The primary aim was to measure the amount of nutrients required, prescribed and actually administered in critically ill patients. Secondary aims were to assess adherence to clinical practice guidelines, and investigate factors leading to non-adherence.
Observational, multicenter, prospective study, including 203 patients in a total of 19 intensive care units in France. The prescribed calorie supply was compared with the theoretical minimal required calorie intake (25 Kcal/Kg/day) and with the supply actually delivered to the patient to calculate the ratio of calories prescribed/required and the ratio of calories delivered/prescribed. Clinical factors suspected to influence enteral nutrition were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis.
The median ratio of prescribed/required calories per day was 43 [37-54] at day 1 and increased until day 7. From day 4 until the end of the study, the median ratio was > 80%. The median ratio of delivered/prescribed per day was > 80% for all 7 days from the start of enteral nutrition. Among the variables tested (hospital type, use of a local nutrition protocol, sedation, vasoactive drugs, number of interruptions of enteral nutrition and measurement of gastric residual volume), only measurement of residual volume was significant by univariate analysis. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis, where gastric residual volume measurement was the only variable independently associated with the ratio of delivered/prescribed calories (OR = 1.38; 95%CI, 1.12-2.10, p = .024).
The translation of clinical research and recommendations for enteral nutrition into routine bedside practice in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation was satisfactory, but could probably be improved with a multidisciplinary approach.