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1.  Clinical Characteristics and Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of Korean Patients with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2015;56(4):993-997.
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motor neuron disease characterized by proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculation. Although SBMA is not uncommon in Korea, there is only one study reporting clinical characteristics and genotype-phenotype correlation in Korean patients.
Materials and Methods
In this study, age at the onset of symptoms, the score of severity assessed by impairment of activities of daily living milestones, and rate of disease progression, and their correlations with the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, as well as possible correlations among clinical characteristics, were analyzed in 40 SBMA patients.
The median ages at onset and at diagnosis were 44.5 and 52.5 years, respectively, and median interval between onset and diagnosis and median rate of disease progression were 5.0 years and 0.23 score/year, respectively. The median number of CAG repeats in the AR gene was 44 and the number of CAG repeats showed a significant inverse correlation with the age at onset of symptoms (r=-0.407, p=0.009). In addition, patients with early symptom onset had slower rate of disease progression.
As a report with the largest and recent Korean cohort, this study demonstrates clinical features of Korean patients with SBMA and reaffirms the inverse correlation between the age at disease onset and the number of CAG repeats. Interestingly, this study shows a possibility that the rate of disease progression may be influenced by the age at onset of symptoms.
PMCID: PMC4479868  PMID: 26069122
Androgen receptor gene; CAG repeats; genotype-phenotype correlation; spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy
2.  Utility of the Rio Score and Modified Rio Score in Korean Patients with Multiple Sclerosis 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0129243.
Early identification of suboptimal responders to multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment is critical for optimizing therapeutic decisions. The Rio score (RS) and modified Rio score (MRS) were developed to discriminate the responses to interferon-beta (IFNB) treatment in MS patients. This study was performed to evaluate the utility of RS and MRS in daily clinical practice in Korea.
This was a real-world setting, multicenter, retrospective study of MS patients treated with IFNB from 10 hospitals in Korea. We investigated whether the RS and MRS at the early stage of IFNB therapy could predict treatment responses over 3 years. Suboptimal treatment responses at 3 years were defined as the presence of clinical relapse and/or EDSS progression and/or patients who had been treated with INFB for at least for 1 year and therapy was switched due to perceived treatment failure during the 2 years of follow-up.
Seventy patients (50 females and 20 males) were enrolled; 92% (12/13) of patients with high RS and 86% (12/14) of patients with high MRS (score 2 or 3) were suboptimal responders, whereas 93% (53/57) of patients with low RS and 93% (52/56) patients with low MRS (score 0 or 1) showed optimal responses. New active lesions on MRI with clinical relapse in high RS and MRS were the most common combination in suboptimal responders.
We confirmed that RS and MRS at 6–15 months of IFNB therapy were useful for predicting poor responders over 3 years.
PMCID: PMC4444088  PMID: 26010897
3.  Low Levels of Vitamin D in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: Association with Disease Disability 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107274.
Patients with autoimmune disorders often have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3], which correlates with disability or disease activity. Vitamin D may play a role in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), as an important factor involved in immunological pathways. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D levels and disease related disability and clinical activity in patients with NMOSD. Blood samples from 51 patients with NMOSD who were positive for anti-aquaporin4-antibody (AQP4-ab) and 204 healthy controls were collected for 25(OH)D3 measurement. Clinical parameters, including expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score, annualized relapse rate (ARR) and time of blood sampling relative to attack, were determined in patients with NMOSD. We found that 25(OH)D3 levels were significantly lower in patients with NMOSD compared to healthy controls. There was no difference between 25(OH)D3 levels in blood samples taken at relapse or remission, and no association between 25(OH)D3 levels and ARR, but there was an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D3 levels and EDSS scores in patients with NMOSD. It remains to be determined whether low vitamin D levels predispose to NMO and/or modify disease severity, or are secondary to neurological disability. In either case the results could also be of relevance to other neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis as well as NMO.
PMCID: PMC4161425  PMID: 25211011
4.  Clinical Usefulness of Cell-based Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for the Detection of Aquaporin-4 Antibodies in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(5):331-338.
The presence of antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been identified as a key characteristic of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disorder. We evaluated the performance of a cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (CIIFA) for detecting AQP4 antibodies using antigen prepared with a recombinant AQP4 peptide transfection technique and assessed the usefulness of CIIFA for diagnosis of NMOSD in routine clinical practice.
Forty-six serum samples from 36 patients as a comparison set and another 101 patients enrolled consecutively from a neurology clinic were included. CIIFA and fluorescence immunoprecipitation assays (FIPA) were performed. CIIFA was performed at 2 different institutions for comparison purposes.
CIIFA and FIPA sensitivity in the comparison set was 86% and 79% in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients and 55% and 36% in high-risk NMO patients, respectively. The semiquantitative titer measured by CIIFA correlated well with the arbitrary unit (fluorescence units [FU]) derived from FIPA (r=0.66). Titers measured by CIIFA and FIPA were elevated in NMO patients compared to high-risk NMO patients (1:240 vs. 1:180 and 8,390 vs. 4,059 FU, respectively). The frequency of AQP4 antibody detection by CIIFA in 101 consecutively enrolled patients was 100% in NMO and 23% in high-risk NMO patients, while only 4.6% in control patients, including those with multiple sclerosis.
Detection of AQP4 antibodies by CIIFA provides sensitive and highly specific diagnostic information for NMO and high-risk NMO patients, which can be used to differentiate these conditions from other demyelinating CNS diseases.
PMCID: PMC3427820  PMID: 22950068
Neuromyelitis optica; Aquaporin 4; Indirect immunofluorescence assay; Immunoprecipitation assay
5.  Oral Solubilized Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(2):200-206.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with oral solubilized formula in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, patients with probable or definite ALS were randomized to receive oral solubilized UDCA (3.5 g/140 mL/day) or placebo for 3 months after a run-in period of 1 month and switched to receive the other treatment for 3 months after a wash-out period of 1 month. The primary outcome was the rate of progression, assessed by the Appel ALS rating scale (AALSRS), and the secondary outcomes were the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Fifty-three patients completed either the first or second period of study with only 16 of 63 enrolled patients given both treatments sequentially. The slope of AALSRS was 1.17 points/month lower while the patients were treated with UDCA than with placebo (95% CI for difference 0.08-2.26, P = 0.037), whereas the slopes of ALSFRS-R and FVC did not show significant differences between treatments. Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with UDCA (P < 0.05). Oral solubilized UDCA seems to be tolerable in ALS patients, but we could not make firm conclusion regarding its efficacy, particularly due to the high attrition rate in this cross-over trial.
PMCID: PMC3271295  PMID: 22323869
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Ursodeoxycholic Acid; Cross-Over Trial
6.  Autosomal Dominant Centronuclear Myopathy with Unique Clinical Presentations 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(6):1098-1101.
Centronuclear myopathies are clinically and genetically heterogenous diseases with common histological findings, namely, centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers with a predominance and hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. We describe two cases from one family with autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy with unusual clinical features that had initially suggested distal myopathy. Clinically, the patients presented with muscle weakness and atrophy localized mainly to the posterior compartment of the distal lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed predominant atrophy and fatty changes of bilateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. This report demonstrates the expanding clinical heterogeneity of autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy.
PMCID: PMC2694645  PMID: 18162732
Myopathies, Structural, Congenital; Autosomal Dominant Inheritance; Distal Myopathies

Results 1-6 (6)