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1.  Impact of immunodepression and moderate alcohol consumption on coronary and other arterial disease events in an 11-year cohort of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy 
BMJ Open  2012;2(6):e001155.
Objective
To investigate the relationship between response to antiretroviral therapy (ART), alcohol use and occurrence of a major coronary or other arterial disease event (CADE) in HIV-infected individuals.
Design
A cohort study. A Cox model was used to identify the correlates of a first occurrence of a major CADE.
Setting
The French ANRS CO8 APROCO-COPILOTE cohort was set up in 1997 to study clinical progression and patient-reported outcomes (PRO) after initiating a protease inhibitor-containing ART. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on PRO and behaviours, including alcohol use.
Participants
Metabolic data were only available for a subgroup (n=675) of the study group (n=1154).
Main outcome measures
Major coronary or other arterial disease first event.
Results
Over the 11-year follow-up, 49 major CADE were observed, with an incidence rate (95% CI)=0.75(0.57 to 0.99) per 100 person-years. Immunodepression (CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm3) was associated with an increased risk of CADE (adjusted HR (95% CI)=2.52(1.15 to 5.48)) after adjustment for female gender (0.25(0.08 to 0.83)), age (1.07(1.04 to 1.10)) and smoking>20 cigarettes/day (4.19(2.17 to 8.11)). Moreover, individuals with moderate alcohol consumption (≤4(3) alcohol units (AU)/day for men(women)) had a lower risk of CADE (0.38(0.20 to 0.71)) than alcohol abstainers, although the risk for those drinking>4(3)  AU/day for men(women) was not significantly different from this latter group. These associations remained valid after adjustment for metabolic disorders. No significant association with exposure to any specific antiretroviral was detected.
Conclusions
In the long term, absence of immunodepression and moderate alcohol consumption remain associated with a lower risk of a major CADE. Combined interventions to reduce CADE-risk-related behaviours including adherence counselling for assuring long-term immunological response to ART in HIV-infected individuals are now a clinical and public health priority.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001155
PMCID: PMC3533116  PMID: 23180454
2.  Multicytokine Detection Improves Latent Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Health Care Workers 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(5):1711-1717.
In a low-incidence setting, health care workers (HCW) are at a higher risk of tuberculosis than the general population. The suboptimal sensitivity of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) test remains a critical issue when identifying occupational latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HCW. The aim of this study was to identify additional biomarkers in order to overcome the limits of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) and improve the performance of LTBI diagnosis within this population. Seventy Bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated HCW regularly exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were grouped according to QFT results into an LTBI-positive group (positive QFT, n = 8), an LTBI-negative group (normal QFT and negative tuberculin skin test [TST], n = 21), and an undetermined group (subpositive QFT and/or positive TST, n = 41). The secretion of 22 cytokines in response to QFT-specific stimulation was quantified using a multiparameter-based immunoassay. As a result, thresholds discriminating LTBI-positive from LTBI-negative HCW were established by comparing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-15, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and the monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG), which are biomarkers differentially secreted by the two groups. The combination of IL-15 and MIG provided a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.1% in distinguishing LTBI-positive from LTBI-negative HCW. When using IL-15 and MIG among the undetermined group, 6/45 HCW could be classified in the LTBI-positive group. The use of additional biomarkers after IGRA screening could improve the diagnosis of LTBI. The performance of these biomarkers and their use in combination with TST and/or QFT, as well as the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic strategy, should be evaluated in further larger clinical trials.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00117-12
PMCID: PMC3347142  PMID: 22403417
3.  Short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit: impact of antiretroviral therapy and immunovirological status 
Background
The purpose of this study was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) according to immunovirological status at admission and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in ICU.
Methods
Retrospective study of 98 HIV-infected patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2008 in two medical ICU in Montpellier, France. The primary outcome was mortality in ICU. The secondary end point was probability of survival in the year following ICU admission.
Results
Eighty-two (83.6%) admissions in ICU were related to HIV infection and 45% of patients had received HAART before admission. Sixty-two patients (63.3%) were discharged from ICU, and 34 (34.7%) were alive at 1 year. Plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) and CD4+ cell count separately were not associated with outcome. Independent predictors of ICU mortality were the use of vasopressive agents (odds ratio (OR), 3.779; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–12.861; p = 0.0334) and SAPS II score (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.003-1.077; p = 0.0319), whereas introducing or continuing HAART in ICU was protective (OR, 0.278; 95% CI, 0.082-0.939; p = 0.0393). Factors independently associated with 1-year mortality were immunovirological status with high VL (>3 log10/ml) and low CD4 (<200/mm3; hazard ratio (HR), 5.19; 95% CI, 1.328-20.279; p = 0.0179) or low VL (<3 log10/ml) and low CD4 (HR, 4.714; 95% CI, 1.178-18.867; p = 0.0284) vs. high CD4 and low VL, coinfection with C hepatitis virus (HR, 3.268; 95% CI, 1.29-8.278; p = 0.0125), the use of vasopressive agents (HR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.394-9.716; p = 0.0085), and SAPS II score (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.057-1.124; p <0.0001). Introducing HAART in a patient with no HAART at admission was associated with a better long-term outcome (HR, 0.166; 95% CI, 0.043-0.642; p = 0.0093).
Conclusions
In a population of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU, short- and long-term outcomes are related to acute illness severity and immunovirological status at admission. Complementary studies are necessary to identify HIV-infected patients who benefit from HAART use in ICU according to immunovirological status and the reasons of ICU admission.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-25
PMCID: PMC3465211  PMID: 22762133
Intensive care units; Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Antiretroviral therapy; Prognostic factors; Critical care; Mortality
4.  Pregnancy may be followed by an inflexion of the immune reconstitution in HIV-infected women who receive antiretroviral drugs before conception 
HIV Medicine  2008;9(10):897-900.
Summary
Background
Whether pregnancy has an impact on evolution of CD4+ cell counts in women treated with highly potent antiretrovirals before conception remains largely unknown.
Methods
Among patients enrolled in the ANRS CO8 (APROCO/COPILOTE) cohort, we selected all women aged between 18 and 50 years at initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Slopes of CD4+ cell counts during follow-up were estimated using mixed longitudinal models with time-dependent indicators for pregnancy and delivery.
Results
Among the 260 selected HIV-infected women, a pregnancy occurred among 39 during a median follow-up of 66 months. Women who became pregnant had higher CD4+ cell count at baseline but this difference was progressively blurred during follow-up because they had a slower increase than women who did not become pregnant. The estimated slope of CD4+ cell count decreased significantly from +2.3 cells/mm3/month before pregnancy and in women who did not become pregnant to − 0.04 cells/mm3/month after delivery (p = 0.0003).
Conclusion
A significant increase in CD4+ cell count may be preferable before pregnancy in women treated with cART, in order to overcome the evolution observed after pregnancy.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00641.x
PMCID: PMC2740875  PMID: 18795961
Adolescent; Adult; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Female; HIV Infections; drug therapy; immunology; HIV-1; immunology; Humans; Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome; etiology; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Preconception Care; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious; drug therapy; immunology; virology; RNA, Viral; Risk Factors; Young Adult
5.  Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Virus Infection Is a Risk Factor for Severe Hepatic Cytolysis after Initiation of a Protease Inhibitor-Containing Antiretroviral Regimen in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2000;44(12):3451-3455.
In a cohort of 1,047 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients started on protease inhibitors (PIs), the incidence of severe hepatic cytolysis (alanine aminotransferase concentration five times or more above the upper limit of the normal level ≥ 5N) was 5% patient-years after a mean follow-up of 5 months. Only positivity for hepatitis C virus antibodies (hazard ratio [HR], 7.95; P < 10−3) or hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HR, 6.67; P < 10−3) was associated with severe cytolysis. Before starting patients on PIs, assessment of liver enzyme levels and viral coinfections is necessary.
PMCID: PMC90223  PMID: 11083658
7.  Rise of CC398 Lineage of Staphylococcus aureus among Infective Endocarditis Isolates Revealed by Two Consecutive Population-Based Studies in France 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51172.
Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two prospective studies on infective endocarditis (IE) conducted in 1999 and 2008 and isolated from non-IE bacteremia collected in 2006 were spa-typed and their virulence factors were analyzed with a microarray. Both populations were genetically diverse, with no virulence factors or genotypes significantly more associated with the IE isolates compared with the non-IE isolates. The population structure of the IE isolates did not change much between 1999 and 2008, with the exception of the appearance of CC398 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates responsible for 5.6% of all cases in 2008. In 1999, this lineage was responsible for no cases. The increasing prevalence of S. aureus in IE is apparently not the result of a major change in staphylococcal population structure over time, with the exception of the emerging CC398 MSSA lineage.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051172
PMCID: PMC3521771  PMID: 23272091

Results 1-7 (7)