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1.  Diet, Breakfast, and Academic Performance in Children 
Annals of nutrition & metabolism  2002;46(0 1):24-30.
To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP).
Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of <50% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) and/or 2 or more micronutrients of <50% of RDA were considered to be at nutritional risk.
Prior to the USBP, 33% of all study children were classified as being at nutritional risk. Children who were at nutritional risk had significantly poorer attendance, punctuality, and grades at school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk.
Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger.
PMCID: PMC3275817  PMID: 12428078
School breakfast; Low-income children; Psychosocial functioning; Nutrition; Dietary intake
2.  Depressive symptoms predict incident stroke independently of memory impairments 
Neurology  2010;75(23):2063-2070.
We evaluated whether depressive symptoms predict the onset of first stroke independently of memory impairment. We conceptualized memory impairment as a marker of preexisting cerebrovascular disease. We hypothesized that if depressive symptoms are causally related to stroke through mechanisms unrelated to cerebrovascular disease, depressive symptoms should predict stroke independently of memory impairment.
Incidence of first stroke was assessed with self or proxy reports from 19,087 participants in the Health and Retirement Study cohort (1,864 events). Elevated depressive symptoms (3+ on an 8-item Centers for the Epidemiologic Study of Depression scale) and memory impairment (score of ≤6 on a combined immediate and delayed recall of a 10-word list) were used as predictors of incident stroke in Cox survival models with adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors.
After adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors, elevated depressive symptoms (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.39) and memory impairment (hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval 1.13–1.41) each predicted stroke incidence in separate models. Hazard ratios were nearly unchanged and remained significant (1.23 for elevated depressive symptoms and 1.25 for memory impairment) when models were simultaneously adjusted for both elevated depressive symptoms and memory impairment. Elevated depressive symptoms also predicted stroke when restricting analyses to individuals with median memory score or better.
Memory impairments and depressive symptoms independently predict stroke incidence. Memory impairment may reflect undiagnosed cerebrovascular disease. These results suggest that depressive symptoms might be directly related to stroke rather than merely indicating preexisting cerebrovascular disease.
= atrial fibrillation;
= body mass index;
= Centers for Epidemiologic Study of Depression;
= confidence interval;
= hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal;
= hazard ratio;
= Health and Retirement Study;
= inverse probability weighting;
= Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status.
PMCID: PMC2995534  PMID: 21135381
3.  Mutations in the long QT gene, KCNQ1, are an uncommon cause of atrial fibrillation 
Heart  2004;90(12):1487-1488.
PMCID: PMC1768565  PMID: 15547041
atrial fibrillation; KCNQ1; long QT syndrome; genetics
4.  Angiotensin-converting enzyme and enkephalinase in human breast cyst fluid. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;74(5):807-813.
Palpable breast cysts with an apocrine epithelial lining (type 1) are reported to be associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer. The composition of breast cyst fluid (BCF) might include those factors involved in this increased risk. In this study peptidase activities that were active against the substrate [125I]metenkephalin-Arg-Phe were detected in BCF. The products were identified by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as [125I]Tyr-Gly-Gly and [125I]Met-enkephalin. This proteolysis was not inhibited by PCMB, pepstatin A, leupeptin or aprotinin but was by EDTA, showing that the activity was due to metalloproteases. The production of [125I]Try-Gly-Gly was inhibited by phosphoramidon and thiorphan, whereas that of [125I]met-enkephalin was inhibited by captopril and Bothrops jararaca peptide, indicating that these activities are enkephalinase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) respectively. A fluorometric assay for ACE demonstrated that ACE levels are significantly higher in type 2 BCF than in type 1 BCF (30.8 vs 6.1 nmol hr-1 10 microliters-1, P < 0.001). As the increased risk of cancer is linked to type 1 cysts it is possible that higher levels of peptidase in type 2 BCF reflect a protective environment in the breast in which mitogenic peptide growth factors are neutralised by proteolysis.
PMCID: PMC2074695  PMID: 8795586
5.  Multiplex PCR for detection of the heat-labile toxin gene and shiga-like toxin I and II genes in Escherichia coli isolated from natural waters. 
A triplex PCR method was developed to simultaneously amplify a heat-labile toxin sequence (LT) of 258 bp, a shiga-like toxin I sequence (SLT I) of 130 bp, and a shiga-like toxin II sequence (SLT II) of 346 bp from toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli. This method was used to screen 377 environmental E. coli isolates from marine waters or estuaries located in Southern California and North Carolina for enterotoxigenic or enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Of the 377 E. coli screened, one isolate was found to belong to the enterotoxigenic group, since it contained a LT homologous sequence, and one isolate was found to belong to the enterohemorrhagic group, since it contained a SLT I homologous sequence. None was found to contain SLT II homologous sequences. The pathogenicity of the positive environmental E. coli isolates was confirmed by standard bioassays with Y-1 adrenal cells and Vero cells to confirm toxin production. Our results suggest that toxigenic E. coli occurs infrequently in environmental waters and that there is a low public health risk from toxigenic E. coli in coastal waters.
PMCID: PMC201782  PMID: 7944359
6.  Campylobacter pylori infection in biopsy specimens of gastric antrum: laboratory diagnosis and estimation of sampling error. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1989;42(7):727-732.
Campylobacter pylori infection was sought in 382 consecutive patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Five antral biopsy specimens were taken from each patient: one was inserted into a CLO-test to detect the urease activity of C pylori, two were sent for histological analysis where multiple sections were stained by the Warthin-Starry silver method, and two were sent for microbiological evaluation by Gram stain and culture. A patient was deemed to be infected when C pylori was cultured or seen in either the histological sections or the Gram stain of the biopsy smear. One hundred and seventy four (46%) patients were infected. Culture, Gram stain, histological examination and the CLO-test showed sensitivities of 92%, 87%, 93% and 90%, respectively. In 27 (15%) infected patients an uneven distribution of C pylori was seen between samples in the biopsy pair sent for histology. Examination of multiple sections stained with Warthin-Starry silver was more sensitive at detecting infection (93%) than examination of multiple sections from only one biopsy specimen (84%). Fifty seven of 80 patients, biopsied a median seven days (range 5 to 55) after completing colloidal bismuth subcitrate treatment, were still infected with C pylori. There was no decrease in the sensitivities of the above tests to detect infection after treatment. It is concluded that at least two antral biopsy specimens should be examined when attempting to diagnose C pylori infection by histological methods.
PMCID: PMC1142023  PMID: 2474579

Results 1-6 (6)