We evaluated the efficacy of a new anesthetic technique termed ultrasound-guided capsule-sheath space block (CSSB) combined with anterior cervical cutaneous nerve block (CCNB) for thyroidectomy.
The study included two parts: Part one was an imaging study to determine technique feasibility. The CSSB was performed on five healthy volunteers by introducing the needle 0.5 cm lateral to the probe under in-plane needle ultrasound guidance. After puncture of the false capsule and its subsequent contraction with the true capsule of thyroid, 10 mL of contrast medium was deposited slowly in the capsule-sheath space. The CCNB was performed bilaterally as follows: Under ultrasound guidance, a subcutaneous injection was made along the sternocleidomastoid using 10 mL of contrast medium which was followed by a girdle-shaped picchu raised from the cricoid cartilage to supraclavicular region. The spreading pattern of contrast medium was imaged using computed tomographic scanning. In part two (a clinical case series) the technique efficacy was evaluated. Seventy-eight patients undergoing thyroidectomy had ultrasound-guided CSSB and CCNB with local anesthetics. The sensory onset of CCNB, intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, and analgesic effect were assessed and complications were noted.
The distribution of contrast medium was well defined. In part two the onset time of CCNB was 2.2 ± 0.7 min, and the hemodynamic parameters remained stable intraoperatively. The recall of visual analogue scale scores during surgery was 2 [1–4] for median (range). The patients’ and surgeons’ satisfaction scores were 2 [1–4] and 1 [1–3] for median (range). No serious complications occurred.
Combining ultrasound-guided CSSB and CCNB is a feasible, effective and safe technique for thyroidectomy.
Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR-ONC-12002025. Registered 19 March 2012.
Regional anesthesia; Ultrasound guidance; Thyroidectomy; Contrast medium; Ropivacaine
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of different pretreatment platelet (PLT) counts on the treatment outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone. A total of 1,501 NPC patients, including 412 receiving CCRT and 1,089 receiving RT, were enrolled in the present study. The PLT count cut-off points for the CCRT and RT groups were 150 and 300×109/l, respectively, and the PLT counts were categorized it into three groups: Low (PLT≤150×109/l), moderate (150×109/l300×109/l). To identify independent predictors of overall survival (OS), the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates in the CCRT and RT patients. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that compared with a moderate PLT count, a low PLT count was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS rate in CCRT patients [hazard ratio (HR), 2.024; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.165–3.516], and a high PLT count was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS and DMFS rates in CCRT (OS: HR, 1.742; 95% CI, 1.090–2.786; DFMS: HR, 2.110; 95%CI, 1.084–4.108) and RT (OS: HR, 1.740; 95%CI, 1.283–2.362; DMFS: HR, 2.819; 95% CI, 1.766–4.497) patients. Compared with a low PLT count, a high PLT count was significantly and independently associated with a poor DMFS rate in the RT patients (P=0.025; HR, 2.454; 95% CI, 1.121–5.372). Therefore, the present study indicates that low and high PLT counts may be useful indicators of survival and distant metastasis in NPC patients who have undergone radiation treatment.
platelet count; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; radiotherapy; concurrent chemoradiotherapy; predictor; prognosis
Aim: A rapid protocol is necessary to determine the serum concentrations of prednisone. Methods: The HP1100 high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system was employed. The HP Lichrosphere C8 column (250 mm × 4 mm, i.d., 5 μm particle size) was used. The mobile phase was methanol, tetrahydrofuran and water in the ratio 25:25:50. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The sample was monitored by UV absorbance at 240 nm. Acetanilide was used as the internal standard, and methanol was added into the serum for depositing the protein. Results: The chromatography was effective and was not interfered with by the serum components. Good linearity was observed, within the range of 10-500 μg/L for prednisone, and the detection limit was 5 μg/L. The serum concentrations of prednisone between the nephrotic syndrome (NS) group and the control group were significantly different (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference between the females and males of the NS group (P > 0.05). The serum ncentration of prednisone in the steroid-resistant group was lower than that in the steroid-sensitive group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: HPLC is a practical and reliable method to determine the serum concentration of prednisone with high accuracy, precision, linearity and repeatability.
Drug monitoring; HPLC; prednisone
Fonsecaea pedrosoi (F. pedrosoi), a major agent of chromoblastomycosis, has been shown to be recognized primarily by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in a murine model of chromoblastomycosis. Specifically, the β-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, mediates Th17 development and consequent recruitment of neutrophils, and is evidenced to have the capacity to bind to saprophytic hyphae of F. pedrosoi in vitro. However, when embedded in tissue, most etiological agents of chromoblastomycosis including F. pedrosoi will transform into the sclerotic cells, which are linked to the greatest survival of melanized fungi in tissue. In this study, using immunocompetent and athymic (nu/nu) murine models infected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with F. pedrosoi, we demonstrated that T lymphocytes play an active role in the resolution of localized footpad infection, and there existed a significantly decreased expression of Th17-defining transcription factor Rorγt and inefficient recruitment of neutrophils in chronically infected spleen where the inoculated mycelium of F. pedrosoi transformed into the sclerotic cells. We also found that Dectin-1-expressing histocytes and neutrophils participated in the enclosure of transformed sclerotic cells in the infectious foci. Furthermore, we induced the formation of sclerotic cells in vitro, and evidenced a significantly decreased binding capacity of human or murine-derived Dectin-1 to the induced sclerotic cells in comparison with the saprophytic mycelial forms. Our analysis of β-glucans-masking components revealed that it is a chitin-like component, but not the mannose moiety on the sclerotic cells, that interferes with the binding of β-glucans by human or murine Dectin-1. Notably, we demonstrated that although Dectin-1 contributed to the development of IL-17A-producing CD3+CD4+ murine splenocytes upon in vitro-stimulation by saprophytic F. pedrosoi, the masking effect of chitin components partly inhibited Dectin-1-mediated Th17 development upon in vitro-stimulation by induced sclerotic cells. Therefore, these findings extend our understanding of the chronicity of chromoblastomycosis.
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.
The objective of this paper was to study the in vitro anti-breast cancer activity of polysaccharides from Radix ranunculus ternati. Different concentrations of polysaccharide extracts were selected, and MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate their growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides had varying degrees of effects on the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines, and the differences were significant compared with the blank control group. FCM showed that the polysaccharides can induce apoptosis. In addition, it can also enhance NK cell activity. Radix ranunculus ternati polysaccharides have a relatively good in-vitro anti-breast cancer activity.
Radix ranunculus ternati; polysaccharides; MCF-7
To compare clinical characteristics between familial nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and sporadic NPCs in Guangdong province, China, a high-risk area.
Between 1991 and 2001, 993 NPC patients treated at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University in Guangdong were randomly selected as probands. Information about NPC among the probands’ relatives and other information were obtained from a retrospective review of the patients’ medical records. The patients were divided into sporadic NPC, low-frequency familial NPC (one NPC patient in addition to the proband in three generations), and high-frequency familial NPC (2 or more additional NPC patients in three generations) groups. Pathological and clinical characteristics were compared among these groups.
Of the 993 patients, 131 (13.2%) had a familial history of NPC. The average age at diagnosis was the lowest in the high-frequency familial NPC group (39 years; P=0.048). Although the overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) rates did not differ between familial and sporadic NPCs, the locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate increased in the order sporadic NPCs, low-frequency familial NPCs, and high-frequency familial NPCs (P=0.009), with 5-year rates of 70%, 83%, and 87%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that family history of NPC was an independent favorable prognostic factor for LRFS, with adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.548, 95% CI (0.342-0.878). The high LRFS for familial NPCs was mainly noted among young, advanced-stage patients who received continuous radiation treatment.
Genetic factors may play an important role in the etiology of high-frequency familial NPC and underlie the early age of onset and sensitivity to radiotherapy.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); familial; clinical behavior
We have recently demonstrated that the greatly increased immunological activities of recombinant murine calreticulin (rCRT) are largely attributed to its self-oligomerization. Although native CRT (nCRT) can also oligomerize under stress conditions in vitro, whether this phenomenon could occur inside cells and the immunological activity difference between nCRT monomers and oligomers remained unclear. In this study, we illustrated the formation of CRT oligomers in tranfectant cells under “heat & low pH” (42°C/pH 6.5) condition. The mixture of nCRT oligomers and monomers (OnCRT) was obtained after 3 hr treatment of murine monomeric nCRT (MnCRT) under similar condition (42°C/pH 5.0) in vitro. The OnCRT thus obtained was better recognized by 2 monoclonal Abs from mice that had been immunized with oligomeric rCRT. Unlike MnCRT, OnCRT was able to elicit CRT-specific IgG production in mice. OnCRT also stimulated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to secrete significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 than did MnCRT in vitro. We postulate that oligomerization of soluble CRT may occur under certain pathophysiological conditions (e.g. ultrahyperpyrexia) and the resultant oligomers may exhibit exaggerated immunostimulating activities, thereby affiliating the inflammatory responses in vivo.
Although mitochondrial (mt) gene order is highly conserved among vertebrates, widespread gene rearrangements occur in anurans, especially in neobatrachians. Protein coding genes in the mitogenome experience adaptive or purifying selection, yet the role that selection plays on genomic reorganization remains unclear. We sequence the mitogenomes of three species of Glandirana and hot spots of gene rearrangements of 20 frog species to investigate the diversity of mitogenomic reorganization in the Neobatrachia. By combing these data with other mitogenomes in GenBank, we evaluate if selective pressures or functional constraints act on mitogenomic reorganization in the Neobatrachia. We also look for correlations between tRNA positions and codon usage.
Gene organization in Glandirana was typical of neobatrachian mitogenomes except for the presence of pseudogene trnS (AGY). Surveyed ranids largely exhibited gene arrangements typical of neobatrachian mtDNA although some gene rearrangements occurred. The correlation between codon usage and tRNA positions in neobatrachians was weak, and did not increase after identifying recurrent rearrangements as revealed by basal neobatrachians. Codon usage and tRNA positions were not significantly correlated when considering tRNA gene duplications or losses. Change in number of tRNA gene copies, which was driven by genomic reorganization, did not influence codon usage bias. Nucleotide substitution rates and dN/dS ratios were higher in neobatrachian mitogenomes than in archaeobatrachians, but the rates of mitogenomic reorganization and mt nucleotide diversity were not significantly correlated.
No evidence suggests that adaptive selection drove the reorganization of neobatrachian mitogenomes. In contrast, protein-coding genes that function in metabolism showed evidence for purifying selection, and some functional constraints appear to act on the organization of rRNA and tRNA genes. As important nonadaptive forces, genetic drift and mutation pressure may drive the fixation and evolution of mitogenomic reorganizations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-691) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Mitogenomics; tRNA gene; Gene rearrangement; Gene duplication; Random gene loss; Gene order
Primary central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS-GCTs) in children and adolescents have unique clinical features and methods of treatment compared with those in adults. There is little information about Chinese children and adolescents with CNS-GCTs. Therefore, in this study we retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcome of Chinese children and adolescents with primary CNS-GCTs. Between January 2002 and December 2012, 57 untreated patients from a single institution were enrolled. They were diagnosed with CNS-GCTs after pathologic or clinical assessment. Of the 57 patients, 41 were males and 16 were females, with a median age of 12.8 years (range, 2.7 to 18.0 years) at diagnosis; 43 (75.4%) had non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) and 14 (24.6%) had germinomas; 44 (77.2%) had localized disease and 13 (22.8%) had extensive lesions. Fifty-three patients completed the prescribed treatment, of which 18 underwent monotherapy of surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, and 35 underwent multimodality therapies that included radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy or surgery combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) protocol was the major chemotherapy regimen. The median follow-up time was 32.3 months (range, 1.2 to 139 months). Fourteen patients died of relapse or disease progression. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival rates for all patients were 72.2% and 73.8%, respectively. The 3-year EFS was 92.9% for germinomas and 64.8% for NGGCTs (P = 0.064). The 3-year EFS rates for patients with NGGCTs who underwent monotherapy and multimodality therapies were 50.6% and 73.5%, respectively (P = 0.042). Our results indicate that multimodality therapies including chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were better treatment option for children and adolescents with CNS-GCTs.
Primary central nervous system germ cell tumors; chemotherapy; radiotherapy; survival rate; children
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and their paracrine secretions, on hepatocellular cancer cell growth and gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Differentially expressed genes in McA-RH7777 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells following non-contact co-culture with activated stellate cells, were identified by a cDNA microarray. The effect of the co-injection of HCC cells and activated HSCs on tumor size in rats was also investigated. Non-contact co-culture altered the expression of 573 HCC genes by >2-fold of the control levels. Among the six selected genes, ELISA revealed increased protein levels of hepatic growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and −9 (MMP-9). Incubation of HCC cells with medium conditioned by activated HSCs significantly increased the proliferation rate (P<0.001), migration rate and the number of invasive HCC cells (P=0.001). Co-injection of HCC cells and activated HSCs into rats significantly increased the weight of the resulting HCC tumors (P<0.01). The paracrine activity of activated HSCs markedly altered the gene expression profile of HCC cells and affected their growth, migration and invasiveness. The results from the present study indicate that the interaction between the activated HSCs and HCC has an important role in the development of HCC.
HSCs; hepatocellular carcinoma; cDNA microarray; matrix metalloprotein-2,-9
The reversal efficacy of 2% lipid emulsion in cardiac asystole induced by different concentrations of bupivacaine is poorly defined and needs to be determined.
Forty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: B40, B60, B80, B100, B120, B140 and B160, n = 6. The Langendorff isolated heart perfusion model was used, which consisted of a balanced perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution for 25 minutes and a continuous infusion of 100 μmol/L bupivacaine until asystole had been induced for 3 minutes. The hearts in the seven groups were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing a 2% lipid emulsion, and 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or 160 μmol/L bupivacaine, respectively. Cardiac recovery was defined as a spontaneous and regular rhythm with a rate-pressure product > 10% of the baseline value for more than 1 minute. Our primary outcome was the rate-pressure product 25 minutes after cardiac recovery. Other cardiac function parameters were also recorded.
All groups demonstrated cardiac recovery. During the recovery phase, heart rate, rate-pressure product, the maximum left ventricular pressure rise and decline in heart rate in the B120-B160 groups was significantly lower than those in the B40-B80 groups (P < 0.05). The concentration of bupivacaine and the reversal effects of a 2% lipid emulsion showed a typical transoid S-shaped curve, R2 = 0.9983, IC50 value was 102.5 μmol/L (95% CI: 92.44 - 113.6).
There is a concentration-response relationship between the concentrations of bupivacaine and the reversal effects of 2% lipid emulsion.
Anaesthetics local-bupivacaine; Complications-cardiac arrest; Lipid emulsion
Although hypertension is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the impact of hypertension on the electromechanical properties and outcome of catheter ablation in AF patients is unclear.
AF patients [n=213, 136 paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients and 77 persistent AF patients] undergoing circumferential pulmonary vein (PV) isolation guided by CARTO mapping were enrolled, and then were divided into normotension group and hypertension group. Several left atrial (LA) electroanatomical parameters determined by the CARTO system were compared between groups.
The LA bipolar voltage was lower in PAF patients with than without hypertension (1.44±1.09 vs. 1.92±0.76 mV, P=0.048); a significant difference was also observed in persistent AF patients. Hypertension significantly increased the size of the LA scar and low-voltage zones (LVZs) in both PAF and persistent AF patients. However, hypertension did not significantly affect recurrence in either PAF or persistent AF patients. The LA bipolar voltage was higher in PAF patients without recurrence than in those with recurrence (1.77±1.01 vs. 1.29±0.93 mV, P=0.048); a significant difference was also observed in persistent AF patients. PAF and persistent AF patients with AF recurrence had significantly larger LA scar and LVZs than patients without recurrence.
Hypertension has a significant impact on the LA electromechanical properties in AF patients, and the LA substrate has an important influence on the outcome of catheter ablation.
Hypertension; voltage; atrial fibrillation (AF); pulmonary vein (PV); catheter ablation; radiofrequency (RF) current
True macromastia is a rare but disabling condition characterized by massive breast growth. The aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms for this disorder remain largely unexplored because of the lack of in vivo or in vitro models. Previous studies suggested that regulation of epithelial cell growth and development by oestrogen was dependent on paracrine growth factors from the stroma. In this study, a co-culture model containing epithelial and stromal cells was used to investigate the interactions of these cells in macromastia. Epithelial cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis were measured to assess the effect of macromastic stromal cells on epithelial cells. We analysed the cytokines secreted by stromal cells and identified molecules that were critical for effects on epithelial cells. Our results indicated a significant increase in cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis of macromastic and non-macromastic epithelial cells when co-cultured with macromastic stromal cells or in conditioned medium from macromastic stromal cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a key factor in epithelial–stromal interactions of macromastia-derived cell cultures. Blockade of HGF with neutralizing antibodies dramatically attenuated epithelial cell proliferation in conditioned medium from macromastic stromal cells. The epithelial–stromal cell co-culture model demonstrated reliability for studying interactions of mammary stromal and epithelial cells in macromastia. In this model, HGF secreted by macromastic stromal cells was found to play an important role in modifying the behaviour of co-cultured epithelial cells. This model allows further studies to investigate basic cellular and molecular mechanisms in tissue from patients with true breast hypertrophy.
macromastia; epithelial cells; stromal cells; hepatocyte growth factor; proliferation; branching morphogenesis
The minimal time a system needs to evolve from an initial state to its one orthogonal state is defined as the quantum speed limit time, which can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of a quantum system. This is a fundamental question of quantum physics. We investigate the generic bound on the minimal evolution time of the open dynamical quantum system. This quantum speed limit time is applicable to both mixed and pure initial states. We then apply this result to the damped Jaynes-Cummings model and the Ohimc-like dephasing model starting from a general time-evolution state. The bound of this time-dependent state at any point in time can be found. For the damped Jaynes-Cummings model, when the system starts from the excited state, the corresponding bound first decreases and then increases in the Markovian dynamics. While in the non-Markovian regime, the speed limit time shows an interesting periodic oscillatory behavior. For the case of Ohimc-like dephasing model, this bound would be gradually trapped to a fixed value. In addition, the roles of the relativistic effects on the speed limit time for the observer in non-inertial frames are discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate alternative endpoints to the 5-year overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 2,450 NPC patients were enrolled in this study, including 1,842 patients treated with two-dimensional (2D) radiotherapy (RT), 451 treated with 3D conformal RT (CRT) and 157 treated with intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). We sequentially calculated the 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-year survival rates using a life table and compared these with the 5-year survival rate using the McNemar method, with the survival rate of the last indifferent comparison being considered as the alternative endpoint. For 2D RT, stage I patients exhibited similar survival rates at 1 and 5 years (98.9 vs. 94.4%, respectively; P=0.125 for both OS and LRC); stage N3 patients exhibited similar 4-year OS (55.2 vs. 53.5%; P=1.000) and 2-year LRC (78.3 vs. 71.2%; P=0.125) to the 5-year OS and LRC. For IMRT, the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year OS and LRC rates in stage I/II NPC patients were 100, 98, 96, 94 and 94% for OS and 100, 98, 96, 96 and 96% for LRC, respectively. No significant differences were observed for all the comparisons. For stage III/IV NPC patients treated with IMRT, the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year rates were 99.1, 96.3, 92.5, 88.8 and 85.0% for OS and 98.1, 97.2, 95.3, 90.7 and 89.7% for LRC, respectively. Only the 4-year OS and LRC rates were indifferent from those at 5 years (P=0.125 for OS and P=1.00 for LRC). In conclusion, the 1-year OS and LRC for stage I NPC patients treated with 2D RT or stage I/II NPC patients treated with IMRT, the 4-year OS and 2-year LRC for stage N3 NPC patients treated with 2D RT and the 4-year OS and LRC for stage III/IV NPC patients treated with IMRT were determined as the alternative endpoints to the 5-year OS and LRC for NPC patients.
alternative endpoints; 5-year; locoregional control; nasopharyngeal carcinoma; overall survival
Following fusion of a mycoplasma with a host cell membrane, the inserted components of mycoplasma may then be transported through the endocytic pathway. However, the effects of mycoplasmas on the host cell endomembrane system are largely unknown. In this study, mycoplasma-induced changes in the dynamics of endocytic and autophagic systems were investigated. Endocytosis and autophagy are two major processes involved in the survival of intracellular prokaryotic pathogens. It was found that, immediately following infection, mycoplasmas induce endocytosis in the host cell; however, in the long term the mycoplasmas suppress turnover of the components of the endocytic pathway. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Rab7 and LC3-II are recruited to the intracellular mycoplasma-containing compartments. Western blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that mycoplasmas increase expression of Rab7 by upregulating transcription, but increase levels of LC3-II and p62 by post-translational regulation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that mycoplasma infection causes inhibition of autophagic degradation of LC3-II and p62. In addition, it was found that upregulation of Rab7 and inhibition of autophagic degradation synergistically contributes to intracellular mycoplasma accumulation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that mycoplasmas may manipulate host cell endosomal and autophagic systems in order to facilitate intracellular infection.
mycoplasma; endocytic pathway; autophagy; Rab7; LC3; p62
Digestion of dietary protein elevates intraluminal concentrations of glutamate in the small intestine, some of which gain access to the enteric nervous system (ENS). Glutamate, in the central nervous system (CNS), is an excitatory neurotransmitter. A dogma that glutamatergic neurophysiology in the ENS recapitulates CNS glutamatergic function persists. We reassessed the premise that glutamatergic signaling in the ENS recapitulates its neurotransmitter role in the CNS.
Pharmacological analysis of actions of receptor agonists and antagonists in concert with immunohistochemical localization of glutamate transporters and receptors was used. Analysis focused on intracellularly-recorded electrical and synaptic behavior of ENS neurons, on stimulation of mucosal secretion by secretomotor neurons in the submucosal plexus and on muscle contractile behavior mediated by musculomotor neurons in the myenteric plexus.
Immunoreactivity for glutamate was expressed in ENS neurons. ENS neurons expressed immunoreactivity for the EAAC-1 glutamate transporter. Neither L-glutamate nor glutamatergic receptor agonists had excitatory actions on ENS neurons. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptor agonists did not directly stimulate neurogenic mucosal chloride secretion. Neither L-glutamate nor the metabotropic glutamatergic receptor agonist, aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD), changed the mean amplitude of spontaneously occurring contractions in circular or longitudinal strips of intestinal wall from either guinea pig or human small intestinal preparations.
Early discoveries, for excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission in the CNS, inspired enthusiasm that investigation in the ENS would yield discoveries recapitulating the CNS glutamatergic story. We found this not to be the case.
Intestines; Motility; Proteolysis; Receptors, glutamate; Secretion
Postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia is a common cause of death in humans. However, the role of IL-27 in the pathogenesis of secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after influenza is unknown. We now report that influenza infection induced pulmonary IL-27 production in a type I IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signalling-dependent manner, which sensitized mice to secondary pneumococcal infection downstream of IFNAR pathway. Mice deficient in IL-27 receptor were resistant to secondary pneumococcal infection and generated more IL-17A-producing γδ T cells but not αβ T cells, thereby leading to enhanced neutrophil response during the early phase of host defence. IL-27 treatment could suppress the development of IL-17A-producing γδ T cells activated by Streptococcus pneumoniae and dendritic cells. This suppressive activity of IL-27 on γδ T cells was dependent on transcription factor STAT1. Finally, neutralization of IL-27 or administration of IL-17A restored the role of γδ T cells in combating secondary pneumococcal infection. Our study defines what we believe to be a novel role of IL-27 in impairing host innate immunity against pneumococcal infection.
influenza virus; IL-17; IL-27; Streptococcus pneumoniae; γδ T cells
Although weight loss is common in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy, the prognostic influence of weight loss and its impact modified by body mass index (BMI) are still unclear.
2433 NPC patients receiving radical radiotherapy at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from November, 2000 to December, 2004 were enrolled. Weight change during radiation treatment was categorized into high weight loss (HWL) and low weight loss (LWL). The associations of HWL with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analyzed by Cox regression.
Among underweight patients, HWL was independently associated with poor OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; 95% CI 1.36–3.11) and DSS (HR, 2.27; 95% CI 1.38–3.73), as compared with LWL, after adjusting for covariates. In normal weight patients, the impact of HWL on OS (HR, 1.47; 95% CI 1.19–1.80) and DSS (HR, 1.59; 95% CI 1.24–2.03) was moderate. Among overweight/obese patients, no significant association between HWL and OS (HR, 1.22; 95% CI 0.95–1.55), or DSS (HR, 1.23; 95% CI 0.93–1.64) was found.
Except for overweight/obese patients, high weight loss during radiation treatment was independently associated with poor survival in NPC. This impact was more prominent in the underweight patient group.
Lineage conversion of one somatic cell type into another constitutes an attractive approach for research and clinical use. Lineage conversion can proceed in a direct manner, in the absence of proliferation and multipotent progenitor generation, or in an indirect manner, by the generation of expandable multipotent progenitor states. Here we report on the development of a combined reprogramming methodology that, transitioning through a plastic intermediate state, allows for the generation of human mesodermal progenitor cells while circumventing the traditional hallmarks of pluripotency. Converted mesodermal progenitor cells demonstrated bi-potent differentiation potential and were able to generate endothelial and smooth muscle lineages. Importantly, human fibroblasts can be converted into angioblast-like progenitor cells by non-integrative approaches. Differentiated angioblast-like cells exhibit neo-angiogenesis and anastomosis in vivo. The methodology for indirect lineage conversion to angioblast-like cells described here adds to the armamentarium of reprogramming approaches aimed at the clinical treatment of ischemic pathologies.
Fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) can provide high-intensity and photostable fluorescent signals as a probe for biomedical analysis. In this study, FSNPs hybridized with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens (namely FSNP-SD) were successfully fabricated by a surfactant-free sol-gel method. The FSNP-SD were spherical, monodisperse and uniform in size, with an average diameter of approximately 100 nm, and emitted strong fluorescence at the peak of 490 nm. The FSNP-SD selectively stained the cytoplasmic regions and were distributed in the cytoplasm. Moreover, they can stay inside cells, enabling the tacking of cells over a long period of time. The intracellular vesicles and multinucleated cells were increase gradually with the rise of FSNP-SD concentration. Both cell viability and survival only lost less than 20% when the cells were exposed to the high concentration of 100 μg/mL FSNP-SD. Additionally, the cell apoptosis and intracellular ROS assay indicated that FSNP-SD had no significant toxic effects at the maximum working concentration of 80 μg/mL. This study demonstrated that the FSNP-SD are promising biocompatible fluorescent probes for living cell imaging.
aggregation-induced emission; fluorescent silica nanoparticles; cytotoxicity; cell imaging; silole
To investigate whether masticatory fatigue affects the fracture resistance and pattern of lower premolars restored with quartz-fiber post–core and full crown, 44 single rooted lower premolars recently extracted from orthodontic patients were divided into two groups of 22 each. The crowns of all teeth were removed and endodontically treated and then restored with quartz-fiber post–core and full crown. Twenty-two teeth in one group were selected randomly and circularly loaded at 45° to the long axis of the teeth of 127.4 N at a 6 Hz frequency, and the other group was not delivered to cyclic loading and considered as control. Subsequently, all teeth in two groups were continually loaded to fail at 45° to the long axis of the teeth at a crosshead speed of 1 mm⋅min−1. The mean destructive force values were (733.88±254.99) and (869.14±280.26) N for the experimental and the control group, respectively, and no statistically significant differences were found between two groups (P>0.05). Bevel fracture and horizontal fracture in the neck of root were the major fracture mode of the specimens. Under the circumstances of this study, it seems that cyclic loading does not affect the fracture strength and pattern of the quartz-fiber post–core–crown complex.
fracture resistance; masticatory fatigue; pulpless teeth; quartz-fiber