The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye.
Beauveria bassiana; eye irritation; toxicity; cosmetic ingredient; dihydroxyfarnesic acid
In this study, to assess whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei induce acute skin irritation and phototoxicity, acute skin irritancy and phototoxicity tests were performed. The skin of rabbits or guinea pigs was treated with these fractions (100 mg/dose) and whether the animals sustained significant skin damage was determined. The data demonstrated that the aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei did not induce acute toxicity in the skin of the animals, as assessed by anatomical and pathological observations. The results from the present study suggest that these aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei have promising potential uses as cosmetic ingredients that do not induce significant levels of skin irritation or phototoxicity.
Angelica keiskei; skin irritancy; phototoxicity; fraction
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring compound which is known to induce the phase II antioxidant genes via Nrf2 activation, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated Nrf2 induction in response to SFN in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and determined the signaling pathways involved in this process. SFN treatment reduced cell viability. Prior to cell death, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated at a high rate within a minute of commencing SFN treatment. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked SFN-induced decrease in cell growth. Erk1/2 was activated within 30 min of SFN addition, whereas Akt phosphorylation did not significantly change until the first 8 hr after SFN treatment but then became substantially low until 48 hr. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation attenuated SFN-induced loss of cell viability. Nrf2 protein levels in both nuclear and whole cell lysates were increased by SFN treatment, which was dependent on ROS production. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA attenuated SFN-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation. Induction of the Nrf2/HO-1 after SFN treatment was potently suppressed by pretreatment with NAC. Overall, our results indicate that SFN mediates antioxidative and antiproliferative responses by generating ROS in BEAS-2B cells.
Sulforaphane; Nrf2; Heme Oxygenase-1; Reactive Oxygen Species; BEAS-2B Cells; Oxidative Stress
Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called ‘Gol-Li-Su’ or ‘Go-Lo-Soe’ in Korean, which means ‘water beneficial to the bones’. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression.
gastric lesion; water immersion restraint stress; inducible nitric oxide synthase; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; sap; Acer mono Max
House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight culture dishes preequilibrated at room temperature (n = 4) and 70% humidity (n = 4) containing house dust mite food and active charcoal fibers. At 10 minute intervals, live and dead house dust mites were counted. All house dust mites instantly attached to the activated charcoal fibers and started to shrink almost immediately. There were no live house dust mites present as early as 40 minutes in some dishes while after 190 minutes all house dust mites were dead. In conclusion, activated charcoal fibers, if incorporated into bedding items, have the potential to control house dust mites in the indoor environment.
To determine whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of the Angelica keiskei leaf exert toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes, we performed the acute eye irritancy test. Animals were treated with sample fractions (100 mg/dose) according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes or damage was detected in the fraction-treated groups in terms of ocular lesions in the cornea, the size of the cornea with turbidity, swelling of the eyelid and emission discharge. However, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, induced severe toxic symptoms. Thus, aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei do not appear to induce acute toxicity in the eye lens, as assessed from anatomical and pathological observations in the rabbit eye. Our results collectively suggest that aqueous and ethanol fractions show promise as cosmetic ingredients that do not cause eye toxicity.
Angelica keiskei; eye irritancy test; fraction; cosmetic ingredient
A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based real-time PCR (PNAqPCR™ TB/NTM detection kit; PANAGENE, Korea) assay has been recently developed for the simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in clinical specimens. The study was aimed at evaluation of the performance of PNA probe-based real-time PCR in respiratory specimens.
To evaluate potential cross-reactivity, the extracted DNA specimens from Mycobacterium species and non-mycobacterial species were tested using PNA probe-based real-time PCR assay. A total of 531 respiratory specimens (482 sputum specimens and 49 bronchoalveolar washing fluid specimens) were collected from 230 patients in July and August, 2011. All specimens were analyzed for the detection of mycobacteria by direct smear examination, mycobacterial culture, and PNA probe-based real-time PCR assay.
In cross-reactivity tests, no false-positive or false-negative results were evident. When the culture method was used as the gold standard test for comparison, PNA probe-based real-time PCR assay for detection of MTBC had a sensitivity and specificity of 96.7% (58/60) and 99.6% (469/471), respectively. Assuming the combination of culture and clinical diagnosis as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the new real-time PCR assay for detection of MTBC were 90.6% (58/64) and 99.6% (465/467), respectively. The new real-time PCR for the detection of NTM had a sensitivity and specificity of 69.0% (29/42) and 100% (489/489), respectively.
The new real-time PCR assay may be useful for the detection of MTBC in respiratory specimens and for discrimination of NTM from MTBC.
Peptide nucleic acids; PCR; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium
Hesperidin, a flavanone present in citrus fruits, has been studied as potential therapeutic agents that have anti-tumor activity and apoptotic effects in several cancers, but there is no report about the apoptotic effect of hesperidin in human malignant pleural mesothelioma through the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) protein. We investigated whether hesperidin inhibited cell growth and regulated Sp1 target proteins by suppressing the levels of Sp1 protein in MSTO-211H cells. The IC50 value of hesperidin was determined to be 152.3 μM in MSTO-211H cells for 48 h. Our results suggested that hesperidin (0-160 μM) decreased cell viability, and induced apoptotic cell death. Hesperidin increased Sub-G1 population in MSTO-211H cells. Hesperidin significantly suppressed mRNA/protein level of Sp1 and modulated the expression level of the Sp1 regulatory protein such as p27, p21, cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and survivin in mesothelioma cells. Also, hesperidin induced apoptotic signaling including: cleavages of Bid, caspase-3, and PARP, upregulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in mesothelioma cells. These results show that hesperidin suppressed mesothelioma cell growth through inhibition of Sp1. In this study, we demonstrated that Sp1 acts as a novel molecular target of hesperidin in human malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Rotavirus; Hepatitis A virus; Recombinant chimera protein
Glyceollins, produced to induce disease resistance responses against specific species, such as an incompatible pathogen Phytophthora sojae in soybeans, have the potential to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of elicited glyceollins via a signaling pathway, we studied the glyceollin signaling pathway using several assays including RNA and protein expression levels. We found that soybean glyceollins significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, as well as the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via the suppression of NF-κB activation. Glyceollins also inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα kinase (IKK), the degradation of IκBα, and the formation of NF-κB-DNA binding complex in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, they inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, but increased the generation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Collectively, the present data show that glyceollins elicit potential anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.
glyceollins; NF-κB; inducible nitric oxide synthase; cyclooxygenase-2; anti-inflammation
Rapid and accurate detection of norovirus is essential for the prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks. This study compared the effectiveness of a new immunochromatographic assay kit (SD BIOLINE Norovirus; Standard Diagnostics, Korea) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting norovirus in fecal specimens. Compared with real-time RT-PCR, the new assay had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 76.5% (52/68), 99.7% (342/343), 98.1% (52/53), and 95.5% (342/358), respectively. The sensitivity of the assay was 81.8% (18/22) for GII.3 and 75.7% (28/37) for GII.4. None of the 38 enteric virus-positive specimens (3 for astrovirus, 5 for enteric adenovirus, and 30 for rotavirus) tested positive in the cross-reactivity test performed by using this assay. The new immunochromatographic assay may be a useful screening tool for the rapid detection of norovirus in sporadic and outbreak cases; however, negative results may require confirmatory assays of greater sensitivity.
Immunochromatographic assay; Norovirus; Sensitivity; Specificity
The expression of c-Met is substantially elevated in most malignant human cancers. We therefore searched for c-Met expression and compared the expression level among malignant skin cancers.
The aim of this study was to determine the c-Met expression pattern and the protein expression level in selected malignant cutaneous tumors.
G361 cells (malignant melanoma cell line) and A431 cells (squamous cell carcinoma cell line) were cultured and analyzed, using immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, for expression of c-Met. Additionally, 16 separate specimens of malignant melanomas (MMs), 16 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 16 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and 16 normal tissues were analyzed for the expression of c-Met using immunohistochemical studies.
Based on cultured cell immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, both A431 cells and G361 cells expressed c-Met, however, c-Met was expressed substantially more in G361 cells. Immunohistochemical examination of c-Met showed that it was over-expressed in all malignant skin cancers. In addition, c-Met expression was more increased in MM compared to other cancers.
In our study, c-Met is involved in malignant skin cancer development and the level of its expression is thought to be related to the degree of malignancy in melanoma cancers.
c-Met expression; Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF); Skin cancers
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of a culture filtrate of Paecilomyces farinosus J3. Various anti-tumor assays using B16 melanoma cells were carried out. Paecilomyces farinosus J3 significantly decreased the wound healing capability, invasiveness and angiogenic activity, which was confirmed by wound healing, human umbilical vein endothelial cell and invasion assays. Paecilomyces farinosus J3 strongly inhibited cell migration, tube formation and the angiogenic process in a concentration-dependent manner. Zymographic analysis also indicated a reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a 92-kDa gelatinase. Taken together, the results indicate that the anti-tumor activities of Paecilomyces farinosus J3 originate from the reduction of MMP-9 expression in B16F10 cells.
Paecilomyces farinosus J3; culture filtrate; anti-tumor activity; wound healing; invasion; matrix metalloproteinase-9
Chemokines and their receptors are important players in tumorigenesis by facilitating tumor proliferation and metastasis. Little is known about the possible function of chemokine receptors in relation to the development and progression of malignant cutaneous tumors.
The aim of this study was to determine the chemokine receptor CCR3 expression pattern and the protein expression level in selected malignant cutaneous tumors.
Four types of cell lines (G361, A431, SK-MEL-2, SK-MEL-24) were analyzed, using Western blotting, for the expression of CCR3 protein. Immunohistochemical staining for CCR3 was done on 36 skin cancer tissue samples that included 16 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 16 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 16 malignant melanomas (MMs) and 6 normal tissue samples.
Western blot analysis showed that CCR3 protein was more expressed in the MM cell lines (G361, SK-MEL-2,SK-MEL-24) than that in the SCC cell line (A431), and the immunohistochemical analysis showed that CCR3 protein was overexpressed in MM and SCC, it was mildly expressed in BCC and it was hardly expressed in normal tissue.
This study demonstrated via immunochemistry that CCR3 was more expressed in MM, followed by SCC and BCC. The existence of CCR3 protein may enhance the tumorigenic potential of malignant cutaneous tumors.
CC chemokine receptors; CCR3; Chemokine
Src family kinases (SFKs) play an important role in cancer proliferation, survival, motility, invasiveness, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Among the SFKs, c-Src and c-Yes are particularly over-expressed or hyper-activated in many human epithelial cancers. However, only a few studies have attempted to define the expression and role of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas.
To investigate the expression of c-Src and c-Yes in cutaneous carcinomas to include malignant melanoma (MM), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
We examined 6 normal skin tissues and 18 malignant skin tumor tissues using western blotting for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes. In another set, 16 specimens of MM, 16 SCCs and 16 BCCs were analyzed for the expression of c-Src and c-Yes using immunohistochemical staining.
Western blotting showed that c-Src was expressed in all malignant skin tumors, but not in normal skin, while c-Yes was expressed in MM and SCC, but not in BCC and normal skin. Immunohistochemical staining results of c-Src and c-Yes in MM, SCC, and BCC mirrored those of the western blot analysis.
c-Src, rather than c-Yes, plays a key role in the proliferation and progression of malignant skin cancers.
House dust mites produce inhalant allergens of importance to allergic patients. We measured the major group 1 allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, from the house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farina, respectively in 100 randomly selected domestic homes from Cheonan, Korea. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming from the living room floor and 1 mattress in each home. Der p 1 and Der f 1 were measured by double monoclonal ELISA. Der p 1 levels were very low, with geometric mean levels for floors and mattresses being 0.11 µg/g (range: 0.01-4.05) and 0.14 µg/g (range: 0.01-30.0), respectively. Corresponding levels of Der f 1 were higher, 7.46 µg/g (range: 0.01-262.9) and 10.2 µg/g (range: 0.01-230.9) for floors and mattresses, respectively. D. farinae appears to be the dominant house dust mite in Cheonan.
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farina; house dust mite; allergen; asthma; Korea
Many allergists are currently focusing on the development of new diagnostic tools, and are attempting to improve both the sensitivity and specificity. A multiple allergen simultaneous test-chemiluminescent assay (MAST-CLA) is one of the most popular diagnostic tools used in the Republic of Korea. However, there remains controversy among allergists with regard to the cut-off point for a positive result. The present study was conducted in order to determine the validity of MAST-CLA as compared with that of the skin prick test, with particular emphasis on arthropod allergens, on the basis of percentage agreement rates and κ-values, and also to suggest the optimal positive cut-off points using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The study was conducted with 97 subjects (54 men, 43 women). Optimal individual cut-off points were calculated as follows; class II for Dermatophagoides farinae, class I for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and trace for a cockroach mix. These findings suggest that attempting to apply optimal individual cut-off points will be a good way of improving diagnostic tests, particularly MAST-CLA.
Dermatophagoides farinae; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; allergy; arthropod; skin prick test; MAST-CLA; ROC; cut-off point
House dust mite sensitized asthmatics are advised to practice allergen avoidance. Charcoal pillows are used in Korea with unsubstantiated claims regarding their efficacy in alleviating asthma symptoms. We tested the effects of activated charcoal on breeding of house dust mites in culture. Twenty live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were inoculated, 10 replicates, on culture media containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% activated charcoal and incubated at 25℃ and a relative humidity of 75%. After four weeks, the mean numbers of live house dust mites were 286, 176, 46, 16, 7, and 0 for the 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% charcoal-containing culture media, respectively. Thus, activated charcoal suppresses breeding of house dust mites and offers a new promising method for house dust mite control.
Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus; House Dust Mite; Activated Charcoal; Survival; Allergy
Oxidation plays an important role in acute lung injury. This study was conducted in order to elucidate the effect of repetitive post-treatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) of rats.
Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. LPS (Escherichia coli 5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the tail vein. NAC (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 3, 6, and 12 hours after LPS injection. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained to evaluate the ALI at 24 hours after LPS injection. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were measured in BALF. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured using lung tissues. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) images were examined in each group at 72 hours apart from the main experiments in order to observe the delayed effects of NAC.
TNF-α and IL-1β concentration in BALF were not different between LPS and NAC treatment groups. The concentration of LPO in NAC treatment group was significantly lower than that of LPS group (5.5±2.8 nmol/mL vs. 16.5±1.6 nmol/mL) (p=0.001). The activity of MPO in NAC treatment group was significantly lower than that of LPS group (6.4±1.8 unit/g vs. 11.2±6.3 unit/g, tissue) (p<0.048). The concentration of NF-κB in NAC treatment group was significantly lower than that of LPS group (0.3±0.1 ng/µL vs. 0.4±0.2 ng/µL) (p=0.0001). Micro-CT showed less extent of lung injury in NAC treatment than LPS group.
After induction of ALI with lipopolysaccharide, the therapeutic administration of NAC partially attenuated the extent of ALI through the inhibition of NF-κB activation.
Acetylcysteine; Acute Lung Injury; Antioxidants