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1.  Treatment of bloodstream infections in ICUs 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:489.
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are frequent in ICU and is a prognostic factor of severe sepsis. Community acquired BSIs usually due to susceptible bacteria should be clearly differentiated from healthcare associated BSIs frequently due to resistant hospital strains. Early adequate treatment is key and should use guidelines and direct examination of samples performed from the infectious source. Previous antibiotic therapy knowledge, history of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO) carriage are other major determinants of first choice antimicrobials in heathcare-associated and nosocomial BSIs. Initial antimicrobial dose should be adapted to pharmacokinetic knowledge. In general, a high dose is recommended at the beginning of treatment.
If MDRO is suspected combination antibiotic therapy is mandatory because it increase the spectrum of treatment. Most of time, combination should be pursued no more than 2 to 5 days.
Given the negative impact of useless antimicrobials, maximal effort should be done to decrease the antibiotic selection pressure. De-escalation from a broad spectrum to a narrow spectrum antimicrobial decreases the antibiotic selection pressure without negative impact on mortality. Duration of therapy should be shortened as often as possible especially when organism is susceptible, when the infection source has been totally controlled.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-489
PMCID: PMC4289315  PMID: 25431091
Bloodstream infection; Healthcare associated infections; Bacterial resistance; Intensive care unit
2.  The prognostic value of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13) deficiency in septic shock patients involves interleukin-6 and is not dependent on disseminated intravascular coagulation 
Critical Care  2013;17(6):R273.
Introduction
ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13) deficiency has been reported in patients with sepsis but its clinical relevance and pathophysiology remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess the clinical significance, prognostic value and pathophysiology of ADAMTS13 deficiency in patients with septic shock with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Methods
This was a prospective monocenter cohort study of patients with septic shock. Von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS13-related parameters and plasma IL-6 concentration were measured at inclusion to the study. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the presence of ADAMT13 deficiency (<30%) or DIC.
Results
This study included 72 patients with a median age of 59 years (interquartile range (IQR) 50 to 71). Each of the included patients received vasopressors; 55 (76%) were under mechanical ventilation and 22 (33%) underwent renal replacement therapy. Overall, 19 patients (26%) had DIC, and 36 patients had ADMTS13 deficiency (50%). Patients with DIC, ADAMTS13 deficiency or both were more severe at ICU admission. Mortality was higher in septic shock patients from group one. By multivariate analysis, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2 (SAPS2) score (odds ratio (OR) 1.11/point; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24) and ADAMTS13 activity <30% (OR 11.86; 95% CI 1.36 to 103.52) were independently associated with hospital mortality. There was no correlation between ADAMTS13 activity and the International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) score (rs = -0.97, P = 0.41) suggesting that ADAMTS13 functional deficiency and DIC were independent parameters. IL-6 level was higher in patients with ADAMTS13 activity <30% [895 (IQR 330 to 1843) pg/mL versus 83 (IQR 43 to 118), P = 0.0003).
Conclusions
Septic shock was associated with a functional deficiency of ADAMTS13, independently of DIC. ADAMTS13 functional deficiency is then a prognostic factor for mortality in septic shock patients, independently of DIC.
doi:10.1186/cc13115
PMCID: PMC4056532  PMID: 24238574
3.  Vasculitic emergencies in the intensive care unit: a special focus on cryoglobulinemic vasculitis 
Vasculitis is characterized by the infiltration of vessel walls by inflammatory leukocytes with reactive damage and subsequent loss of vessel integrity. The clinical course of systemic vasculitis may be punctuated by acute life-threatening manifestations that require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Furthermore, the diagnosis may be established in the ICU after admission for a severe inaugural symptom, mostly acute respiratory failure. Among the systemic vasculitides, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) has been rarely studied in an ICU setting. Severe CV-related complications may involve the kidneys, lungs, heart, gut, and/or central nervous system. The diagnosis of CV in the ICU may be delayed or completely unrecognized. A high level of suspicion is critical to obtain a timely and accurate diagnosis and to initiate appropriate treatment. We describe severe acute manifestations of CV based on six selected patients admitted to our ICU. That all six patients survived suggests the benefit of prompt ICU admission of patients with severe CV.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-31
PMCID: PMC3488028  PMID: 22812447
Cryoglobulinemia; Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis; Acute respiratory failure; Acute kidney injury; Vasculitis; Systemic disease

Results 1-3 (3)