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1.  Age-related decline in bone density among ethnically diverse older men 
Summary
We compared rates of BMD decline in older men of diverse ethnic backgroud. The rate of bone loss was statistically equivalent between men of African and Caucasian descent.
Introduction
Race differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) are well established, but the magnitude of bone loss among non-white men has not been well characterized. Our objective was to compare and contrast the rates of decline in BMD with aging among older men of different race/ethnic groups.
Methods
The rate of decline in hip BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-4500 W) with an average follow-up of 4.6 years in 3,869 Caucasian, 138 African American, 145 Asian, and 334 Afro-Caribbean men aged≥65 years (Mean ages: 73±5, 70±4, 72±5, 71±5 years, respectively).
Results
The annual rate of decline in BMD at the femoral neck was −0.32%, −0.42%, −0.09%, and −0.44%/year for Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Afro-Caribbean men, respectively (p<0.05 for Caucasian versus Asian). Although men of African ancestry have higher peak BMD than Caucasians, rates of decline in BMD with aging appear to be statistically equivalent in our study. In contrast, Asian men experienced a slower rate of decline in BMD compared with Caucasians and African Americans.
Conclusion
More studies are needed to better define the natural history of and factors associated with bone loss among non-white men.
doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1330-2
PMCID: PMC3106993  PMID: 20567806
BMD; Bone loss; Men; Osteoporosis; Race
2.  Association of a Common G6PC2 Variant with Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels in Non-Diabetic Individuals 
Background/Aims
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels correlate with cardiovascular disease and mortality in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. G6PC2 encodes a pancreatic islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase-related protein and G6pc2-null mice were reported to exhibit decreased blood glucose levels. Two recent genome-wide association studies have implicated a role for G6PC2 in regulation of FPGlevels in the general European population and reported the strongest association with the rs560887 SNP. The purpose of this study was to replicate this association in our independent epidemiological samples.
Methods
DNA samples from non-Hispanic white Americans (NHWs; n = 623), Hispanic Americans (n = 410) and black Africans (n = 787) were genotyped for rs560887 using TaqMan allelic discrimination.
Results
While no minor allele A of rs560887 was observed among blacks, its frequency was 33% in NHWs and 17.5% in Hispanics. The rs560887 minor allele was associated with reduced FPG levels in non-diabetic NHWs (p = 0.002 under an additive model). A similar trend of association was observed in non-diabetic Hispanics (p = 0.076 under a dominant model), which was more pronounced in normoglycemic subjects (p = 0.036).
Conclusions
Our results independently confirm the robust association of G6PC2/rs560887 with FPG levels in non-diabetic NHWs. The observed evidence for association in Hispanics warrants further studies in larger samples.
doi:10.1159/000268019
PMCID: PMC2855271  PMID: 20029179
Blood glucose; Plasma glucose; Fasting plasma glucose; G6PC2; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Polymorphism; rs560887
3.  John Henryism and blood pressure among Nigerian civil servants 
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Among urban Nigerian civil servants, higher socioeconomic status is related to increased blood pressure. In the United States, the relation between increased blood pressure and low socioeconomic status or low level of education has been found to be potentiated by high effort active coping (John Henryism) among African- Americans. Thus, the potentiating effect of high effort active coping as measured by the John Henryism Active Coping Scale, on socioeconomic status, as measured by job grade, was considered in relation to blood pressure in a Nigerian civil servant population. DESIGN: The influence of John Henryism on the association between educational level or socioeconomic status and increased blood pressure was examined during a comprehensive blood pressure survey. John Henryism refers to a strong behavioural predisposition to actively cope with psychosocial environmental stressors. SETTING: Benin City, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Nigerian civil servant sample of 658 adults, aged 20 to 65 years. MAIN RESULTS: Among those with high John Henryism scores of upper socioeconomic status, whether measured by education level or job grade, there was a trend toward higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, adjusted for age and body mass index, in men and women, though not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This trend is consistent with recent findings of increased blood pressure among women and African- Americans with high John Henryism and high status jobs.
 
PMCID: PMC1756678  PMID: 9616424

Results 1-3 (3)