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1.  Clinical Spectrum, Frequency, and Significance of Myocardial Dysfunction in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2012;87(7):620-628.
To determine the frequency and spectrum of myocardial dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock using transthoracic echocardiography and to evaluate the impact of the myocardial dysfunction types on mortality.
Patients and Methods
A prospective study of 106 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock was conducted from August 1, 2007, to January 31, 2009. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit. Myocardial dysfunction was classified as left ventricular (LV) diastolic, LV systolic, and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Frequency of myocardial dysfunction was calculated, and demographic, hemodynamic, and physiologic variables and mortality were compared between the myocardial dysfunction types and patients without cardiac dysfunction.
The frequency of myocardial dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock was 64% (n=68). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was present in 39 patients (37%), LV systolic dysfunction in 29 (27%), and RV dysfunction in 33 (31%). There was significant overlap. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 36% and 57%, respectively. There was no difference in mortality between patients with normal myocardial function and those with left, right, or any ventricular dysfunction.
Myocardial dysfunction is frequent in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and has a wide spectrum including LV diastolic, LV systolic, and RV dysfunction types. Although evaluation for the presence and type of myocardial dysfunction is important for tailoring specific therapy, its presence in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock was not associated with increased 30-day or 1-year mortality.
PMCID: PMC3538477  PMID: 22683055
APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; Fio2, fraction of inspired oxygen; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; Pao2, partial pressure of arterial oxygen; RV, right ventricular; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
2.  Critical care support of patients with nicotine addiction 
Critical Care  2010;14(3):155.
Over 500 million of the current world population will die from diseases caused by smoking cigarettes. The symptoms and signs of nicotine withdrawal are not well described in the critically ill. Since the various conditions of critical illness may lead to clinical manifestations mimicking nicotine withdrawal, describing its specific manifestations may not be easy. A few case reports suggest that nicotine replacement therapy may ameliorate nicotine withdrawal in the critically ill. However, retrospective studies have found that it may increase mortality. Despite the abundance of active smokers, there is a paucity of data describing nicotine withdrawal, and its prevention and treatment options in the critically ill. Future studies are warranted to address these issues.
PMCID: PMC2911683  PMID: 20497608
3.  Intensive care of the cancer patient: recent achievements and remaining challenges 
A few decades have passed since intensive care unit (ICU) beds have been available for critically ill patients with cancer. Although the initial reports showed dismal prognosis, recent data suggest that an increased number of patients with solid and hematological malignancies benefit from intensive care support, with dramatically decreased mortality rates. Advances in the management of the underlying malignancies and support of organ dysfunctions have led to survival gains in patients with life-threatening complications from the malignancy itself, as well as infectious and toxic adverse effects related to the oncological treatments. In this review, we will appraise the prognostic factors and discuss the overall perspective related to the management of critically ill patients with cancer. The prognostic significance of certain factors has changed over time. For example, neutropenia or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have less adverse prognostic implications than two decades ago. Similarly, because hematologists and oncologists select patients for ICU admission based on the characteristics of the malignancy, the underlying malignancy rarely influences short-term survival after ICU admission. Since the recent data do not clearly support the benefit of ICU support to unselected critically ill allogeneic BMT recipients, more outcome research is needed in this subgroup. Because of the overall increased survival that has been reported in critically ill patients with cancer, we outline an easy-to-use and evidence-based ICU admission triage criteria that may help avoid depriving life support to patients with cancer who can benefit. Lastly, we propose a research agenda to address unanswered questions.
PMCID: PMC3159899  PMID: 21906331
4.  Hospitalized Patients With 2009 H1N1 Influenza Infection: The Mayo Clinic Experience 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2010;85(9):798-805.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course and outcome of adults hospitalized with the 2009 H1N1 influenza infection.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with H1N1 influenza infection treated at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, from May 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009.
RESULTS: We identified 1053 patients with H1N1 influenza infection; this study consists of 66 hospitalized adults (6%). Patients' mean ± SD age was 46.9±17.8 years. The 3 most common comorbidities were hypertension in 31 patients (47%), obesity in 29 (44%), and diabetes mellitus in 21 (32%). The most common symptoms were cough in 58 patients (88%), fever or chills in 55 (83%), and dyspnea in 47 (71%). Twenty-nine patients (44%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Dyspnea and thrombocytopenia were more common in the ICU patients. The hospital, 28-day, and 90-day mortality rates were 8% (5/66), 11% (7/66), and 14% (9/66), respectively. Among the 29 ICU patients, 23 (79%) received mechanical ventilation, and 16 (55%) developed acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Rescue therapy for refractory respiratory failure was provided for 6 patients (21%). Of the 29 ICU patients, 10 (34%) required vasopressor support, and 4 (14%) required acute renal replacement therapy.
CONCLUSION: Hospitalized adults with H1N1 influenza infection are relatively young, and a significant number require treatment in the ICU. Among the patients who require ICU admission, most develop acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome and require mechanical ventilator support.
Patients hospitalized with H1N1 influenza infection (n=66) were relatively young, and a significant number required treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Most of those admitted to the ICU developed acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome, necessitating mechanical ventilator support.
PMCID: PMC2931615  PMID: 20664021
5.  Prophylactic Endotracheal Intubation in Critically Ill Patients Undergoing Endoscopy for Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage 
Gastrointestinal endoscopy  2009;69(7):e55-e59.
Cardiopulmonary complications are common after endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage in the intensive care unit (ICU)
To evaluate the practice and outcome of elective prophylactic endotracheal intubation prior to endoscopy for UGI hemorrhage in the ICU
Retrospective, propensity matched case-control study
A 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary center.
ICU patients who underwent endoscopy for UGI hemorrhage
Main Outcome Measurements
Cardiopulmonary complications, ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. In a propensity analysis, patients who were intubated for airway protection prior to UGI endoscopy were matched by probability of intubation to controls not intubated prior to UGI endoscopy.
Fifty-three out of 307 patients underwent elective prophylactic intubation prior to UGI endoscopy. Probability of intubation depended on APACHE III score (OR 1.4, 95%, CI 1.2 to 1.6), age (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95 to 0.09), presence of hematemesis (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8 to 5.1), prior lung disease (OR 2.1, 95%CI 0.8 to 4.9) and number of transfusions (OR 1.1 95%CI 1.0 to 1.1 per unit). Non-intubated matched controls were identified for all but 4 patients with active massive hematemesis who were excluded from matched analysis. Cumulative incidence of cardiopulmonary complications (53% vs 45%, p=0.414), ICU (median 2.2 days vs. 1.8 days, p=0.138) and hospital length of stay (6.9 vs. 5.9, p=0.785), and hospital mortality (14% vs. 20%, p=0.366) were similar.
Cardiopulmonary complications are frequent after endoscopy for acute UGI bleeding in ICU patients, and are largely unaffected by the practice of prophylactic intubation.
PMCID: PMC2737482  PMID: 19481643
endotracheal intubation; upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage; cardiopulmonary complications; airway protection; esophagogastroduodenoscopy
6.  APACHE III outcome prediction in patients admitted to the intensive care unit after liver transplantation: a retrospective cohort study 
BMC Surgery  2009;9:11.
The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III prognostic system has not been previously validated in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We hypothesized that APACHE III would perform satisfactorily in patients after OLT
A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patients admitted to the ICU after OLT between July 1996 and May 2008 were identified. Data were abstracted from the institutional APACHE III and liver transplantation databases and individual patient medical records. Standardized mortality ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated by dividing the observed mortality rates by the rates predicted by APACHE III. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic were used to assess, respectively, discrimination and calibration of APACHE III.
APACHE III data were available for 918 admissions after OLT. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) APACHE III (APIII) and Acute Physiology (APS) scores on the day of transplant were 60.5 (25.8) and 50.8 (23.6), respectively. Mean (SD) predicted ICU and hospital mortality rates were 7.3% (15.4) and 10.6% (18.9), respectively. The observed ICU and hospital mortality rates were 1.1% and 3.4%, respectively. The standardized ICU and hospital mortality ratios with their 95% C.I. were 0.15 (0.07 to 0.27) and 0.32 (0.22 to 0.45), respectively.
There were statistically significant differences in APS, APIII, predicted ICU and predicted hospital mortality between survivors and non-survivors. In predicting mortality, the AUC of APACHE III prediction of hospital death was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.68). The Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic was 5.288 with a p value of 0.871 (10 degrees of freedom).
APACHE III discriminates poorly between survivors and non-survivors of patients admitted to the ICU after OLT. Though APACHE III has been shown to be valid in heterogenous populations and in certain groups of patients with specific diagnoses, it should be used with caution – if used at all – in recipients of liver transplantation.
PMCID: PMC2726122  PMID: 19640303
8.  Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury in the Critically Ill 
Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) that develops 6 hours after transfusion (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Several transfusion characteristics have been postulated as risk factors for TRALI, but the evidence is limited to retrospective studies.
Objectives: To compare patient and transfusion risk factors between patients who do and do not develop ALI.
Methods: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive transfused critically ill patients were closely observed for development of ALI. Donor samples were collected from the transfusion bags. Risk factors were compared between patients who developed ALI after transfusion and transfused control patients, matched by age, sex, and admission diagnosis.
Measurements and Main Results: Seventy-four of 901 transfused patients developed ALI within 6 hours of transfusion (8%). Compared with transfused control subjects, patients with ALI were more likely to have sepsis (37 vs. 22%, P = 0.016) and a history of chronic alcohol abuse (37 vs. 18%, P = 0.006). When adjusted for patient characteristics, transfusion of plasma from female donors (odds ratio [OR], 5.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37–18.85) rather than male donors (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 0.76 to 3.37), number of pregnancies among the donors (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.34), number of donor units positive for anti-granulocyte antibodies (OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 1.32–17.86) and anti–HLA class II antibodies (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.15–8.25), and concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine in the donor product (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.59) were associated with the development of ALI.
Conclusions: Both patient and transfusion risk factors determine the probability of ALI after transfusion. Transfusion factors represent attractive targets for the prevention of ALI.
PMCID: PMC2048675  PMID: 17626910
fresh-frozen plasma; platelet transfusion; pulmonary edema; female; blood donors
9.  Evidence-lost to tight glycemic control? 
Critical Care  2008;12(5):430.
PMCID: PMC2592756  PMID: 18983697
10.  Peripheral blood stem cell transplant for POEMS syndrome is associated with high rates of engraftment syndrome 
European Journal of Haematology  2008;80(5):397-406.
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a devastating syndrome, characterized by peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cells, skin changes, papilledema, volume overload, sclerotic bone lesions, thrombocytosis and high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) ultimately yields excellent clinical responses, but there can be considerable peritransplant morbidity. We have treated 30 POEMS patients with ASCT at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. During transplant period, patients had high rates of fever, diarrhea, weight gain and rash (93%, 77%, 53% and 43%, respectively). Only 13% remained outpatient, and median time to discharge from hospital was transplant day 17 (range 0–175). Splenomegaly was the baseline factor that best predicted for a complicated peritransplant course. Depending on the definition used, ∼50% of patients satisfied criteria for engraftment syndrome. Earlier and more aggressive use of corticosteroids may be associated with less complicated post-transplant courses. Median overall survival has not been reached; the treatment-related mortality was 3%. In addition, important clinical improvements and reductions in plasma VEGF levels can occur in the absence of significant decrease in the monoclonal protein. Unraveling the mechanisms of the syndrome both in the context of ASCT and in general are challenges for the future.
PMCID: PMC2327207  PMID: 18221391
POEMS syndrome; monoclonal gammopathy; osteosclerotic myeloma; Castleman disease; transplantation; complications; cytokines
12.  Impact of introducing multiple evidence-based clinical practice protocols in a medical intensive care unit: a retrospective cohort study 
Recently completed clinical trials have shown that certain interventions improve the outcome of the critically ill. To facilitate the implementation of these interventions, professional organizations have developed guidelines. Although the impacts of the individual evidence-based interventions have been well described, the overall impact on outcome of introducing multiple evidence-based protocols has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of introducing multiple evidence-based protocols on patient outcome.
A retrospective, cohort study of 8,386 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of an academic, tertiary medical center, from January 2000 through June 2005 was performed. Four evidence-based protocols (lung protective strategy for acute lung injury, activated protein C for severe sepsis/septic shock, intravenous insulin for hyperglycemia control and a protocol for sedation/analgesia) were introduced in the MICU between February 2002 and April 2004. We considered the time from January 2000 through January 2002 as the pre-protocol period, from February 2002 through March 2004 as the transition period and from April 2004 through June 2005 as the protocol period. We retrieved data including demographics, severity of illness as measured by the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III, MICU length of stay and hospital mortality. Student's t, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, chi square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to compare differences between groups. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant.
The predicted mean mortality rates were 20.7%, 21.1% and 21.8%, with the observed mortality rates of 19.3%, 18.0% and 16.9% during the pre-protocol, transition and protocol periods, respectively. Using the pre-protocol period as a reference, the severity-adjusted risk (95% confidence interval) of dying was 0.777 (0.655 – 0.922) during the protocol period (P = 0.0038). The average 28-day MICU free days improved during the protocol period compared to the pre-protocol period. The benefit was limited to sicker patients and those who stayed in the MICU longer.
The introduction of multiple evidence-based protocols is associated with improved outcome in critically ill medical patients.
PMCID: PMC1965465  PMID: 17686165
13.  Prediction of death and prolonged mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury 
Critical Care  2007;11(3):R53.
Prediction of death and prolonged mechanical ventilation is important in terms of projecting resource utilization and in establishing protocols for clinical studies of acute lung injury (ALI). We aimed to identify risk factors for a combined end-point of death and/or prolonged ventilator dependence and developed an ALI-specific prediction model.
In this retrospective analysis of three multicenter clinical studies, we identified predictors of death or ventilator dependence from variables prospectively recorded during the first three days of mechanical ventilation. After the prediction model was derived in an international cohort of patients with ALI, it was validated in two independent samples of patients enrolled in a clinical trial involving 17 academic centers and a North American population-based cohort.
A combined end-point of death and/or ventilator dependence at 14 days or later occurred in 68% of patients in the international cohort, 60% of patients in the clinical trial, and 59% of patients in the population-based cohort. In the derivation cohort, a model based on age, oxygenation index on day 3, and cardiovascular failure on day 3 predicted death and/or ventilator dependence. The prediction model performed better in the clinical trial validation cohort (area under the receiver operating curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.84) than in the population-based validation cohort (0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.76).
A model based on age and cardiopulmonary function three days after the intubation is able to predict, moderately well, a combined end-point of death and/or prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with ALI.
PMCID: PMC2206401  PMID: 17493273
14.  Predicting mortality in intensive care unit survivors using a subjective scoring system 
Critical Care  2007;11(1):109.
Most prognostic models rely on variables recorded within 24 hours of admission to predict the mortality rate of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Although a significant number of patients die after discharge from the ICU, there is a paucity of data related to predicting hospital mortality based on information obtained at ICU discharge. It is likely that experienced intensivists may be able to predict the likelihood of hospital death at ICU discharge accurately if they incorporate patients' age, preferences regarding life support, comorbidities, prehospital quality of life, and clinical course in the ICU into their prediction. However, if it is to be generalizable and reproducible and to perform well without bias, then a good prediction model should be based on objectively defined variables.
PMCID: PMC2151885  PMID: 17316458
15.  The incidence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock after the administration of etomidate 
Critical Care  2006;10(4):R105.
Etomidate blocks adrenocortical synthesis when it is administered intravenously as a continuous infusion or a single bolus. The influence of etomidate administration on the incidence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock has not been formally investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock after etomidate administration compared with patients with septic shock who did not receive etomidate.
In this retrospective study, 152 adults with septic shock who had a consyntropin stimulation test between March 2002 and August 2003 in a tertiary medical center were included. Relative adrenal insufficiency was defined as a rise in serum cortisol ≤ 9 μg/dl after the administration of 250 μg of consyntropin. Patients were divided into those who did and those who did not receive etomidate before the stimulation test. The proportion of patients with relative adrenal insufficiency in these two groups was compared using Fischer's exact test. A P of value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The mean age of the patients was 64 years, 59% of patients were male, 97% of patients were white and their hospital mortality rate was 57%. Thirty-eight patients (25%) received etomidate before the cosyntropin stimulation test, and the median (interquartile range) time interval between the administration of the drug and the test was 7 (4–10) hours. The incidence of relative adrenal insufficiency was 76% in the patients who received etomidate compared with 51% in the patients who did not (P = 0.0077).
The incidence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock is increased when the stimulation test is performed after the administration of etomidate.
PMCID: PMC1751010  PMID: 16859529
16.  The initial Mayo Clinic experience using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for adult patients: a retrospective study 
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) was introduced in our institution in June 2003. Since then, there has been no protocol to guide the use of HFOV, and all decisions regarding ventilation strategies and settings of HFOV were made by the treating intensivist. The aim of this study is to report our first year of experience using HFOV.
In this retrospective study, we reviewed all 14 adult patients, who were consecutively ventilated with HFOV in the intensive care units of a tertiary medical center, from June 2003 to July 2004.
The mean age of the patients was 56 years, 10 were males, and all were whites. The first day median APACHE II score and its predicted hospital mortality were 35 and 83%, respectively, and the median SOFA score was 11.5. Eleven patients had ARDS, two unilateral pneumonia with septic shock, and one pulmonary edema. Patients received conventional ventilation for a median of 1.8 days before HFOV. HFOV was used 16 times for a median of 3.2 days. Improvements in oxygenation parameters were observed after 24 hours of HFOV (mean PaO2/FIO2 increased from 82 to 107, P < 0.05; and the mean oxygenation index decreased from 42 to 29; P < 0.05). In two patients HFOV was discontinued, in one because of equipment failure and in another because of severe hypotension that was unresponsive to fluids. No change in mean arterial pressure, or vasopressor requirements was noted after the initiation of HFOV. Eight patients died (57 %, 95% CI: 33–79); life support was withdrawn in six and two suffered cardiac arrest.
During our first year of experience, HFOV was used as a rescue therapy in very sick patients with refractory hypoxemia, and improvement in oxygenation was observed after 24 hours of this technique. HFOV is a reasonable alternative when a protective lung strategy could not be achieved on conventional ventilation.
PMCID: PMC1456987  PMID: 16464246
17.  Underweight is independently associated with mortality in post-operative and non-operative patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a retrospective study 
Low and high body mass index (BMI) have been recently shown to be associated with increased and decreased mortality after ICU admission, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of BMI on mortality and length of stay in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
In this retrospective cohort study, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III database of patients admitted to the ICUs of a tertiary academic medical center, from January 1997 to September 2002, was crossed with a Hospital Rule-based Systems database to obtain the height and weight of the patients on admission to the ICU. The cohort was divided in post-operative and non-operative groups. We created the following five subgroups based on the BMI: <18.5, 18.5 to 24.9, 25 to 29.9, 30.0 to 39.9, ≥ 40.0 Kg/m2. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent impact of BMI on hospital mortality. The ICU length of stay ratio was defined as the ratio of the observed to the predicted LOS. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. The 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for the odds ratio (OR).
BMI was available in 19,669 of the 21,790 patients in the APACHE III database; 11,215 (57%) of the patients were admitted post-operatively. BMI < 18.5 was associated with increased mortality in both post-operative (OR = 2.14, 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.28) and non-operative (OR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.01) patients. Post-operative patients with a BMI between 30.0 to 39.9 had a lower mortality rate (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.94). Post-operative patients with BMI <18.5 or BMI ≥ 40 had an ICU length of stay ratio significantly higher than patients with BMI between 18.5 to 24.9. The addition of BMI < 18.5 did not improve significantly the accuracy of our prognostic model in predicting hospital mortality.
Low BMI is associated with higher mortality in both post- and non-operative patients admitted to the ICU. LOS is increased in post-operative patients with low and high BMIs.
PMCID: PMC535928  PMID: 15462681
18.  Mycobacterial and nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A prospective, cohort study 
A prospective observational study was done to describe nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
The study included 1,225 consecutive hospital admissions of 599 HIV-infected patients treated from April 1995 through March 1998. Data included demographics, risk factors for HIV infection, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, pulmonary complications, CD4+ lymphocyte count, hospital stay and case-fatality rate.
Patient age (mean ± SD) was 38.2 ± 8.9 years, 62% were men, and 84% were African American. The median APACHE II score was 14, and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 60/μL. Pulmonary complications were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (85) in 78 patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (51) in 38, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (40) in 35, Mycobacterium gordonae (11) in 11, Mycobacterium kansasii (10) in 9, Cytomegalovirus (10) in 10, Nocardia asteroides (3) in 3, fungus ball (2) in 2, respiratory syncytial virus (1), herpes simplex virus (1), Histoplasma capsulatum (1), lymphoma (3) in 3, bronchogenic carcinoma (2) in 2, and Kaposi sarcoma (1). The case-fatality rate of patients was 11% with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 5%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 6%, Mycobacterium avium complex; and 7%, noninfectious pulmonary complications.
Most pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with HIV are from Pneumocystis and mycobacterial infection.
PMCID: PMC57813  PMID: 11602023
19.  Bacteremia in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus: A prospective, cohort study 
Bacterial infections complicate the course of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The purpose of this study was to describe the bacterial pathogens causing blood stream infection, identify the risk factors for the development of blood stream infection and determine the impact of blood stream infection on the outcome of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
The incidence, etiology, risk factors and outcome of bacterial blood stream infection were prospectively determined in 1,225 consecutive hospitalizations of adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Blood stream infection occurred in 88 hospitalizations (7%); 73 of 89 infections (82%) were community acquired. The most commonly isolated gram-positive organism was Streptococcus pneumoniae (21); gram-negative, Escherichia coli (14). Blood stream infection was detected in 8% of African Americans and 22% of Hispanics compared with 2% of whites (P = 0.0013). Patients with blood stream infection had higher white blood cell counts (median, 6.5 vs. 4.9 × 109/L; P = 0.0002) and mortality (18% vs. 4%; P < 0.0001) than patients without infection.
In patients with human immunodeficiency virus, blood stream infection is associated with an increased mortality rate. Recognition of the incidence, etiology, and risk factors of blood stream infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection could lead to measures that reduce the increased mortality.
PMCID: PMC57809  PMID: 11602019

Results 1-19 (19)