Other than being present at the surface of red blood cells, the antigens of the ABO blood group system are efficiently expressed by a variety of human cells and tissues. Several studies recently described the involvement of the ABO blood group in the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, so that its clinical significance extends now beyond the traditional boundaries of transfusion medicine. In a large cohort study recently published in BMC Medicine and including over 50,000 subjects, Etemadi and colleagues reported that nearly 6% of total deaths and as many as 9% of cardiovascular deaths could be attributed to having non-O blood groups, a condition that was also found to be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. In this commentary, the clinical implications of ABO blood groups are critically discussed and a possible common pathogenic mechanism involving the von Willebrand factor is described.
Please see related article http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0237-8.
ABO blood group; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; Mortality; von Willebrand factor
Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.
The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years), who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75–85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.
The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR), and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042), but not thereafter (p = 0.247), remained significantly associated with running performance.
The significant association between baseline MPV and running time suggest that hyperactive platelets may exert some pleiotropic effects on endurance performance.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen, spreading to hospitalized elderly patients. Risk factors in this setting are unclear. Our aims were to explore the contribution of multi-morbidity and disease severity in the onset of CRKP colonization/infection, and to describe changes in epidemiology after the institution of quarantine-ward managed by staff-cohorting.
Methods and Findings
With a case-control design, we evaluated 133 CRKP-positive patients (75 M, 58 F; mean age 79±10 years) and a control group of 400 CRKP-negative subjects (179 M, 221 F; mean age 79±12 years) admitted to Internal Medicine and Critical Subacute Care Unit of Parma University Hospital, Italy, during a 10-month period. Information about comorbidity type and severity, expressed through Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-CIRS, was collected in each patient. During an overall 5-month period, CRKP-positive patients were managed in an isolation ward with staff cohorting. A contact-bed isolation approach was established in the other 5 months. The effects of these strategies were evaluated with a cross-sectional study design. CRKP-positive subjects had higher CIRS comorbidity index (12.0±3.6 vs 9.1±3.5, p<0.0001) and CIRS severity index (3.2±0.4 vs 2.9±0.5, p<0.0001), along with higher cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and neurological disease burden than control group. CIRS severity index was associated with a higher risk for CRKP-colonization (OR 13.3, 95%CI6.88–25.93), independent of comorbidities. Isolation ward activation was associated with decreased monthly incidence of CRKP-positivity (from 16.9% to 1.2% of all admissions) and infection (from 36.6% to 22.5% of all positive cases; p = 0.04 derived by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Mortality rate did not differ between cases and controls (21.8% vs 15.2%, p = 0.08). The main limitations of this study are observational design and lack of data about prior antibiotic exposure.
Comorbidities and disease severity are relevant risk factors for CRKP-colonization/infection in elderly frail patients. Sanitary measures may have contributed to limit epidemic spread and rate of infection also in internal medicine setting.
Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests.
Materials and methods:
A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 and 4h samples were compared with reference change value (RCV).
A significantly higher % activity of AT was observed at 1 h and 4 h after meal vs. baseline specimen [113 (104–117) and 111 (107–120) vs. 109 (102–118), respectively; P = 0.029 and P = 0.016]. APTT at 2 h was found significantly lower than baseline samples [32.0 (29.9–34.8) vs. 34.1 (32.2–35.2), respectively; P = 0.041]. The results of both Fbg and PS tests were not influenced by a light meal. Furthermore, no coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV.
A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake.
diagnostic errors; fasting; postprandial period; reference values; reproducibility of results
The contamination of serum or lithium heparin blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts may affect accuracy of some critical analytes and jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lithium heparin sample contamination with different amounts of K2EDTA.
Materials and methods:
Fifteen volunteers were enrolled among the laboratory staff. Two lithium heparin tubes and one K2EDTA tube were collected from each subject. The lithium-heparin tubes of each subject were pooled and divided in 5 aliquots. The whole blood of K2EDTA tube was then added in scalar amount to autologous heparinised aliquots, to obtained different degrees of K2EDTA blood volume contamination (0%; 5%; 13%; 29%; 43%). The following clinical chemistry parameters were then measured in centrifuged aliquots: alanine aminotranspherase (ALT), bilirubin (total), calcium, chloride, creatinine, iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), lipase, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium.
A significant variation starting from 5% K2EDTA contamination was observed for calcium, chloride, iron, LD, magnesium (all decreased) and potassium (increased). The variation of phosphate and sodium (both increased) was significant after 13% and 29% K2EDTA contamination, respectively. The values of ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase remained unchanged up to 43% K2EDTA contamination. When variations were compared with desirable quality specifications, the bias was significant for calcium, chloride, LD, magnesium and potassium (from 5% K2EDTA contamination), sodium, phosphate and iron (from 29% K2EDTA contamination).
The concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and LD appears to be dramatically biased by even modest K2EDTA contamination (i.e., 5%). The values of iron, phosphate, and sodium are still reliable up to 29% K2EDTA contamination, whereas ALT, bilirubin, creatinine and lipase appear overall less vulnerable towards K2EDTA contamination.
contamination; EDTA; patient safety; preanalytical variability; total quality management; preanalytical phase
This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of hyponatremia in patients with intracapsular femoral neck fracture. All records containing clinical and laboratory information of patients admitted with femoral neck fractures to the Academic Hospital of Parma (Italy) during the year 2013 were retrieved from the hospital database. The control population consisted of subjects admitted to the outpatient phlebotomy center during the same period. The final population consisted of 543 patients with femoral neck fractures and 700 outpatients. The category of elderly subjects (i.e., ≥65 years) included 491 patients and 380 controls. In both the entire population and elderly subjects, serum sodium was lower in patients than in controls (138 versus 139 mmol/L, P < 0.001). The prevalence of hyponatremia was also higher in cases than in controls, both in the entire population (19.5 versus 10.4%, P < 0.001) and in elderly subjects (20.8 versus 11.8%, P < 0.001). The odds ratio of hyponatremia for femoral neck fracture was 2.08 in the entire study population and 1.95 in those aged 65 years and older. In conclusion, we found that hyponatremia is significantly associated with femoral neck fracture. Serum sodium should hence be regularly assessed and hyponatremia eventually corrected.
Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217 ± 32 min/week) who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC), reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR); RBC distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV). No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.
A new device called Buzzy® has been recently presented that combines a cooling ice pack and a vibrating motor in order to relieve the venipuncture pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Buzzy® use during diagnostic blood specimen collection by venipuncture for routine immunochemistry tests. Blood was collected from 100 volunteers by a single, expert phlebotomist. A vein was located on the left forearm without applying tourniquet, in order to prevent any interference from venous stasis, and blood samples were collected using a 20-G straight needle directly into 5 mL vacuum tubes with clot activator and gel separator. In sequence, external cold and vibration by Buzzy® was applied on the right forearm—5 cm above the chosen puncture site—for 1 min before venipuncture and continued until the end of the same procedure already done in the left forearm. The panel of tests included the following: glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, c-reactive protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, AST, ALT, g-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, chloride, lipase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine, free triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, free thyroxine and haemolysis index. Clinically significant differences between samples were found only for: total protein, albumin and transferrin. The Buzzy® can be used during diagnostic blood specimens collection by venipuncture for the majority of the routine immunochemistry tests. We only suggest avoiding this device during blood collection when protein, albumin and transferrin determinations should be performed.
Clinical chemistry tests; Laboratory error; Patient safety; Phlebotomy; Preanalytical variability; Reproducibility of results
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a number of human disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, frailty, and infections. Since an association between vitamin D and migraine has also been recently speculated, we performed an electronic search on Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science using the keywords “migraine” and “vitamin D,” “25OH-D” “cholecalciferol,” “ergocalciferol,” with no language or date restriction. The electronic search allowed identifying seven studies (3 observational, 2 cross-sectional, and 2 case reports). The two case reports, including four women, showed favourable effects of vitamin D supplementation on migraine severity, but these studies were small and not placebo controlled. As regards the three observational studies, vitamin D deficiency was observed in 13.2 to 14.8% of migraine patients, and these rates do not differ from those reported in the general population (i.e., vitamin D deficiency between 22 and 42%). The results of the two cross-sectional studies are even more controversial, since no association was found between vitamin D status and migraine in both trials. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests that the association between migraine and vitamin D lacks reliable scientific support.
The concentration of several biochemical and hematological biomarkers is strongly influenced by a number of preanalytical variables. Several lines of evidence attest that short, middle, and long-term exercise, as well as the relative intensity of physical effort (from mild to strenuous), may influence a broad array of laboratory variables. The amount of extracellular release and clearance from blood of most of these biomarkers is markedly influenced by the biological characteristics of the molecule(s), level of training, type, intensity and duration of exercise, and time of recovery after training. It is hence noteworthy that test results that fall outside the conventional reference ranges in athletes not only may reflect the presence of a given disease, but may frequently mirror an adaptation to regular training or changes that have occurred during and/or following strenuous exercise, and which should be clearly acknowledged to prevent misinterpretation of laboratory data. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an update about the most significant changes of some biochemical and hematological biomarkers in response to physical exercise, for appropriate interpretation of these changes in the context of physically active subjects.
biomarkers; training; plasma volume; metabolism; cellular damage
The use of contrast media such as organic iodine molecules and gadolinium contrast agents is commonplace in diagnostic imaging. Although there is widespread perception that side effects and drug interactions may be the leading problems caused by these compounds, various degrees of interference with some laboratory tests have been clearly demonstrated. Overall, the described interference for iodinate contrast media include inappropriate gel barrier formation in blood tubes, the appearance of abnormal peaks in capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins, and a positive bias in assessment of cardiac troponin I with one immunoassay. The interference for gadolinium contrast agents include negative bias in calcium assessment with ortho-cresolphthalein colorimetric assays and occasional positive bias using some Arsenazo reagents, negative bias in measurement of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and zinc (colorimetric assay), as well as positive bias in creatinine (Jaffe reaction), total iron binding capacity (TIBC, ferrozine method), magnesium (calmagite reagent) and selenium (mass spectrometry) measurement. Interference has also been reported in assessment of serum indices, pulse oximetry and methaemoglobin in samples of patients receiving Patent Blue V. Under several circumstances the interference was absent from manufacturer-supplied information and limited to certain type of reagents and/or analytes, so that local verification may be advisable to establish whether or not the test in use may be biased. Since the elimination half-life of these compounds is typically lower than 2 h, blood collection after this period may be a safer alternative in patients who have received contrast media for diagnostic purposes.
errors; analytical interference; contrast media; contrast agents; gadolinium
In vitro diagnostic tests play a key role in patients’ management (e.g., guiding red blood cell transfusions). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an innovative device (Buzzy®) which is claimed to be able to relieve venipuncture pain by means of cold and vibration. This device was applied during collection of venous blood by venipuncture for conventional haematology testing.
Materials and methods
Blood was drawn from 100 volunteers by a single, expert phlebotomist. A vein was located in the left forearm without applying a tourniquet but using a subcutaneous tissue transilluminator device, so that venous stasis was avoided. Blood samples were collected with a 20G straight needle directly into 4mL K3EDTA vacuum tubes. In sequence, external cold and vibration was established by Buzzy® on the right forearm −5 cm above the venipuncture site- for 1 minute before venipuncture and continued until the end of the same procedure already performed in the left forearm. Conventional haematological tests were performed using the same instrument (Sysmex® XE-2100D) in all cases.
When Buzzy® was applied before drawing blood, erythrocyte counts and associated parameters (i.e., haemoglobin and haematocrit) were higher, whereas platelet number, leucocyte count and differential were lower. Statistically and clinically significant differences (P <0.001) were observed for erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit.
From a practical perspective, cold-induced haemoconcentration promotes the efflux of water, diffusible ions and low molecular weight molecules from the vessel, thus increasing the concentration of other blood analytes at the puncture site. These variations may influence test results, especially for erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The novel Buzzy® device should, therefore, be used with caution when collecting blood for conventional haematological testing because of the observed bias introduced in some parameters.
blood specimen collection; laboratory error; phlebotomy; preanalytical variability; reproducibility of results
The phlebotomists’ procedures are a still source of laboratory variability. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of minor modification in procedure for collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture from CLSI H03-A6 document is able to reduce the tourniquet application time.
Materials and methods:
Thirty phlebotomists were invited to participate. Each phlebotomist was trained individually to perform the new venipuncture procedure that shortens the time of tourniquet release and removal. The phlebotomy training program was delivered over 8h. After training, all phlebotomists were monitored for 20 working days, to guarantee the adoption of the correct new procedures for collection of diagnostic blood specimens. After this time frame the phlebotomists were evaluated to verify whether the new procedure for blood collection derived from CLSI H03-A6 document was effective to improve the quality process by decrease in tourniquet application time. We compared the tourniquet application time and qualitative difference of phlebotomy procedures between laboratories before and after phlebotomy training.
The overall mean ± SD tourniquet application time before and after this intervention were 118 ± 1 s and 30 ± 1 s respectively. Minor modifications in procedure for blood collection were able to reduce significantly the tourniquet application time (−88 s, P < 0.001).
The minor modifications in procedure for collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture from CLSI H03-A6 document were able to reduce the tourniquet application time. Now the proposed new procedure for collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture could be considered usefulness and should be put into practice by all quality laboratory managers and/or phlebotomy coordinators to avoid preanalytical errors regard venous stasis and guarantee patient safety.
venous stasis; preanalytical phase; tourniquets; phlebotomy; practice guidelines
Blood collection through intravenous lines frequently causes spurious hemolysis. Due to specific structure, the tube holder Holdex® (Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmuenster, Austria) is supposed to prevent erythrocyte injury in samples collected from catheters, so that we planned a specific study to support this hypothesis.
Materials and methods:
Blood was collected from emergency department (ED) patients with 20-gauge catheter. In patients with odd order numbers, first and second tubes were collected with conventional holder (BD Vacutainer One Use Holder, Becton Dickinson, Milan, Italy) and the third with Holdex, whereas in even patients first and second tubes were drawn with Holdex and the third using BD Vacutainer One Use Holder. The first tube was discarded, whereas the second and third were centrifuged and serum was tested for potassium, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and hemolysis index.
The final study population consisted in 60 ED patients. Concentrations of potassium (4.25 vs. 4.16 mmol/L; P = 0.031), LD (498 vs. 459 U/L; P = 0.039) and cell-free hemoglobin (0.42 vs. 0.22 g/L; P = 0.042) were higher in samples collected with BD Vacutainer One Use Holder than with Holdex. The mean bias of cell-free hemoglobin was −0.4 g/L in samples collected with Holdex. Although the frequency of samples with cell-free hemoglobin > 0.5 g/L was identical (17/60 vs. 17/60; P = 1.00), the frequency of those with concentrations >3.0 g/L was higher using BD Vacutainer One Use Holder than Holdex (4/60 vs. 0/60; P = 0.042).
The use of Holdex for drawing blood from intravenous lines may be effective for reducing gross hemolysis.
preanalytical variability; hemolysis; sample quality; intravenous line
The role of body composition (lean mass and fat mass) on urine chemistries and bone quality is still debated. Our aim was therefore to determine the effect of lean mass and fat mass on urine composition and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of healthy females.
Materials and methods
78 female volunteers (mean age 46 ± 6 years) were enrolled at the Stone Clinic of Parma University Hospital and subdued to 24-hour urine collection for lithogenic risk profile, DEXA, and 3-day dietary diary. We defined two mathematical indexes derived from body composition measurement (index of lean mass-ILM, and index of fat mass-IFM) and the cohort was split using the median value of each index, obtaining groups differing only for lean or fat mass. We then analyzed differences in urine composition, dietary intakes and BMD.
The women with high values of ILM had significantly higher excretion of creatinine (991 ± 194 vs 1138 ± 191 mg/day, p = 0.001), potassium (47 ± 13 vs 60 ± 18 mEq/day, p < 0.001), phosphorus (520 ± 174 vs 665 ± 186 mg/day, p < 0.001), magnesium (66 ± 20 vs 85 ± 26 mg/day, p < 0.001), citrate (620 ± 178 vs 807 ± 323 mg/day, p = 0.002) and oxalate (21 ± 7 vs 27 ± 11 mg/day, p = 0.015) and a significantly better BMD values in limbs than other women with low values of ILM. The women with high values of IFM had similar urine composition to other women with low values of IFM, but significantly better BMD in axial sites. No differences in dietary habits were found in both analyses.
Lean mass seems to significantly influence urine composition both in terms of lithogenesis promoters and inhibitors, while fat mass does not. Lean mass influences bone quality only in limb skeleton, while fat mass influences bone quality only in axial sites.
Body composition; Lean mass; Fat mass; Bone mineral density; Urinary lithogenic risk factors
This study investigated the 1-year longitudinal effect of professional training in adolescent runners on redox balance during intense endurance exercise. Changes in selected serum oxidant and antioxidant status in response to a 21-km running time trial in 10 runners (15.5 ± 1.3 years) undergoing professional training were evaluated twice in 12 months (pre- and post-evaluation). Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and 4-h following the 21-km run for analysis of serum concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). In pre-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased after the 21-km run (p < 0.05) while XO, GSH, CAT and TAOC were unchanged. In post-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased, whereas XO and CAT increased post-exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pre-exercise serum T-AOC, post-exercise serum XO, CAT, T-AOC (p < 0.05), and GSH (p = 0.057) appeared to be higher than the corresponding pre-evaluation values. The current findings suggest that a professional training regime in adolescent runners is not likely to jeopardize the development of their antioxidant defense. However, uncertainties in the maintenance of redox balance in runners facing increased exercise-induced oxidative stress as a consequence of training-induced enhancement of exercise capacity await further elucidation.
adolescent; oxidative stress; antioxidant; endurance exercise
Periodontal diseases entail a variety of conditions affecting the periodontium. The pathogenesis results from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Although there are evidences to confirm a role of genetic determinants, the outcome of the available studies is controversial and the largest part of the research has been carried out in Asian populations.
We investigated two polymorphisms in the genes encoding Interelukin-1β (IL-1β +3953 C>T; rs1143634) and vitamin D receptor (VDR Taq1; rs731236) in 42 Caucasian patients with chronic periodontal disease and 39 Caucasian subjects, matched for age and gender.
The IL-1β C allele was present in 100% of cases and 92% of controls (p=0.07), the T allele was present in 19% of cases and in 44% controls (p=0.017). The prevalence of the VDR Taq1 tt genotype was lower in patients as compared with controls (i.e., 10 versus 59%; p<0.01), whereas the tT and TT genotypes were disproportionally higher in patients than in cases (i.e., 62 versus 33% for tT and 29% versus 8% for TT; p<0.01).
The t allele was present in 71% of cases and 92% of controls (p=0.016), whereas the T allele was present in 90% of patients with periodontal disease and in 41% controls (p<0.01).
The results of this case control study at-test that the T allele of VDR Taq1 is strongly associated with periodontal disease, whereas the t allele of the IL-1β +3953 confers a slightly protection against the risk of periodontitis.
periodontal diseases; periodontitis; genetics; interleukins; gene expression
Procedures involving phlebotomy are critical for obtaining diagnostic blood specimens and represent a well known and recognized problem, probably among the most important issues in laboratory medicine. The aim of this report is to show spurious hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia due to inadequate phlebotomy procedure. The diagnostic blood specimens were collected from a male outpatient 45 years old, with no clinical complaints. The tubes drawing order were as follows: i) clot activator and gel separator (serum vacuum tube), ii) K3EDTA, iii) a needleless blood gas dedicated-syringe with 80 I.U. lithium heparin, directly connected to the vacuum tube holder system. The laboratory testing results from serum vacuum tube and dedicated syringe were 4.8 and 8.5 mmol/L for potassium, 2.36 and 1.48 mmol/L for total calcium, respectively. Moreover 0.15 mmol/L of free calcium was observed in dedicated syringe. A new blood collection was performed without K3EDTA tube. Different results were found for potassium (4.7 and 4.5 mmol/L) and total calcium (2.37 and 2.38 mmol/L) from serum vacuum tube and dedicated syringe, respectively. Also free calcium showed different concentration (1.21 mmol/L) in this new sample when compared with the first blood specimen. Based on this case we do not encourage the laboratory managers training the phlebotomists to insert the dedicated syringes in needle-holder system at the end of all vacuum tubes. To avoid double vein puncture the dedicated syringe for free calcium determination should be inserted immediately after serum tubes before EDTA vacuum tubes.
clinical laboratory techniques; preanalytical phase; laboratory variability; blood specimen collection; EDTA contamination carryover
A number of preanalytical activities strongly influence sample quality, especially those related to sample collection. Since blood drawing through intravenous catheters is reported as a potential source of erythrocyte injury, we performed a critical review and meta-analysis about the risk of catheter-related hemolysis.
Materials and methods:
We performed a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to estimate the risk of spurious hemolysis in blood samples collected from intravenous catheters. A meta-analysis with calculation of Odds ratio (OR) and Relative risk (RR) along with 95% Confidence interval (95% CI) was carried out using random effect mode.
Fifteen articles including 17 studies were finally selected. The total number of patients was 14,796 in 13 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes, and 1251 in 4 studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration. A significant risk of hemolysis was found in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus straight needle and evacuated tubes (random effect OR 3.4; 95% CI = 2.9–3.9 and random effect RR 1.07; 95% CI = 1.06–1.08), as well as in studies assessing catheter and evacuated tubes versus catheter and manual aspiration of blood (OR 3.7; 95% CI = 2.7–5.1 and RR 1.32; 95% CI = 1.24–1.40).
Sample collection through intravenous catheters is associated with significant higher risk of spurious hemolysis as compared with standard blood drawn by straight needle, and this risk is further amplified when intravenous catheter are associated with primary evacuated blood tubes as compared with manual aspiration.
hemolysis; preanalytical variability; catheters; meta-analysis
It is still uncertain whether or not avoidance to let disinfectant alcohol dry at the site of venipuncture is a source of spurious hemolysis when drawing venous blood.
In a consecutive series of 52 outpatients referred for routine laboratory testing, venous blood was drawn by direct venipuncture with (odd group) or without (pair group) wiping 70% isopropyl alcohol at the site of venipuncture. A 3.5 mL evacuated tube with clot activator and gel separator was drawn from a vein of the upper limb, serum was immediately separated with standard centrifugation and tested for potassium, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hemolysis index (HI) on Roche Cobas.
No specimen was discarded for unsatisfactory venipuncture. No differences for age and gender were observed between groups. As regards the four parameters investigated, no significant differences could be observed between patients in whom blood was drawn with or without letting the alcohol dry. It is also noteworthy that no sample in both groups exceeded the conventional sample rejection threshold of cell-free hemoglobin.
The results of our prospective, randomized study attest that failure to wipe alcohol at the site of venipuncture should not be considered as a potential source of spurious hemolysis when drawing blood.
preanalytical variability; hemolysis; alcohol; practice guideline
The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) was discovered and described in red blood cells (RBCs), stimulating its proliferation and survival. The target in humans for EpoR agonists drugs appears clear—to treat anemia. However, there is evidence of the pleitropic actions of erythropoietin (Epo). For that reason, rhEpo therapy was suggested as a reliable approach for treating a broad range of pathologies, including heart and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease), spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic retinopathy and rare diseases (Friedreich ataxia). Unfortunately, the side effects of rhEpo are also evident. A new generation of nonhematopoietic EpoR agonists drugs (asialoEpo, Cepo and ARA 290) have been investigated and further developed. These EpoR agonists, without the erythropoietic activity of Epo, while preserving its tissue-protective properties, will provide better outcomes in ongoing clinical trials. Nonhematopoietic EpoR agonists represent safer and more effective surrogates for the treatment of several diseases such as brain and peripheral nerve injury, diabetic complications, renal ischemia, rare diseases, myocardial infarction, chronic heart disease and others.
This study tested the clinical utility and relevance of serum phosphorus and magnesium as markers possibly useful to monitor training in athletes.
Phosphorus and magnesium serum concentrations of 130 elite track and field athletes (65 males and 65 females, age range 20-30 years) from the National Athletics Sports Medicine Center database in Thessaloniki, Greece were measured.
Abnormal results were found in 61 (47%) athletes (32 men and 29 women). In male athletes, serum phosphate was higher than normal in 18% and decreased in 1.5%, whereas serum magnesium concentration was higher in 26%, and lower in 3%. Regarding female athletes, higher serum phosphate and magnesium levels were detected in 26% and 17% respectively, whereas decreased serum magnesium was found in 3%. The most common alterations were higher serum phosphate (29/61, 47%) and magnesium concentrations (28/61, 46%). Abnormalities of serum phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were detected in almost half of the athletes. Hyperphosphataemia and hypermagnesaemia were the most common abnormalities.
The reference intervals used for general population cannot be used for athletes. Given the lack of pathological manifestations, the physiopathological significance of these findings is uncertain. Further studies on the interpretation of reported ion concentrations in athletes should take in account the type of sport practiced and also the possible variations during the training and competition season.
Athletes; Hyperphosphataemia; Hypophosphatemia; Hypomagnesaemia; Hypermagnesaemia
Early diagnosis is crucial for management of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Among innovative and promising biomarkers, the recent interest raised on glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB (GPBB) has prompted us to perform a meta-analysis of published studies.
Materials and methods:
A systematic electronic search was carried out on PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar, with no date restriction, to retrieve all articles that have investigated the early diagnostic performance of GPBB in patients with suspected AMI, and directly reported or allowed calculation of sensitivity and specificity. A meta-analysis of the reported sensitivity and specificity of each study and pooled area under the curve (AUC) was then performed by random effect approach. Heterogeneity was assessed by I-square statistics.
Eight studies were finally selected for analysis (941 subjects; 506 cases and 435 controls), with a high heterogeneity (I-squared, 86.3%). The resulting pooled estimates and 95% confidence interval were 0.854 (0.801–0.891) for sensitivity, 0.767 (0.713–0.815) for specificity, 0.826 (0.774–0.870) for negative predictive value, 0.802 (0.754–0.844) for positive predictive value, and 0.754 (0.602–0.907) for AUC. In those studies that have simultaneously assessed GPBB and a troponin immunoassay, the combination of these biomarkers did not significantly improve the performance of troponin alone.
GPBB does not meet the current requirements for an efficient diagnosis of AMI when used as a stand-alone test, whereas its combination with troponin merits further investigation in larger trials.
myocardial infarction; ischemic heart disease; glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB; GPBB