m-CPBA and DMDO as a model for peracid oxidants and in the oxidation of the 5-base pair duplex d[(TTGTT)·(AACAA)] with DMDO. 2-Ih has not been reported as an oxidative lesion at the level of single/double-stranded DNA or at the nucleoside/nucleotide level. The lesion is stable to DNA digestion and chromatographic purification suggesting that 2-Ih may be a stable biomarker in vivo. The oxidation products have been structurally characterized and the reaction mechanism probed by oxidation of the monomeric species dGuo, dGMP and dGTP. DMDO selectively oxidizes the guanine moiety of dGuo, dGMP and dGTP to 2-Ih, and both peracetic and m-chloroperbenzoic acids exhibit the same selectivity. The presence of the glycosidic bond results in the stereoselective induction of an asymmetric center at the spiro carbon to give a mixture of diastereomers, with each diastereomer in equilibrium with a minor conformer through rotation about the formamido C-N bond. Labeling studies with 18O2-m-CPBA and H218O to determine the source of the added oxygen atoms have established initial epoxidation of the guanine 4-5 bond with pyrimidine ring contraction by an acyl 1,2-migration of guanine carbonyl C6 to form a transient dehydrodeoxyspiroiminodihydantoin followed by hydrolytic ring opening of the imidazolone ring. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, no 8-oxoguanine was detected as a product of the oxidations of the oligonucleotides or monomeric species mediated by DMDO or the peracids. The 2-Ih base thus appears to be a pathway-specific lesion generated by peracids and possibly other epoxidizing agents and holds promise as a potential biomarker.
A randomized, blinded, controlled field trial was conducted during summer 2006 in a northern California, USA, herd of beef cattle to evaluate the efficacy of a recombinant Moraxella bovoculi cytotoxin subunit vaccine to prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK; pinkeye). A convenience sample comprised of 127 steers were administered a subcutaneous dose of either adjuvant alone (ISCOM matrices; control group) or recombinant M. bovoculi cytotoxin carboxy terminus adjuvanted with ISCOM matrices (MbvA group) and were boostered 21 days later. The steers were examined once weekly for 15 weeks for evidence of IBK. No significant difference in the cumulative proportion of corneal ulcerations was detected between groups. Compared to the control calves, the MbvA vaccinates had significantly higher increases in serum neutralizing titers to M. bovoculi hemolysin between week 0 and week 6. The prevalence of M. bovis isolations was higher from ulcerated eyes of calves vaccinated with MbvA as compared to control calves. Vaccination of calves against the carboxy terminus of M. bovoculi RTX toxin resulted in significant increases in serum hemolysin neutralizing titers and may modulate organism type cultured from ulcerated eyes of calves in herds where both M. bovis and M. bovoculi exist. Use of M. bovoculi antigens alone in vaccines to prevent IBK may not be beneficial in herds where IBK is associated with both M. bovoculi and M. bovis.
Moraxella bovoculi; Moraxella bovis; Cytotoxin; Subunit; Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis
[13C6]salicylate, [U-13C]naphthalene, and [U-13C]phenanthrene were synthesized and separately added to slurry from a bench-scale, aerobic bioreactor used to treat soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Incubations were performed for either 2 days (salicylate, naphthalene) or 7 days (naphthalene, phenanthrene). Total DNA was extracted from the incubations, the “heavy” and “light” DNA were separated, and the bacterial populations associated with the heavy fractions were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Unlabeled DNA from Escherichia coli K-12 was added to each sample as an internal indicator of separation efficiency. While E. coli was not detected in most analyses of heavy DNA, a low number of E. coli sequences was recovered in the clone libraries associated with the heavy DNA fraction of [13C]phenanthrene incubations. The number of E. coli clones recovered proved useful in determining the relative amount of light DNA contamination of the heavy fraction in that sample. Salicylate- and naphthalene-degrading communities displayed similar DGGE profiles and their clone libraries were composed primarily of sequences belonging to the Pseudomonas and Ralstonia genera. In contrast, heavy DNA from the phenanthrene incubations displayed a markedly different DGGE profile and was composed primarily of sequences related to the Acidovorax genus. There was little difference in the DGGE profiles and types of sequences recovered from 2- and 7-day incubations with naphthalene, so secondary utilization of the 13C during the incubation did not appear to be an issue in this experiment.