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1.  Safety of performing fiberoptic bronchoscopy in critically ill hypoxemic patients with acute respiratory failure 
Intensive Care Medicine  2012;39(1):45-52.
Background
Safety of fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in nonintubated critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure have not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to measure the incidence of intubation and need to increase ventilatory support following FOB and to identify predictive factors of this event.
Methods
A prospective multicenter observational study was carried out in 8 French adult intensive care units. 169 FOB performed in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio equal or less than 300 were analyzed. Our main end point was intubation rate. The secondary end point was rate of increased ventilatory support defined as greater than a 50% increase in oxygen requirement, the need to start non invasive-positive pressure ventilation (NI-PPV) or increase NI-PPV support.
Results
Within 24 hours, an increase in ventilatory support was required following 59 (35%) bronchoscopies, of which 25 (15%) led to endotracheal intubation. The existence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR:5.2 [1.6–17.8], p=0.007) or immunosuppression (OR : 5.4 [1.7–17.2], p=0.004) were significantly associated with the need for intubation in multivariable analysis. None of the baseline physiological parameters including the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was associated with intubation.
Conclusion
Bronchoscopy is often followed by an increase in ventilatory support in hypoxemic critically ill patients, but less frequently by the need for intubation. COPD, immunosuppression are associated with a need for invasive ventilation in the following 24 hours.
doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2687-9
PMCID: PMC3939027  PMID: 23070123
Acute Disease; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anoxia; therapy; Bronchoscopy; Critical Illness; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Positive-Pressure Respiration; Prospective Studies; Respiration, Artificial; Respiratory Insufficiency; therapy
3.  Adjunctive steroid in HIV-negative patients with severe Pneumocystis pneumonia 
Respiratory Research  2013;14(1):87.
Background
High-dose steroid therapy has been proven effective in AIDS-related Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) but not in non-AIDS-related cases. We evaluated the effects on survival of steroids in HIV-negative patients with PCP.
Methods
Retrospective study patients admitted to the ICU with hypoxemic PCP. We compared patients receiving HDS (≥1 mg/Kg/day prednisone equivalent), low-dose steroids (LDS group, <1 mg/Kg/day prednisone equivalent), and no steroids (NS group). Variables independently associated with ICU mortality were identified.
Results
139 HIV-negative patients with PCP were included. Median age was 48 [40–60] years. The main underlying conditions were hematological malignancies (n=55, 39.6%), cancer (n=11, 7.9%), and solid organ transplantation (n=73, 52.2%). ICU mortality was 26% (36 deaths). The HDS group had 72 (51.8%) patients, the LDS group 35 (25%) patients, and the NS group 32 (23%) patients. Independent predictors of ICU mortality were SAPS II at ICU admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.04/point; [95%CI], 1.01-1.08, P=0.01), non-hematological disease (OR, 4.06; [95%CI], 1.19-13.09, P=0.03), vasopressor use (OR, 20.31; 95%CI, 6.45-63.9, P<0.001), and HDS (OR, 9.33; 95%CI, 1.97-44.3, P=0.02). HDS was not associated with the rate of ICU-acquired infections.
Conclusions
HDS were associated with increased mortality in HIV-negative patients with PCP via a mechanism independent from an increased risk of infection.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-87
PMCID: PMC3765749  PMID: 23981859
Pneumocystis jiroveci infection; Immunocompromised host; Mortality
5.  Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Hematological Malignancies: Impact on Remission and Survival 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55870.
Background
Optimal chemotherapy with minimal toxicity is the main determinant of complete remission in patients with newly diagnosed hematological malignancies. Acute organ dysfunctions may impair the patient’s ability to receive optimal chemotherapy.
Design and Methods
To compare 6-month complete remission rates in patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), we collected prospective data on 200 patients with newly diagnosed high-grade malignancies (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 53.5%; acute myeloid leukemia, 29%; acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 11.5%; and Hodgkin disease, 6%).
Results
According to RIFLE criteria, 137 (68.5%) patients had AKI. Five causes of AKI accounted for 91.4% of cases: hypoperfusion, tumor lysis syndrome, tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic agents, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Half of the AKI patients received renal replacement therapy and 14.6% received suboptimal chemotherapy. AKI was associated with a lower 6-month complete remission rate (39.4% vs. 68.3%, P<0.01) and a higher mortality rate (47.4% vs. 30.2%, P<0.01) than patients without AKI. By multivariate analysis, independent determinants of 6-month complete remission were older age, poor performance status, number of organ dysfunctions, and AKI.
Conclusion
AKI is common in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade malignancies and is associated with lower complete remission rates and higher mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055870
PMCID: PMC3573047  PMID: 23457485
6.  Efficacy of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients: a propensity analysis 
Critical Care  2012;16(6):R236.
Introduction
Although renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a common procedure in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), its efficacy remains uncertain. Patients who receive RRT usually have higher mortality rates than those who do not. However, many differences exist in severity patterns between patients with and those without RRT and available results are further confounded by treatment selection bias since no consensus on indications for RRT has been reached so far. Our aim was to account for these biases to accurately assess RRT efficacy, with special attention to RRT timing.
Methods
We performed a propensity analysis using data of the French longitudinal prospective multicenter Outcomerea database. Two propensity scores for RRT were built to match patients who received RRT to controls who did not despite having a close probability of receiving the procedure. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria. The association between RRT and hospital mortality was examined through multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses to control for residual confounding. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of RRT timing.
Results
Among the 2846 study patients, 545 (19%) received RRT. Crude mortality rates were higher in patients with than in those without RRT (38% vs 17.5%, P < 0.001). After matching and adjustment, RRT was not associated with a reduced hospital mortality. The two propensity models yielded concordant results.
Conclusions
In our study population, RRT failed to reduce hospital mortality. This result emphasizes the need for randomized studies comparing RRT to conservative management in selected ICU patients, with special focus on RRT timing.
doi:10.1186/cc11905
PMCID: PMC3672625  PMID: 23254304
7.  Determinants of Recovery from Severe Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44534.
Objective
Few outcome data are available about posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We studied 90-day functional outcomes and their determinants in patients with severe PRES.
Design
70 patients with severe PRES admitted to 24 ICUs in 2001–2010 were included in a retrospective cohort study. The main outcome measure was a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of 5 (good recovery) on day 90.
Main Results
Consciousness impairment was the most common clinical sign, occurring in 66 (94%) patients. Clinical seizures occurred in 57 (81%) patients. Median mean arterial pressure was 122 (105–143) mmHg on scene. Cerebral imaging abnormalities were bilateral (93%) and predominated in the parietal (93%) and occipital (86%) white matter. Median number of brain areas involved was 4 (3–5). Imaging abnormalities resolved in 43 (88%) patients. Ischaemic and/or haemorrhagic complications occurred in 7 (14%) patients. The most common causes were drug toxicity (44%) and hypertensive encephalopathy (41%). On day 90, 11 (16%) patients had died, 26 (37%) had marked functional impairments (GOS, 2 to 4), and 33 (56%) had a good recovery (GOS, 5). Factors independently associated with GOS<5 were highest glycaemia on day 1 (OR, 1.22; 95%CI, 1.02–1.45, p = 0.03) and time to causative-factor control (OR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.04–10.46, p = 0.04), whereas GOS = 5 was associated with toxaemia of pregnancy (preeclampsia/eclampsia) (OR, 0.06; 95%CI, 0.01–0.38, p = 0.003).
Conclusions
By day 90 after admission for severe PRES, 44% of survivors had severe functional impairments. Highest glycaemia on day 1 and time to causative-factor control were strong early predictors of outcomes, suggesting areas for improvement.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044534
PMCID: PMC3443081  PMID: 23024751
8.  Symptoms of depression in ICU physicians 
Background
Work and family are the two domains from which most adults develop satisfaction in life. They also are responsible for stressful experiences. There is a perception in the community that work is increasingly the source of much of our stress and distress. Depressive symptoms may be related to repeated stressful experiences. Intensive care unit (ICU) physicians are exposed to major stressors. However, the existence of depressive symptoms in these doctors has been poorly studied. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors of depressive symptoms in junior and senior ICU physicians.
Method
A one-day national survey was conducted in adult intensive care units (ICU) in French public hospitals. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Centers of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
Results
A total of 189 ICUs participated, and 901 surveys were returned (75.8% response rate). Symptoms of depression were found in 23.8% of the respondents using the CES-D scale. Fifty-eight percent of these intensivists presenting symptoms of depression wished to leave their job compared with only 33% of those who did not exhibit signs of depression as assessed by the CES-D scale (p < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression showed that organizational factors were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. Workload (long interval since the last nonworking weekend, absence of relief of service until the next working day after a night shift) and impaired relationships with other intensivists were independently associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. A high level of burnout also was related to the presence of depressive symptoms. In contrast, no demographic factors regarding ICU physicians and no factor related to the severity of illness of patients were retained by the model. The quality of relationships with other physicians (from other departments) was associated with the absence of depressive symptoms (protective effect).
Conclusions
Approximately one of four intensivists presented symptoms of depression. The next step could be to test whether organization modification is associated with less depressive symptoms and less desire to leave the job.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-34
PMCID: PMC3543176  PMID: 22839744
Intensive care unit; Organizational management; Conflict; Burnout; Depression; Physicians
9.  A Multicentre Study of Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: Association with Inflammatory Phenotype and HLA Genotype 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e35838.
Background
To investigate the association between severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) and outcome, systemic inflammatory phenotype and HLA genotype in severe sepsis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Prospective multicenter observational study done in 4 intensive care units in two university hospitals. Severe sepsis and septic shock patients with at least 2 organ failures based on the SOFA score were classified: 1) "no AKI", 2) "mild AKI" (grouping stage 1 and 2 of AKIN score) and 3) "severe AKI" (stage 3 of AKIN score). Sequential measurements: The vasopressor dependency index (VDI; dose and types of drugs) to evaluate the association between hemodynamic status and the development of early AKI; plasma levels of IL-10, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), IL-6 and HLA-DR monocyte expression. Genotyping of the 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles with deduction of presence of HLA-DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5 genes. We used multivariate analysis with competitive risk model to study associations. Overall, 176 study patients (146 with septic shock) were classified from AKIN score as "no AKI" (n = 43), "mild AKI" (n = 74) or "severe AKI" (n = 59). The VDI did not differ between groups of AKI. After adjustment, "mild and severe AKI" were an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 2.42 95%CI[1.01-5.83], p = 0.048 and HR 1.99 95%CI[1.30-3.03], p = 0.001 respectively). "Severe AKI" had higher levels of plasma IL-10, MIF and IL-6 compared to “no AKI” and mild AKI (p<0.05 for each), with no difference in mHLA-DR at day 0. HLA-DRB genotyping showed a significantly lower proportion of 4 HLA-DRB alleles among patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (58%) than in patients with severe AKI who did not receive RRT (84%) (p = 0.004).
Conclusions
AKI severity is independently associated with mortality and plasma IL-10, MIF or IL-6 levels. Presence of 4 alleles of HLA-DRB in severe AKI patients seems associated with a lower need of RRT.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035838
PMCID: PMC3368929  PMID: 22701553
10.  Ventilator-associated pneumonia and ICU mortality in severe ARDS patients ventilated according to a lung-protective strategy 
Critical Care  2012;16(2):R65.
Introduction
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) may contribute to the mortality associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to determine the incidence, outcome, and risk factors of bacterial VAP complicating severe ARDS in patients ventilated by using a strictly standardized lung-protective strategy.
Methods
This prospective epidemiologic study was done in all the 339 patients with severe ARDS included in a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial of cisatracurium besylate in severe ARDS patients. Patients with suspected VAP underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to confirm the diagnosis.
Results
Ninety-eight (28.9%) patients had at least one episode of microbiologically documented bacterial VAP, including 41 (41.8%) who died in the ICU, compared with 74 (30.7%) of the 241 patients without VAP (P = 0.05). After adjustment, age and severity at baseline, but not VAP, were associated with ICU death. Cisatracurium besylate therapy within 2 days of ARDS onset decreased the risk of ICU death. Factors independently associated with an increased risk to develop a VAP were male sex and worse admission Glasgow Coma Scale score. Tracheostomy, enteral nutrition, and the use of a subglottic secretion-drainage device were protective.
Conclusions
In patients with severe ARDS receiving lung-protective ventilation, VAP was associated with an increased crude ICU mortality which did not remain significant after adjustment.
doi:10.1186/cc11312
PMCID: PMC3681394  PMID: 22524447
11.  Mortality associated with timing of admission to and discharge from ICU: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
Although the association between mortality and admission to intensive care units (ICU) in the "after hours" (weekends and nights) has been the topic of extensive investigation, the timing of discharge from ICU and outcome has been less well investigated. The objective of this study was to assess effect of timing of admission to and discharge from ICUs and subsequent risk for death.
Methods
Adults (≥18 years) admitted to French ICUs participating in Outcomerea between January 2006 and November 2010 were included.
Results
Among the 7,380 patients included, 61% (4,481) were male, the median age was 62 (IQR, 49-75) years, and the median SAPS II score was 40 (IQR, 28-56). Admissions to ICU occurred during weekends (Saturday and Sunday) in 1,708 (23%) cases, during the night (18:00-07:59) in 3,855 (52%), and on nights and/or weekends in 4,659 (63%) cases. Among 5,992 survivors to ICU discharge, 903 (15%) were discharged on weekends, 659 (11%) at night, and 1,434 (24%) on nights and/or weekends. After controlling for a number of co-variates using logistic regression analysis, admission during the after hours was not associated with an increased risk for death. However, patients discharged from ICU on nights were at higher adjusted risk (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.11) for death.
Conclusions
In this study, ICU discharge at night but not admission was associated with a significant increased risk for death. Further studies are needed to examine whether minimizing night time discharges from ICU may improve outcome.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-321
PMCID: PMC3269385  PMID: 22115194
12.  The strategy of antibiotic use in critically ill neutropenic patients 
Suspicion of sepsis in neutropenic patients requires immediate antimicrobial treatment. The initial regimen in critically ill patients should cover both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the risk of selecting multidrug-resistant pathogens should be considered when using broad-spectrum antibiotics for a prolonged period of time. The choice of the first-line empirical drugs should take into account the underlying malignancy, local bacterial ecology, clinical presentation and severity of acute illness. This review provides an up-to-date guide that will assist physicians in choosing the best strategy regarding the use of antibiotics in neutropenic patients, with a special focus on critically ill patients, based on the above-mentioned considerations and on the most recent international guidelines and literature.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-22
PMCID: PMC3224396  PMID: 21906359
13.  Multiple-center evaluation of mortality associated with acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a competing risks analysis 
Critical Care  2011;15(3):R128.
Introduction
In this study, we aimed to assess the association between acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in critically ill patients using an original competing risks approach.
Methods
Unselected patients admitted between 1997 and 2009 to 13 French medical or surgical intensive care units were included in this observational cohort study. AKI was defined according to the RIFLE criteria. The following data were recorded: baseline characteristics, daily serum creatinine level, daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, vital status at hospital discharge and length of hospital stay. Patients were classified according to the maximum RIFLE class reached during their ICU stay. The association of AKI with hospital mortality with "discharge alive" considered as a competing event was assessed according to the Fine and Gray model.
Results
Of the 8,639 study patients, 32.9% had AKI, of whom 19.1% received renal replacement therapy. Patients with AKI had higher crude mortality rates and longer lengths of hospital stay than patients without AKI. In the Fine and Gray model, independent risk factors for hospital mortality were the RIFLE classes Risk (sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 1.58 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32 to 1.88; P < 0.0001), Injury (SHR 3.99 and 95% CI 3.43 to 4.65; P < 0.0001) and Failure (SHR 4.12 and 95% CI 3.55 to 4.79; P < 0.0001); nonrenal SOFA score (SHR 1.19 per point and 95% CI 1.18 to 1.21; P < 0.0001); McCabe class 3 (SHR 2.71 and 95% CI 2.34 to 3.15; P < 0.0001); and respiratory failure (SHR 3.08 and 95% CI 1.36 to 7.01; P < 0.01).
Conclusions
By using a competing risks approach, we confirm in this study that AKI affecting critically ill patients is associated with increased in-hospital mortality.
doi:10.1186/cc10241
PMCID: PMC3218994  PMID: 21586153
14.  Impact of ureido/carboxypenicillin resistance on the prognosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Critical Care  2011;15(2):R112.
Introduction
Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading pathogen responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the excess in mortality associated with multi-resistance in patients with P. aeruginosa VAP (PA-VAP), taking into account confounders such as treatment adequacy and prior length of stay in the ICU, has not yet been adequately estimated.
Methods
A total of 223 episodes of PA-VAP recorded into the Outcomerea database were evaluated. Patients with ureido/carboxy-resistant P. aeruginosa (PRPA) were compared with those with ureido/carboxy-sensitive P. aeruginosa (PSPA) after matching on duration of ICU stay at VAP onset and adjustment for confounders.
Results
Factors associated with onset of PRPA-VAP were as follows: admission to the ICU with septic shock, broad-spectrum antimicrobials at admission, prior use of ureido/carboxypenicillin, and colonization with PRPA before infection. Adequate antimicrobial therapy was more often delayed in the PRPA group. The crude ICU mortality rate and the hospital mortality rate were not different between the PRPA and the PSPA groups. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for time in the ICU before VAP diagnosis, neither ICU death (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 to 1.69; P = 0.46) nor hospital death (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.99; P = 0.74) were increased in the presence of PRPA infection. This result remained unchanged in the subgroup of 87 patients who received adequate antimicrobial treatment on the day of VAP diagnosis.
Conclusions
After adjustment, and despite the more frequent delay in the initiation of an adequate antimicrobial therapy in these patients, resistance to ureido/carboxypenicillin was not associated with ICU or hospital death in patients with PA-VAP.
doi:10.1186/cc10136
PMCID: PMC3219393  PMID: 21481266
15.  Intensive care of the cancer patient: recent achievements and remaining challenges 
A few decades have passed since intensive care unit (ICU) beds have been available for critically ill patients with cancer. Although the initial reports showed dismal prognosis, recent data suggest that an increased number of patients with solid and hematological malignancies benefit from intensive care support, with dramatically decreased mortality rates. Advances in the management of the underlying malignancies and support of organ dysfunctions have led to survival gains in patients with life-threatening complications from the malignancy itself, as well as infectious and toxic adverse effects related to the oncological treatments. In this review, we will appraise the prognostic factors and discuss the overall perspective related to the management of critically ill patients with cancer. The prognostic significance of certain factors has changed over time. For example, neutropenia or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have less adverse prognostic implications than two decades ago. Similarly, because hematologists and oncologists select patients for ICU admission based on the characteristics of the malignancy, the underlying malignancy rarely influences short-term survival after ICU admission. Since the recent data do not clearly support the benefit of ICU support to unselected critically ill allogeneic BMT recipients, more outcome research is needed in this subgroup. Because of the overall increased survival that has been reported in critically ill patients with cancer, we outline an easy-to-use and evidence-based ICU admission triage criteria that may help avoid depriving life support to patients with cancer who can benefit. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address unanswered questions.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-1-5
PMCID: PMC3159899  PMID: 21906331
16.  Acute respiratory failure in kidney transplant recipients: a multicenter study 
Critical Care  2011;15(2):R91.
Introduction
Data on pulmonary complications in renal transplant recipients are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory failure (ARF) in renal transplant recipients.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective observational study in nine transplant centers of consecutive kidney transplant recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ARF from 2000 to 2008.
Results
Of 6,819 kidney transplant recipients, 452 (6.6%) required ICU admission, including 200 admitted for ARF. Fifteen (7.5%) of these patients had combined kidney-pancreas transplantations. The most common causes of ARF were bacterial pneumonia (35.5%), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (24.5%) and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (15.5%). Pneumocystis pneumonia occurred in 11.5% of patients. Mechanical ventilation was used in 93 patients (46.5%), vasopressors were used in 82 patients (41%) and dialysis was administered in 104 patients (52%). Both the in-hospital and 90-day mortality rates were 22.5%. Among the 155 day 90 survivors, 115 patients (74.2%) were dialysis-free, including 75 patients (65.2%) who recovered prior renal function. Factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were shock at admission (odds ratio (OR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.25 to 23.29), opportunistic fungal infection (OR 7.08, 95% CI 2.32 to 21.60) and bacterial infection (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.07 to 5.96). Five factors were independently associated with day 90 dialysis-free survival: renal Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 1 (OR 0.68/SOFA point, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88), bacterial infection (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.90), three or four quadrants involved on chest X-ray (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.91), time from hospital to ICU admission (OR 0.98/day, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99) and oxygen flow at admission (OR 0.93/liter, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99).
Conclusions
In kidney transplant recipients, ARF is associated with high mortality and graft loss rates. Increased Pneumocystis and bacterial prophylaxis might improve these outcomes. Early ICU admission might prevent graft loss.
doi:10.1186/cc10091
PMCID: PMC3219351  PMID: 21385434
21.  Severe Imported Falciparum Malaria: A Cohort Study in 400 Critically Ill Adults 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13236.
Background
Large studies on severe imported malaria in non-endemic industrialized countries are lacking. We sought to describe the clinical spectrum of severe imported malaria in French adults and to identify risk factors for mortality at admission to the intensive care unit.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Retrospective review of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes according to the 2000 World Health Organization definition and requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Data were collected from medical charts using standardised case-report forms, in 45 French intensive care units in 2000–2006. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Data from 400 adults admitted to the intensive care unit were analysed, representing the largest series of severe imported malaria to date. Median age was 45 years; 60% of patients were white, 96% acquired the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and 65% had not taken antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Curative quinine treatment was used in 97% of patients. Intensive care unit mortality was 10.5% (42 deaths). By multivariate analysis, three variables at intensive care unit admission were independently associated with hospital death: older age (per 10-year increment, odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.28–2.32; P = 0.0004), Glasgow Coma Scale score (per 1-point decrease, OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.20–1.45; P<0.0001), and higher parasitemia (per 5% increment, OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.22–1.62; P<0.0001).
Conclusions and Significance
In a large population of adults treated in a non-endemic industrialized country, severe malaria still carried a high mortality rate. Our data, including predictors of death, can probably be generalized to other non-endemic countries where high-quality healthcare is available.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013236
PMCID: PMC2951913  PMID: 20949045
22.  Survival trends in critically ill HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era 
Critical Care  2010;14(3):R107.
Introduction
The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV-related life-threatening infectious complications. Our objective was to assess whether highly active ART was associated with improved survival in critically ill HIV-infected patients.
Methods
A retrospective study from 1996 to 2005 was performed in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital specialized in the management of immunocompromised patients. A total of 284 critically ill HIV-infected patients were included. Differences were sought across four time periods. Risk factors for death were identified by multivariable logistic regression.
Results
Among the 233 (82%) patients with known HIV infection before ICU admission, 64% were on highly active ART. Annual admissions increased over time, with no differences in reasons for admission: proportions of patients with newly diagnosed HIV, previous opportunistic infection, CD4 counts, viral load, or acute disease severity. ICU and 90-day mortality rates decreased steadily: 25% and 37.5% in 1996 to 1997, 17.1% and 17.1% in 1998 to 2000, 13.2% and 13.2% in 2001 to 2003, and 8.6% in 2004 to 2005. Five factors were independently associated with increased ICU mortality: delayed ICU admission (odds ratio (OR), 3.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29 to 7.17), acute renal failure (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.63 to 10.92), hepatic cirrhosis (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 1.21 to 11.84), ICU admission for coma (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.16 to 6.46), and severe sepsis (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.53 to 8.80). Admission to the ICU in the most recent period was independently associated with increased survival: admission from 2001 to 2003 (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.99), and between 2004 and 2005 (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.53).
Conclusions
ICU survival increased significantly in the highly active ART era, although disease severity remained unchanged. Co-morbidities and organ dysfunctions, but not HIV-related variables, were associated with death. Earlier ICU admission from the hospital ward might improve survival.
doi:10.1186/cc9056
PMCID: PMC2911753  PMID: 20534139
23.  Predictive Features of Severe Acquired ADAMTS13 Deficiency in Idiopathic Thrombotic Microangiopathies: The French TMA Reference Center Experience 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(4):e10208.
Severe ADAMTS13 deficiency occurs in 13% to 75% of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA). In this context, the early identification of a severe, antibody-mediated, ADAMTS13 deficiency may allow to start targeted therapies such as B-lymphocytes-depleting monoclonal antibodies. To date, assays exploring ADAMTS13 activity require skill and are limited to only some specialized reference laboratories, given the very low incidence of the disease. To identify clinical features which may allow to predict rapidly an acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of our national registry from 2000 to 2007. The clinical presentation of 160 patients with TMA and acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency was compared with that of 54 patients with detectable ADAMTS13 activity. ADAMTS13 deficiency was associated with more relapses during treatment and with a good renal prognosis. Patients with acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency had platelet count <30×109/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 9.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4–24.2, P<.001), serum creatinine level ≤200 µmol/L (OR 23.4, 95% CI 8.8–62.5, P<.001), and detectable antinuclear antibodies (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.0–8.0, P<.05). When at least 1 criteria was met, patients with a severe acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency were identified with positive predictive value of 85%, negative predictive value of 93.3%, sensitivity of 98.8%, and specificity of 48.1%. Our criteria should be useful to identify rapidly newly diagnosed patients with an acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency to better tailor treatment for different pathophysiological groups.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010208
PMCID: PMC2859048  PMID: 20436664

Results 1-25 (34)