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1.  Simulations for Mechanical Ventilation in Children: Review and Future Prospects 
Mechanical ventilation is a very effective therapy, but with many complications. Simulators are used in many fields, including medicine, to enhance safety issues. In the intensive care unit, they are used for teaching cardiorespiratory physiology and ventilation, for testing ventilator performance, for forecasting the effect of ventilatory support, and to determine optimal ventilatory management. They are also used in research and development of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) and explicit computerized protocols in closed loop. For all those reasons, cardiorespiratory simulators are one of the tools that help to decrease mechanical ventilation duration and complications. This paper describes the different types of simulators described in the literature for physiologic simulation and modeling of the respiratory system, including a new simulator (SimulResp), and proposes a validation process for these simulators.
doi:10.1155/2013/943281
PMCID: PMC3606750  PMID: 23533735
2.  Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit 
The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.
doi:10.1155/2013/384210
PMCID: PMC3594948  PMID: 23509617
3.  The critically-ill pediatric hemato-oncology patient: epidemiology, management, and strategy of transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit 
Cancer is a leading cause of death in children. In the past decades, there has been a marked increase in overall survival of children with cancer. However, children whose treatment includes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation still represent a subpopulation with a higher risk of mortality. These improvements in mortality are accompanied by an increase in complications, such as respiratory and cardiovascular insufficiencies as well as neurological problems that may require an admission to the pediatric intensive care unit where most supportive therapies can be provided. It has been shown that ventilatory and cardiovascular support along with renal replacement therapy can benefit pediatric hemato-oncology patients if promptly established. Even if admissions of these patients are not considered futile anymore, they still raise sensitive questions, including ethical issues. To support the discussion and potentially facilitate the decision-making process, we propose an algorithm that takes into account the reason for admission (surgical versus medical) and the hemato-oncological prognosis. The algorithm then leads to different types of admission: full-support admission, “pediatric intensive care unit trial” admission, intensive care with adapted level of support, and palliative intensive care. Throughout the process, maintaining a dialogue between the treating physicians, the paramedical staff, the child, and his parents is of paramount importance to optimize the care of these children with complex disease and evolving medical status.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-14
PMCID: PMC3423066  PMID: 22691690
Oncology; Hematology; Cancer; Stem cell; Transplantation; Graft; Child; Pediatrics; Critical care; Intensive care
4.  A pilot prospective study on closed loop controlled ventilation and oxygenation in ventilated children during the weaning phase 
Critical Care  2012;16(3):R85.
Introduction
The present study is a pilot prospective safety evaluation of a new closed loop computerised protocol on ventilation and oxygenation in stable, spontaneously breathing children weighing more than 7 kg, during the weaning phase of mechanical ventilation.
Methods
Mechanically ventilated children ready to start the weaning process were ventilated for five periods of 60 minutes in the following order: pressure support ventilation, adaptive support ventilation (ASV), ASV plus a ventilation controller (ASV-CO2), ASV-CO2 plus an oxygenation controller (ASV-CO2-O2) and pressure support ventilation again. Based on breath-by-breath analysis, the percentage of time with normal ventilation as defined by a respiratory rate between 10 and 40 breaths/minute, tidal volume > 5 ml/kg predicted body weight and end-tidal CO2 between 25 and 55 mmHg was determined. The number of manipulations and changes on the ventilator were also recorded.
Results
Fifteen children, median aged 45 months, were investigated. No adverse event and no premature protocol termination were reported. ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 kept the patients within normal ventilation for, respectively, 94% (91 to 96%) and 94% (87 to 96%) of the time. The tidal volume, respiratory rate, peak inspiratory airway pressure and minute ventilation were equivalent for all modalities, although there were more automatic setting changes in ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2. Positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2 require further investigation.
Conclusion
Over the short study period and in this specific population, ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 were safe and kept the patient under normal ventilation most of the time. Further research is needed, especially for positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01095406
doi:10.1186/cc11343
PMCID: PMC3580628  PMID: 22591622

Results 1-4 (4)