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1.  Long-Term Follow-up of a Successfully Treated Case of Congenital Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy 
JIMD Reports  2013;10:103-106.
Autosomal recessive disorders affecting pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism are a rare but well-recognized cause of neonatal seizures. Antiquitin deficiency, caused by mutations in ALDH7A1, is a disorder of the lysine degradation pathway causing accumulation of an intermediate that complexes with pyridoxal phosphate. Reports of long-term follow-up of neonatal pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) remain scarce and prognostic information is varied. We report a case of PDS in a 47-year-old lady who originally presented shortly after birth in 1964. Pyridoxine replacement was successful and diagnostic confirmation was obtained later in life, initially by biochemical analysis of serum pipecolic acid. Subsequently we organized genetic analysis of ALDH7A1, which revealed compound heterozygous mutations. To our knowledge, this represents the longest duration of follow-up published to date.
doi:10.1007/8904_2012_210
PMCID: PMC3755577  PMID: 23430810
2.  Behavioural management of migraine 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S78-S82.
It is important to recognise that migraine is a ‘biological’ and not a ‘psychological’ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1) Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2) Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3) Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4) Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100018
PMCID: PMC3444212  PMID: 23024569
Cognitive behavioural therapy; migraine; psychological; psychology
3.  Imaging patients with suspected brain tumour: guidance for primary care 
The number of referrals by primary care practitioners to secondary care neurology services, particularly for headache, may be difficult to justify. Access to imaging by primary care practitioners could avoid referral without compromising patient outcomes, but the decision to refer is based on a number of complex factors. Due to the paucity of rigorous evidence in this area, available data are combined with expert opinion to offer support for GPs. The study suggests management for three levels of risk of tumour: red flags >1%; orange flags 0.1–1%; and yellow flags <0.1% but above the background population rate of 0.01%. Clinical presentations are stratified into these three groups. Important secondary causes of headache where imaging is normal should not be overlooked, and normal investigation does not eliminate the need for follow-up or appropriate management of headache.
doi:10.3399/bjgp08X376203
PMCID: PMC2593538  PMID: 19068162
brain tumour; diagnosis; imaging; primary care

Results 1-3 (3)