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1.  Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Based Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy with Respiratory Guidance System: Analysis of Respiratory Signals and Dosimetric Comparison 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:306021.
Purpose. To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory guidance system in 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) based respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) by comparing respiratory signals and dosimetric analysis of treatment plans. Methods. The respiratory amplitude and period of the free, the audio device-guided, and the complex system-guided breathing were evaluated in eleven patients with lung or liver cancers. The dosimetric parameters were assessed by comparing free breathing CT plan and 4DCT-based 30–70% maximal intensity projection (MIP) plan. Results. The use of complex system-guided breathing showed significantly less variation in respiratory amplitude and period compared to the free or audio-guided breathing regarding the root mean square errors (RMSE) of full inspiration (P = 0.031), full expiration (P = 0.007), and period (P = 0.007). The dosimetric parameters including V5 Gy, V10 Gy, V20 Gy, V30 Gy, V40 Gy, and V50 Gy of normal liver or lung in 4DCT MIP plan were superior over free breathing CT plan. Conclusions. The reproducibility and regularity of respiratory amplitude and period were significantly improved with the complex system-guided breathing compared to the free or the audio-guided breathing. In addition, the treatment plan based on the 4D CT-based MIP images acquired with the complex system guided breathing showed better normal tissue sparing than that on the free breathing CT.
PMCID: PMC4170707  PMID: 25276775
2.  A Case of Paratesticular Leiomyosarcoma Successfully Treated with Orchiectomy and Chemotherapy 
A 50-year-old male patient presented with a right scrotal mass that had been growing rapidly for more than one year. A heterogeneous enhancing right scrotal mass (12×9 cm) with para-aortic and peri-caval lymphadenopathies was found on abdominal computed tomography (CT). Right orchiectomy was performed and the gross finding had shown intact testis with a well-defined, huge, whitish solid mass adjacent to the testis. According to pathology, the mass was characterized as a leiomyosarcoma, grade 3 (by National Cancer Instituted [NCI] system). Therefore, the diagnosis was stage III, grade 3 paratesticular leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent additional systemic chemotherapy using ifosfamide and adriamycin. After nine cycles of chemotherapy, positron emission tomography-CT was performed and no FDP uptake was observed. The patient has been followed up for 12 months after systemic chemotherapy, and he has maintained a complete response. We report here on a rare case of paratesticular leiomyosarcoma treated successfully with orichiectomy and additional systemic chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC3467425  PMID: 23091448
Leiomyosarcoma; Orchiectomy; Chemotherapy
3.  Multiple Myeloma with Biclonal Gammopathy Accompanied by Prostate Cancer 
We report a rare case of multiple myeloma with biclonal gammopathy (IgG kappa and IgA lambda type) in a 58-year-old man with prostate cancer who presented with lower back pain. Through computed tomography (CT) imaging, an osteolytic lesion at the L3 vertebra and an enhancing lesion of the prostate gland with multiple lymphadenopathies were found. In the whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), an additional osteoblastic bone lesion was found in the left ischial bone. A prostate biopsy was performed, and adenocarcinoma was confirmed. Decompression surgery of the L3 vertebra was conducted, and the pathologic result indicated that the lesion was a plasma cell neoplasm. Immunofixation electrophoresis showed the presence of biclonal gammopathy (IgG kappa and IgA lambda). Bone marrow plasma cells (CD138 positive cells) comprised 7.2% of nucleated cells and showed kappa positivity. We started radiation therapy for the L3 vertebra lesion, with a total dose of 3,940 cGy, and androgen deprivation therapy as treatment for the prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC3190009  PMID: 22016684
Multiple myeloma; Biclonal gammopathy; Prostate cancer
4.  A Case of Synchronous Double Primary Cancer of the Penis and Urinary Bladder 
Multiple primary cancers are the occurrence of more than two cancers of different origin in an individual. Penile cancer is a rare disease, and finding it combined with other cancers is even rarer. A 64-year-old man with a painful penile mass was referred to us from a primary urological clinic. We performed a biopsy of the penile mass and the histology revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed a localized bladder tumor with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent a partial penectomy, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and inguinal lymph node dissection. The histology of the bladder tumor was high-grade papillary carcinoma, and that of the lymph node was squamous cell carcinoma. The penile and bladder tumors were in stage II (T1N1M0) and stage I (T1N0M0), respectively. We successfully treated the patient with adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2848747  PMID: 20369053
Neoplasms; Multiple primary; Urinary bladder neoplasms; Penile neoplasms
5.  Non-Homologous End Joining Repair Mechanism-Mediated Deletion of CHD7 Gene in a Patient with Typical CHARGE Syndrome 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2014;35(1):141-145.
CHARGE syndrome MIM #214800 is an autosomal dominant syndrome involving multiple congenital malformations. Clinical symptoms include coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth or development, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies or deafness. Mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene have been found in 65-70% of CHARGE syndrome patients. Here, we describe a 16-month-old boy with typical CHARGE syndrome, who was referred for CHD7 gene analysis. Sequence analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. A heterozygous 38,304-bp deletion encompassing exon 3 with a 4-bp insertion was identified. There were no Alu sequences adjacent to the breakpoints, and no sequence microhomology was observed at the junction. Therefore, this large deletion may have been mediated by non-homologous end joining. The mechanism of the deletion in the current case differs from the previously suggested mechanisms underlying large deletions or complex genomic rearrangements in the CHD7 gene, and this is the first report of CHD7 deletion by this mechanism worldwide.
PMCID: PMC4272946  PMID: 25553296
CHARGE syndrome; CHD7; Large deletion; Non-homologous end joining
6.  Predictors of high score patient-reported barriers to controlling cancer pain: a preliminary report 
Pain is one of the most common and devastating symptoms in cancer patients, and misunderstandings on the patient’s part can cause major obstacles in pain management.
We evaluated factors associated with patient’s high barrier score to managing cancer-associated pain by having 201 patients complete the Korean Barriers Questionnaire II, the Brief Pain Inventory—Korean, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30, and the Korean Beck Depression Inventory. The Pain Management Index (PMI) was also assessed.
The patients were from nine oncology clinics in university hospitals and a veterans’ hospital in South Korea. The median pain score (0–10 scale) was 4, with a median percentage of pain improvement during the last 24 h of 70 %. A total of 150 patients (75 %) received strong opioids, and 177 (88 %) achieved adequate analgesia (positive PMI). Mean scores ± SD for the Barriers Questionnaire II ranged from 1.5 ± 1 to 2.8 ± 1.1, with the harmful effects subscale the highest. In the multiple regression model, depression was significantly associated with total barrier score to pain management (p < 0.0001). Pain reduction was significantly associated with the fatalism subscale.
Depression was associated with high barrier score in patients with cancer pain. Management of cancer pain should include screening for depression, and management of depression could reduce patient-reported barriers to pain management.
PMCID: PMC3881357  PMID: 23151648
Cancer; Depression; Pain management
7.  A Case Report of Fanconi Anemia Diagnosed by Genetic Testing Followed by Prenatal Diagnosis 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(5):380-384.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder affecting multiple body systems. Genetic testing, including prenatal testing, is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of many clinical conditions. However, genetic testing is complicated for FA because there are often many genes that are associated with its development, and large deletions, duplications, or sequence variations are frequently found in some of these genes. This study describes successful genetic testing for molecular diagnosis, and subsequent prenatal diagnosis, of FA in a patient and his family in Korea. We analyzed all exons and flanking regions of the FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG genes for mutation identification and subsequent prenatal diagnosis. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed to detect large deletions or duplications in the FANCA gene. Molecular analysis revealed two mutations in the FANCA gene: a frameshift mutation c.2546delC and a novel splice-site mutation c.3627-1G>A. The FANCA mutations were separately inherited from each parent, c.2546delC was derived from the father, whereas c.3627-1G>A originated from the mother. The amniotic fluid cells were c.3627-1G>A heterozygotes, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected. This is the first report of genetic testing that was successfully applied to molecular diagnosis of a patient and subsequent prenatal diagnosis of FA in a family in Korea.
PMCID: PMC3427829  PMID: 22950077
Fanconi anemia; FANCA; Molecular diagnosis; Prenatal diagnosis
8.  Treatment outcome of conservative surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcoma 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(2):62-69.
To evaluate the treatment outcome and prognostic factor of postoperative radiotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
Materials and Methods
Forty three patients with extremity STS were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy from January 1981 to December 2010 at Korea University Medical Center. Median total 60 Gy (range, 50 to 74.4 Gy) of radiation was delivered and 7 patients were treated with chemotherapy.
The median follow-up period was 70 months (range, 5 to 302 months). Twelve patients (27.9%) sustained relapse of their disease. Local recurrence occurred in 3 patients (7.0%) and distant metastases developed in 10 patients (23.3%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 69.2% and disease free survival was 67.9%. The 5-year local relapse-free survival was 90.7% and distant relapse-free survival was 73.3%. On univariate analysis, no significant prognostic factors were associated with development of local recurrence. Histologic grade (p = 0.005) and stage (p = 0.02) influenced the development of distant metastases. Histologic grade was unique significant prognostic factor for the OS on univariate and multivariate analysis. Severe acute treatment-related complications, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade 3 or 4, developed in 6 patients (14.0%) and severe late complications in 2 patients (4.7%).
Conservative surgery with postoperative radiotherapy achieved a satisfactory rate of local control with acceptable complication rate in extremity STS. Most failures were distant metastases that correlate with tumor grade and stage. The majority of local recurrences developed within the field. Selective dose escalation of radiotherapy or development of effective systemic treatment might be considered.
PMCID: PMC3429890  PMID: 22984684
Sarcoma; Extremity; Radiotherapy; Postoperative; Treatment outcome
9.  Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2011;29(3):156-163.
To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-five patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had received RT alone. Median total dose was 54 Gy (range, 36 to 61.2 Gy). The definition of tumor progression were as follows: evidence of tumor progression on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, worsening of clinical sign requiring additional operation or others, rising serum hormone level against a previously stable or falling value, and failure of controlling serum hormone level so that the hormone level had been far from optimal range until last follow-up. Age, sex, hormone secretion, tumor extension, tumor size, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic significance in tumor control.
Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 2 to 14.4 years). The 10-year actuarial local control rates for non-secreting and secreting adenomas were 96% and 66%, respectively. In univariate analysis, hormone secretion was significant prognostic factor (p = 0.042) and cavernous sinus extension was marginally significant factor (p = 0.054) for adverse local control. All other factors were not significant. In multivariate analysis, hormone secretion and gender were significant. Fifty-three patients had mass-effect symptoms (headache, dizziness, visual disturbance, hypopituitarism, loss of consciousness, and cranial nerve palsy). A total of 17 of 23 patients with headache and 27 of 34 patients with visual impairment were improved. Twenty-seven patients experienced symptoms of endocrine hypersecretion (galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menstruation, decreased libido, gynecomastia, acromegaly, and Cushing's disease). Amenorrhea was abated in 7 of 10 patients, galactorrhea in 8 of 8 patients, acromegaly in 7 of 11 patients, Cushing's disease in 4 of 4 patients. Long-term complication was observed in 4 patients; 3 patients with cerebrovascular accident, 1 patient developed dementia. Of these patients, 3 of 4 received more than 60 Gy of irradiation.
EBRT is highly effective in preventing recurrence and reducing mass effect of non-secreting adenoma. Effort to improve tumor control of secreting adenoma is required. Careful long-term follow-up is required when relatively high dose is applied. Modern radiosurgery or proton RT may be options to decrease late complications.
PMCID: PMC3429898  PMID: 22984666
Pituitary adenoma; Radiotherapy; Prognostic factors; Complications
10.  Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia with CD5+ Expression Presented as Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephropathy: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(6):824-828.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with bone marrow involvement of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) and an IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Generally B-lymphocytes in LPL do not express CD5 that is important for differential diagnosis of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. In WM, various renal diseases and type I cryoglobulinemia are well described separately, but cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephropathy is very rarely reported. A 61-yr-old woman complained of generalized edema, cyanosis of the extremities in cold weather, visual disturbance, and pancytopenia. Bone marrow and renal biopsy showed CD5+ expressing B-cells and cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephropathy. With the diagnosis of WM, she received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone chemotherapy and got complete remission. Here, we report a rare case of WM associated with unusual expression of CD5+ B-lymphocytes and cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephropathy, and emphasize the importance of the clinical features in differentiating CD5+ B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
PMCID: PMC3102879  PMID: 21655071
Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; CD5+ Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis
11.  Soluble syndecan-1 at diagnosis and during follow up of multiple myeloma: a single institution study 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2010;45(2):115-119.
Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on plasma cells, especially myeloma cells, and can exist in serum as soluble syndecan-1 after shedding from the cell surface. Soluble syndecan-1 has been suggested to promote myeloma cell growth and to be an independent prognostic factor for multiple myeloma. We aimed to evaluate the effect of soluble syndecan-1 levels at the time of diagnosis and during therapy on therapeutic response and prognosis for patients with multiple myeloma.
We analyzed soluble syndecan-1 levels in 28 patients with multiple myeloma and 50 normal controls, and compared its levels with Durie-Salmon stage and other markers of myeloma. In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic response and determined the 3-year survival rates of these patients.
We observed that the median soluble syndecan-1 level in myeloma patients was higher than that in the normal controls (P <0.0001), and the soluble syndecan-1 levels in 21 (75%) patients were higher than the cut-off level (162 ng/mL). Soluble syndecan-1 levels correlated with disease stage, percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow, β2 microglobulin level, serum M-component concentration, and creatinine level. The baseline levels of soluble syndecan-1 at the time of diagnosis in the patients who responded to chemotherapy were lower than those in the non-responders (P=0.04); however, the baseline level was not a significant predictor of therapeutic response. The 3-year overall survival rate of the patients with high soluble syndecan-1 levels at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after chemotherapy was lower than the corresponding survival rates of the patients with low levels of soluble syndecan-1; however, the overall survival rate was not statistically significant.
The use of soluble syndecan-1 has limitations in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Soluble syndecan-1 levels correlate with known prognostic factors; however, we could not assess the prognostic value of high levels of soluble syndecan-1 at the time of diagnosis and after chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC2983025  PMID: 21120190
Multiple myeloma; Syndecan-1; Prognosis
12.  Randomized, Multi-center Phase II Trial of Docetaxel Plus Cisplatin Versus Etoposide Plus Cisplatin as the First-line Therapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
We prospectively conducted a multi-center, open-label, randomized phase II trial to compare the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus cisplatin (DC) and etoposide plus cisplatin (EC) for treating advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Materials and Methods
Seventy-eight previously untreated patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled in this study. The patients received cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 and either docetaxel 75 mg/m2 on day 1 or etoposide 100 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3 in the DC or EC arm, respectively, every 3 weeks.
The objective response rate was 39.4% (15/38) and 18.4% (7/38) (p=0.023) in the DC and EC arms, respectively. The median time to progression (TTP) was 5.9 and 2.7 months (p=0.119), and the overall survival was 12.1 and 8.7 months (p=0.168) in the DC and EC arms, respectively. The prognostic factors for longer survival were an earlier disease stage (stage III, p=0.0095), the responders to DC (p=0.0174) and the adenocarcinoma histology (p=0.0454). The grades 3 and 4 toxicities were similar in both arms, with more febrile neutropenia (7.9% vs. 0%) and fatigue (7.9% vs. 0%) being noted in the DC arm.
DC offered a superior overall response rate than does EC, along with tolerable toxicity profiles, although the DC drug combination did not show significantly improved survival and TTP.
PMCID: PMC2785933  PMID: 19956368
Docetaxel; Etoposide; Cisplatin; Non-small-cell lung carcinoma
13.  High-dose Versus Low-dose Cyclophosphamide in Combination with G-CSF for Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell Mobilization 
To compare the mobilizing effects and toxicities of two different doses of cyclophosphamide (CY) plus lenograstim (glycosylated G-CSF), we performed a prospective randomized study by enrolling patients suffering with either high-risk Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or breast cancer undergoing ablative chemotherapy.
The NHL patients received 4 cycles of CHOP and the breast cancer patients received 2-3 cycles of FAC (FEC) adjuvant chemotherapy. Then, the patients were randomly allocated to receive CY 4 g/m2 (arm A) or 1.5 g/m2 (arm B) in combination with lenograstim. Large volume leukapheresis was carried out and it was continued daily until the target cell dose of 2×106 CD34+ cell/kg was reached.
Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study. The median number of leukaphereis sessions actually performed was 2.5 sessions in arm A and 3 sessions in arm B. The target cell dose was obtained with the median number of one leukapheresis session in both arms of the study (p=0.09). The collected number of CD34+ cells in the leukapheresis products was higher in arm A than arm B (22.4 vs. 9.9×106/kg, respectively, p=0.05). Grade III or IV leukopenia was present in 14/15 patients (94%) in arm A and in 1/12 patients (8%) in arm B (p<0.0001). Grade III or IV thrombocytopenia was present in 8/15 patients (54%) in arm A, but this was not present in any patients of arm B (p=0.0004). Neutropenic fever occurred in 6/15 patients (40%) in arm A, and in 1/12 patients (8%) in arm B (p=0.09). The hematological recovery of the leukocytes and platelets after transplantation was not statistically different between the two doses.
Low-dose CY plus lenograstim is a safe and effective mobilizing regimen.
PMCID: PMC3891157  PMID: 16295781
Cyclophosphamide; Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization; Progenitor cell; Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

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