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1.  Dietary patterns are associated with plasma F2-isoprostanes in an observational cohort study of adults 
Free radical biology & medicine  2012;57:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.08.574.
Associations between individual foods or nutrients and oxidative markers have been reported. Comprehensive measures of food intake may be uniquely informative, given the complexity of oxidative systems and the possibility for antioxidant synergies. We quantified associations over a 20 y history between 3 food-based dietary patterns, summary measures of whole diet, and a plasma biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F2-isoprostanes in a cohort of Americans, aged 18–30 at year 0 (1985–86). We assessed diet at years 0, 7, and 20 through a detailed history of past-month food consumption and supplement use, and measured plasma F2-isoprostanes at years 15 and 20. We created 3 different dietary patterns: 1) a priori (“a priori diet quality score”) based on hypothesized healthy foods, 2) an empirical pattern reflecting high fruit and vegetable intake (“fruit-veg”), and 3) an empirical pattern reflecting high meat intake (“meat”). We used linear regression to estimate associations between each dietary pattern and plasma F2-isoprostanes cross-sectionally (at year 20, n=2,736) and prospectively (year 0/7 average diet and year 15/20 average F2-isoprostanes, n=2,718), adjusting for age, sex, race, total energy intake, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, physical activity, and supplement use. In multivariable-adjusted cross-sectional analysis, the a priori diet quality score and the fruit-veg diet pattern were negatively, and the meat pattern positively, associated with F2-isoprostanes (all p-values<0.001). These associations remained statistically significant in prospective analysis. Our findings suggest that a long-term adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in red meat may decrease lipid peroxidation.
doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.08.574
PMCID: PMC3872789  PMID: 22982044
cohort; epidemiology; diet; oxidative stress
2.  Passive Smoke Exposure and Circulating Carotenoids in the CARDIA Study 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism  2010;56(2):113-118.
Background/Aims
Our objective was to assess associations between passive smoke exposure in various venues and serum carotenoid concentrations.
Methods
CARDIA is an ongoing longitudinal study of the risk factors for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease. At baseline in 1985/1986, serum carotenoids were assayed and passive smoke exposure inside and outside of the home and diet were assessed by self-report. Our analytic sample consisted of 2,633 black and white non-smoking adults aged 18–30 years.
Results
Greater total passive smoke exposure was associated with lower levels of the sum of the three provitamin A carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin (–0.048 nmol/l per hour of passive smoke exposure, p = 0.001), unassociated with lutein/zeaxanthin, and associated with higher levels of lycopene (0.027 nmol/l per hour of passive smoke exposure, p = 0.010) after adjustment for demographics, diet, lipid profile, and supplement use. Exposure in both home and non-home spaces was also associated with lower levels of the provitamin A carotenoid index.
Conclusion
Cross-sectionally, in 1985/86, passive smoke exposure in various venues was associated with reduced levels of provitamin A serum carotenoids.
doi:10.1159/000277662
PMCID: PMC2842165  PMID: 20110671
Carotenoids; Micronutrients; Occupational health; Passive smoking; Smoke exposure; Tobacco smoke pollution

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