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1.  Differences in Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life Between Women with and without Breast Pain Prior to Breast Cancer Surgery 
Purpose of the research
Little is known about the relationships between pain, anxiety, and depression in women prior to breast cancer surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate for differences in anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in women who did and did not report the occurrence of breast pain prior to breast cancer surgery. We hypothesized that women with pain would report higher levels of anxiety and depression as well as poorer QOL than women without pain.
Methods and sample
A total of 390 women completed self-report measures of pain, anxiety depression, and QOL prior to surgery.
Key Results
Women with preoperative breast pain (28%) were significantly younger, had a lower functional status score, were more likely to be Non-white and to have gone through menopause. Over 37% of the sample reported clinically meaningful levels of depressive symptoms. Almost 70% of the sample reported clinically meaningful levels of anxiety. Patients with preoperative breast pain reported significantly higher depression scores and significantly lower physical well-being scores. No between group differences were found for patients' ratings of state and trait anxiety or total QOL scores.
Conclusions
Findings from this study suggest that, regardless of pain status, anxiety and depression are common problems in women prior to breast cancer surgery.
doi:10.1016/j.ejon.2012.06.001
PMCID: PMC3524405  PMID: 22892272
breast pain; breast cancer surgery; anxiety; depression; quality of life; psychological distress
2.  The transition from acute to chronic pain: might intensive care unit patients be at risk? 
Pain remains a significant problem for patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). As research has shown, for some of these patients pain might even persist after discharge and become chronic. Exposure to intense pain and stress during medical and nursing procedures could be a risk factor that contributes to the transition from acute to chronic pain, which is a major disruption of the pain neurological system. New evidence suggests that physiological alterations contributing to chronic pain states take place both in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review cutting-edge theories regarding pain and mechanisms that underlie the transition from acute to chronic pain, such as increases in membrane excitability of peripheral and central nerve fibers, synaptic plasticity, and loss of the function of descending inhibitory pain fibers; 2) provide information on the association between the immune system and pain and its crucial contribution to development of chronic pain syndromes, and 3) discuss mechanisms at brain levels in the nervous system and their contribution to affective (i.e., emotional) states associated with chronic pain conditions. Finally, we will offer suggestions for ICU clinical interventions to attempt to prevent the transition from acute to chronic pain.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-36
PMCID: PMC3488025  PMID: 22898192
Pain; Acute; Chronic; Acute-to-chronic; Intensive care unit; Critical care; Nerve sensitization

Results 1-2 (2)