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1.  Association between Education Level and Prognosis after Esophageal Cancer Surgery: A Swedish Population-Based Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0121928.
Background
An association between education level and survival after esophageal cancer has recently been indicated, but remains uncertain. We conducted a large study with long follow-up to address this issue.
Methods
This population-based cohort study included all patients operated for esophageal cancer in Sweden between 1987 and 2010 with follow-up until 2012. Level of education was categorized as compulsory (≤9 years), intermediate (10–12 years), or high (≥13 years). The main outcome measure was overall 5-year mortality after esophagectomy. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between education level and mortality, expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for sex, age, co-morbidity, tumor stage, tumor histology, and assessing the impact of education level over time.
Results
Compared to patients with high education, the adjusted HR for mortality was 1.29 (95% CI 1.07–1.57) in the intermediate educated group and 1.42 (95% CI 1.17–1.71) in the compulsory educated group. The largest differences were found in early tumor stages (T-stage 0–1), with HRs of 1.73 (95% CI 1.00–2.99) and 2.58 (95% CI 1.51–4.42) for intermediate and compulsory educated patients respectively; and for squamous cell carcinoma, with corresponding HRs of 1.38 (95% CI 1.07–1.79) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.19–1.95) respectively.
Conclusions
This Swedish population-based study showed an association between higher education level and improved survival after esophageal cancer surgery, independent of established prognostic factors. The associations were stronger in patients of an early tumor stage and squamous cell carcinoma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121928
PMCID: PMC4374844  PMID: 25811880
2.  Early Complications Following Oesophagectomy for Cancer in Relation to Long-Term Healthcare Utilisation: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(3):e0121080.
Background
Little is known about how early postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer influence healthcare utilisation in the long-term. We hypothesised that these complications also increase healthcare utilisation long after the recovery period.
Methods
This was a prospective, nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study of patients who underwent curatively intended oesophagectomy for cancer in 2001-2005 and survived at least 1 year postoperatively (n = 390). Total days of in-hospitalisation, number of hospitalisations and number of visits to the outpatient clinic within 5 years of surgery were analysed using quasi-Poisson models with adjustment for patient, tumour and treatment characteristics and are expressed as incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
There was an increased in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after surgery in patients with more than 1 complication (IRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4). The IRR for the number of hospitalisations by number of complications was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.6), and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) for number of outpatient visits in patients with more than 1 complication. The IRR for in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years following oesophagectomy was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.0) for patients with anastomotic insufficiency and 1.5 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) for patients with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications. We found no association with number of hospitalisations (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.0) or number of outpatient visits (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.7) after anastomotic insufficiency, or after cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-1.9) and (IRR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5) respectively.
Conclusion
This study showed an increased total in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after oesophagectomy for cancer in patients with postoperative complications, particularly following anastomotic insufficiency.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121080
PMCID: PMC4358940  PMID: 25768921
3.  Marital status and survival after oesophageal cancer surgery: a population-based nationwide cohort study in Sweden 
BMJ Open  2014;4(6):e005418.
Objectives
A beneficial effect of being married on survival has been shown for several cancer types, but is unclear for oesophageal cancer. The objective of this study was to clarify the potential influence of the marital status on the overall and disease-specific survival after curatively intended treatment of oesophageal cancer using a nationwide population-based design, taking into account the known major prognostic variables.
Design
Prospective, population-based cohort.
Setting
All Swedish hospitals performing surgery for oesophageal cancer during 2001–2005.
Participants
This study included 90% of all patients with oesophageal or junctional cancer who underwent surgical resection in Sweden in 2001–2005, with follow-up until death or the end of the study period (2012).
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Cox regression was used to estimate associations between the marital status and the 5-year overall and disease-specific mortality, expressed as HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for sex, age, tumour stage, histological type, complications, comorbidities and annual surgeon volume.
Results
Of all 606 included patients (80.4% men), 55.1% were married, 9.2% were remarried, 22.6% were previously married and 13% were never married. Compared with the married patients, the never married (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.35), previously married (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.15) and remarried patients (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.13) had no increased overall 5-year mortality. The corresponding HRs for disease-specific survival, and after excluding the initial 90 days of surgery, were similar to the HRs for the overall survival.
Conclusions
This study showed no evidence of a better 5-year survival in married patients compared with non-married patients undergoing surgery for oesophageal cancer.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005418
PMCID: PMC4054621  PMID: 24907248
Oesophageal Cancer; Marital Status; Survival
4.  Education level and survival after oesophageal cancer surgery: a prospective population-based cohort study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(12):e003754.
Objectives
This study aimed to investigate whether a higher education level is associated with an improved long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer.
Design
A prospective, population-based cohort study.
Setting
Sweden—nationwide.
Participants
90% of all patients with oesophageal and cardia cancer who underwent a resection in Sweden in 2001–2005 were enrolled in this study (N=600; 80.3% male) and followed up until death or the end of the study period (2012). The study exposure was level of education, defined as compulsory (≤9 years), moderate (10–12 years) or high (≥13 years).
Outcome measures
The main outcome measure was overall 5-year survival after oesophagectomy. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between education level and mortality, expressed as HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for sex, age, tumour stage, histological type, complications, comorbidities and annual surgeon volume. The patient group with highest education was used as the reference category.
Results
Among the 600 included patients, 281 (46.8%) had compulsory education, 238 (39.7%) had moderate education and 81 (13.5%) had high education. The overall 5-year survival rate was 23.1%, 24.4% and 32.1% among patients with compulsory, moderate and high education, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, a slightly higher, yet not statistically significantly increased point HR was found among the compulsory educated patients (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.47). In patients with tumour stage IV, increased adjusted HRs were found for compulsory (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.07 to 7.73) and moderately (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.95) educated patients. No statistically significant associations were found for the other tumour stages.
Conclusions
This study provides limited evidence of an association between lower education and worse long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003754
PMCID: PMC3855588  PMID: 24302504
5.  Clinical Use of HIV Integrase Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e52562.
Background
Optimal regimen choice of antiretroviral therapy is essential to achieve long-term clinical success. Integrase inhibitors have swiftly been adopted as part of current antiretroviral regimens. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence for integrase inhibitor use in clinical settings.
Methods
MEDLINE and Web-of-Science were screened from April 2006 until November 2012, as were hand-searched scientific meeting proceedings. Multiple reviewers independently screened 1323 citations in duplicate to identify randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials and cohort studies on integrase inhibitor use in clinical practice. Independent, duplicate data extraction and quality assessment were conducted.
Results
48 unique studies were included on the use of integrase inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients and treatment-experienced patients with either virological failure or switching to integrase inhibitors while virologically suppressed. On the selected studies with comparable outcome measures and indication (n = 16), a meta-analysis was performed based on modified intention-to-treat (mITT), on-treatment (OT) and as-treated (AT) virological outcome data. In therapy-naive patients, favorable odds ratios (OR) for integrase inhibitor-based regimens were observed, (mITT OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59–0.86). However, integrase inhibitors combined with protease inhibitors only did not result in a significant better virological outcome. Evidence further supported integrase inhibitor use following virological failure (mITT OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.11–0.66), but switching to integrase inhibitors from a high genetic barrier drug during successful treatment was not supported (mITT OR 1.43; 95% CI 0.89–2.31). Integrase inhibitor-based regimens result in similar immunological responses compared to other regimens. A low genetic barrier to drug-resistance development was observed for raltegravir and elvitegravir, but not for dolutegravir.
Conclusion
In first-line therapy, integrase inhibitors are superior to other regimens. Integrase inhibitor use after virological failure is supported as well by the meta-analysis. Careful use is however warranted when replacing a high genetic barrier drug in treatment-experienced patients switching successful treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052562
PMCID: PMC3541389  PMID: 23341902
6.  The rising problem of antimicrobial resistance in the intensive care unit 
Mainly due to its extremely vulnerable population of critically ill patients, and the high use of (invasive) procedures, the intensive care unit (ICU) is the epicenter of infections. These infections are associated with an important rise in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The additional problem of multidrug-resistant pathogens boosts the adverse impact of infections in ICUs. Several factors influence the rapid spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens in the ICU, e.g., new mutations, selection of resistant strains, and suboptimal infection control. Among gram-positive organisms, the most important resistant microorganisms in the ICU are currently methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. In gram-negative bacteria, the resistance is mainly due to the rapid increase of extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Proteus species and high level third-generation cephalosporin Beta-lactamase resistance among Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp., and multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. To conclude, additional efforts are needed in the future to slow down the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Constant evaluation of current practice on basis of trends in MDR and antibiotic consumption patterns is essential to make progress in this problematic matter.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-47
PMCID: PMC3231873  PMID: 22112929
7.  Severe burn injury in europe: a systematic review of the incidence, etiology, morbidity, and mortality 
Critical Care  2010;14(5):R188.
Introduction
Burn injury is a serious pathology, potentially leading to severe morbidity and significant mortality, but it also has a considerable health-economic impact. The aim of this study was to describe the European hospitalized population with severe burn injury, including the incidence, etiology, risk factors, mortality, and causes of death.
Methods
The systematic literature search (1985 to 2009) involved PubMed, the Web of Science, and the search engine Google. The reference lists and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing). Only studies dealing with epidemiologic issues (for example, incidence and outcome) as their major topic, on hospitalized populations with severe burn injury (in secondary and tertiary care) in Europe were included. Language restrictions were set on English, French, and Dutch.
Results
The search led to 76 eligible studies, including more than 186,500 patients in total. The annual incidence of severe burns was 0.2 to 2.9/10,000 inhabitants with a decreasing trend in time. Almost 50% of patients were younger than 16 years, and ~60% were male patients. Flames, scalds, and contact burns were the most prevalent causes in the total population, but in children, scalds clearly dominated. Mortality was usually between 1.4% and 18% and is decreasing in time. Major risk factors for death were older age and a higher total percentage of burned surface area, as well as chronic diseases. (Multi) organ failure and sepsis were the most frequently reported causes of death. The main causes of early death (<48 hours) were burn shock and inhalation injury.
Conclusions
Despite the lack of a large-scale European registration of burn injury, more epidemiologic information is available about the hospitalized population with severe burn injury than is generally presumed. National and international registration systems nevertheless remain necessary to allow better targeting of prevention campaigns and further improvement of cost-effectiveness in total burn care.
doi:10.1186/cc9300
PMCID: PMC3219295  PMID: 20958968

Results 1-7 (7)