PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-7 (7)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
author:("aim, Irena")
1.  Gender differences in fetal growth of newborns exposed prenatally to airborne fine particulate matter 
Environmental research  2009;109(4):447-456.
Our primary purpose was to assess sex-specific fetal growth reduction in newborns exposed prenatally to fine particulate matter. Only women 18–35 years of age, who claimed to be non-smokers, with singleton pregnancies, without illicit drug use and HIV infection, free from chronic diseases were eligible for the study. A total of 481 enrolled pregnant women who gave birth between 37 and 43 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Prenatal personal exposure to fine particles over 48 h during the second trimester was measured using personal monitors. To evaluate the relationship between the level of PM2.5 measured over 48 h in the second trimester of pregnancy with those in the first and the third trimesters, a series of repeated measurements in each trimester was carried out in a random subsample of 85 pregnant women. We assessed the effect of PM2.5 exposure on the birth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference at birth) by multivariable regression models, controlling for potential confounders (maternal education, gestational age, parity, maternal height and prepregnancy weight, sex of infant, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke, and season of birth). Birth outcomes were associated positively with gestational age, parity, maternal height and prepregnancy weight, but negatively with the level of prenatal PM2.5 exposure. Overall average increase in gestational period of prenatal exposure to fine particles by about 30 μg/m3, i.e., from 25th percentile (23.4 μg/m3) to 75th percentile (53.1 μg/m3) brought about an average birth weight deficit of 97.2 g (95% CI: −201, 6.6) and length at birth of 0.7cm (95% CI: −1.36, −0.04). The corresponding exposure lead to birth weight deficit in male newborns of 189 g (95% CI: −34.2, −343) in comparison to 17 g in female newborns; the deficit of length at birth in male infants amounted to 1.1 cm (95% CI: −0.11, −2.04). We found a significant interrelationship between self-reported ETS and PM2.5, however, none of the models showed a significant interaction of both variables. The joint effect of various levels of PM2.5 and ETS on birth outcomes showed the significant deficit only for the categories of exposure with higher component of PM2.5. Concluding, the results of the study suggest that observed deficits in birth outcomes are rather attributable to prenatal PM2.5 exposure and not to environmental tobacco smoke. The study also provided evidence that male fetuses are more sensitive to prenatal PM2.5 exposure and this should persuade policy makers to consider birth outcomes by gender separately while setting air pollution guidelines.
doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.01.009
PMCID: PMC3786262  PMID: 19261271
Cohort study; Prenatal exposure; Air pollutants; Fine particles; Gender; Fetal growth deficits
2.  EFFECT OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN’S COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN THE KRAKOW PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY 
European journal of pediatrics  2011;171(1):151-158.
The main goal of the study was to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the neurodevelopment of children over a seven-year follow-up period and to test the hypothesis that the observed cognitive gain in breastfed children in the first years of life is a strong predictor of their cognitive development trajectory, which may be continued in later life.
The analysis is based on data from the seven-year follow-up of 468 term babies (>36 weeks of gestation) born to non-smoking mothers participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study. The cognitive function of children was assessed by psychometric tests performed 5 times at regular intervals from infancy through the preschool age. The study included valid neurodevelopmental assessment of the children – 443 participants were evaluated least twice, 425 – three times and 307 five times in the follow-up period. The association between the cognitive achievements of preschool age children and exclusive breastfeeding of various duration was performed using the GEE (General Estimation Equation) longitudinal model, adjusted for major confounders such as maternal education, gender, parity, and weight gain in pregnancy.
Children breastfed exclusively for up to 3 months had IQs that were on average 2.1 points higher compared to the others (95%CI: 0.24 – 3.9); children breastfed for 4 – 6 months scored higher by 2.6 points (95%CI: 0.87 – 4.27); and the benefit for children breastfed even longer (>6 months) increased by 3.8 points (95%CI: 2.11 – 5.45). Other predictors were maternal education, gender of the child, having an older sibling, and weight gain during pregnancy.
The results of the study support the WHO expert recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for six months; moreover, they provide evidence that even a shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding in early infancy produces beneficial effects on the cognitive development of children. The breastfeeding-related IQ gain observed already at the age of 1 was sustained through preschool age and the difference in terms of IQ score between breastfed children and the reference group (mixed breastfeeding) held constant over the whole preschool period.
doi:10.1007/s00431-011-1507-5
PMCID: PMC3747316  PMID: 21660433
breastfeeding; cognitive function in early childhood; prospective birth cohort study
3.  IMPACT OF BARBECUED MEAT CONSUMED IN PREGNANCY ON BIRTH OUTCOMES ACCOUNTING FOR PERSONAL PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS. BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN POLAND 
We previously reported an association between prenatal exposure to airborne PAH and lower birth weight, birth length and head circumference. The main goal of the present analysis was to assess the possible impact of co-exposure to PAH-containing of barbecued meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes.
The birth cohort consisted of 432 pregnant women who gave birth at term (>36 weeks of gestation). Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18-35 years of age, and who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension were included in the study. Detailed information on diet over pregnancy was collected through interviews and the measurement of exposure to airborne PAHs was carried out by personal air monitoring during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of barbecued meat consumption on birth outcomes (birthweight, length and head circumference at birth) was adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs, child’s sex, gestational age, parity, size of mother (maternal prepregnancy weight, weight gain in pregnancy) and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
The multivariable regression model showed a significant deficit in birthweight associated with barbecued meat consumption in pregnancy (coeff = −106.0 g; 95%CI: −293.3, −35.8); The effect of exposure to airborne PAHs was about the same magnitude order (coeff. = −164.6 g; 95%CI: −172.3, − 34.7). Combined effect of both sources of exposure amounted to birth weight deficit of 214.3 g (95%CI: −419.0, − 9.6). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference showed similar trends but the estimated effects were of borderline significance level. As the intake of barbecued meat did not affect the duration of pregnancy, the reduced birthweight could not have been mediated by shortened gestation period.
In conclusion, the study results provided epidemiologic evidence that prenatal PAH exposure from diet including grilled meat might be hazardous for fetal development.
doi:10.1016/j.nut.2011.07.020
PMCID: PMC3288524  PMID: 22079395
barbecued meat; pregnancy; birth weight; birth cohort study
4.  JOINT EFFECT OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AND INTAKE OF PARACETAMOL (ACETAMINOPHEN) IN PREGNANCY ON ONSET OF ECZEMA IN EARLY CHILDHOOD. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY 
The Science of the total environment  2011;409(24):5205-5209.
Prenatal Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) has been associated with increased risk of allergic disease in early childhood, an association that could be due to increased altered susceptibility induced by air pollutants. The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal Paracetamol exposure increases the risk of developing eczema in early childhood and that this association is stronger for children who are exposed prenatally to higher concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The study sample consisted of 322 women recruited from January 2001 to February 2004 in the Krakow inner city area who gave birth to term babies and completed 5-year follow-up. Paracetamol use in pregnancy was collected by interviews and prenatal personal exposure to over 48 hours was measured in all recruited women in the second trimester of PM2.5 pregnancy. After delivery, every three months in the first 24 months of the newborn’s life and every 6 months later, a detailed standardized face-to-face interview on the infant’s health was administered to each mother by a trained interviewer. During the interviews at each of the study periods after birth, a history of eczema was recorded.
By Cox proportional hazard regression, prenatal exposure to Paracetamol increased the risk of eczema by 20% and PM2.5 by 6%, albeit non significantly. However, the the joint exposure to Paracetamol and higher prenatal PM2.5 was significant and doubled the risk of eczema symptoms (HR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.01 – 4.34). The findings suggest that even very small doses of Paracetamol in pregnancy may affect the occurrence of allergy outcomes such as eczema in early childhood but only at the co-exposure to higher fine particulate matter.
doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.08.068
PMCID: PMC3428593  PMID: 21962593
birth cohort study; eczema; children; acetaminophen; pregnancy; prenatal fine particulate matter
5.  Prohypertensive Effect of Gestational Personal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter. Prospective Cohort Study in Non-smoking and Non-obese Pregnant Women 
Cardiovascular Toxicology  2012;12(3):216-225.
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease in adults, and this prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate whether gestational exposure to PM2.5 has a prohypertensive effect. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy among 431 women, and BP values in the third trimester were obtained from medical records of prenatal care clinics. In the general estimating equation model, the effect of PM2.5 on BP was adjusted for relevant covariates such as maternal age, education, parity, gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy BMI, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and blood lead level. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in a linear fashion across a dosage of PM2.5 and on average augmented by 6.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.6–11.6) with log unit of PM2.5 concentration. Effects of age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, blood lead level, and ETS were insignificant. Women with excessive gestational weight gain (>18 kg) had higher mean SBP parameters by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI, 2.7–8.3). In contrast, multiparous women had significantly lower SBP values (coeff. = −4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI, −6.8 to −1.6). Similar analysis performed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has demonstrated that PM2.5 also affected DBP parameters (coeff. = 4.1; 95% CI, −0.02 to 8.2), but at the border significance level. DBP values were positively associated with the excessive GWG (coeff. = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.3–4.4) but were inversely related to parity (coeff. = −2.7; 95% CI, −4.6 to −0.73). In the observed cohort, the exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy was associated with increased maternal blood pressure.
doi:10.1007/s12012-012-9157-z
PMCID: PMC3404286  PMID: 22328329
Blood pressure; Exposure to fine particulate matter; Pregnancy; Gestational weight gain; Prepregnancy ponderal index; Environmental tobacco smoke
6.  Higher Fish Consumption in Pregnancy May Confer Protection against the Harmful Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism  2010;56(2):119-126.
Background/Aim
The objective of this study was to assess a hypothesized beneficial effect of fish consumption during the last trimester of pregnancy on adverse birth outcomes resulting from prenatal exposure to fine air particulate matter.
Methods
The cohort consisted of 481 nonsmoking women with singleton pregnancies, of 18–35 years of age, who gave birth at term. All recruited women were asked about their usual diet over the period of pregnancy. Measurements of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in size (PM2.5) were carried out by personal air monitoring over 48 h during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of PM2.5 and fish intake during gestation on the birth weight of the babies was estimated from multivariable linear regression models, which beside the main independent variables considered a set of potential confounding factors such as the size of the mother (height, prepregnancy weight), maternal education, parity, the gender of the child, gestational age and the season of birth.
Results
The study showed that the adjusted birth weight was significantly lower in newborns whose mothers were exposed to particulate matter greater than 46.3 μg/m3 (β coefficient = −97.02, p = 0.032). Regression analysis stratified by the level of maternal fish consumption (in tertiles) showed that the deficit in birth weight amounted to 133.26 g (p = 0.052) in newborns whose mothers reported low fish intake (<91 g/week). The birth weight deficit in newborns whose mothers reported medium (91–205 g/week) or higher fish intake (>205 g/week) was insignificant. The interaction term between PM2.5 and fish intake levels was also insignificant (β = −107,35, p = 0.215). Neither gestational age nor birth weight correlated with maternal fish consumption.
Conclusions
The results suggest that a higher consumption of fish by women during pregnancy may reduce the risk of adverse effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants and highlight the fact that a full assessment of adverse birth outcomes resulting from prenatal exposure to ambient hazards should consider maternal nutrition during pregnancy.
doi:10.1159/000275918
PMCID: PMC2842166  PMID: 20134157
Air pollutants; Prenatal exposure; Fish consumption; Birth size; Cohort study
7.  Estimated Risk for Altered Fetal Growth Resulting from Exposure to Fine Particles during Pregnancy: An Epidemiologic Prospective Cohort Study in Poland 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2004;112(14):1398-1402.
The purpose of this study was to estimate exposure of pregnant women in Poland to fine particulate matter [≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5)] and to assess its effect on the birth outcomes. The cohort consisted of 362 pregnant women who gave birth between 34 and 43 weeks of gestation. The enrollment included only nonsmoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18–35 years of age, who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. PM2.5 was measured by personal air monitoring over 48 hr during the second trimester of pregnancy. All assessed birth effects were adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as the size of mother (maternal height, prepregnancy weight), parity, sex of child, gestational age, season of birth, and self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The regression model explained 35% of the variability in birth weight (β = −200.8, p = 0.03), and both regression coefficients for PM2.5 and birth length (β = −1.44, p = 0.01) and head circumference (HC; β = −0.73, p = 0.02) were significant as well. In all regression models, the effect of ETS was insignificant. Predicted reduction in birth weight at an increase of exposure from 10 to 50 μg/m3 was 140.3 g. The corresponding predicted reduction of birth length would be 1.0 cm, and of HC, 0.5 cm. The study provides new and convincing epidemiologic evidence that high personal exposure to fine particles is associated with adverse effects on the developing fetus. These results indicate the need to reduce ambient fine particulate concentrations. However, further research should establish possible biologic mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.
doi:10.1289/ehp.7065
PMCID: PMC1247567  PMID: 15471732
air pollutants; cohort study; fetal growth; pregnancy; prenatal exposure

Results 1-7 (7)