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author:("Tyagi, alk")
1.  Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System 
Background: Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening.
Aim: To find out the correlation between the transfusion transmitted diseases and blood groups and the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & syphilis among the apparently healthy human blood donors.
Study, Setting & Design: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of a tertiary health care teaching centre for a period of four years.
Material and Methods: All voluntary and replacement donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for HIV-1 & 2, HBsAg, HCV and Syphilis. Anti–HIV -1 & 2, HBsAg & anti - HCV was tested using the appropriate Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using micro–elisa kit supplied by J.Mitra & Co.Ltd. The seropositive samples were again tested on ELISA kits of RFCL &/or BIORAD for further confirmation & ruling out any false positive or false negative results. The rapid plasma reagain (RPR) test was used for estimation of syphilis infection.
Statistical Analysis: The data entry was carried out using Microsoft office excel worksheet and was analysed by percentage and comparison.
Results: Total of 6000 donors were screened which included voluntary and replacement donors. Seroprevalence of HIV (0.1833 %), HCV (1.28%), HBsAg (1.5833 %) and syphilis (0.4333 %) was detected. In the study done it was also noted - that the NEGATIVE blood groups were more prone to TTIs. Blood group A negative was more prone to TTIs with HIV, HBsAg and VDRL while blood group B negative was more affected by HCV.
Conclusion: Seroprevalence of these infections shows that routine screening is a must for blood and blood product safe transfusion.
Do negative blood groups predispose to TTIs? A finding which makes us think….
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6002.3360
PMCID: PMC3809639  PMID: 24179900
Blood donors; Seroprevalence; Transfusion transmitted diseases; Human immunodeficiency virus; Hepatitis C; Hepatitis B surface antigen
2.  New daily persistent headache 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S62-S65.
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100011
PMCID: PMC3444222  PMID: 23024565
Chronic daily headache; new daily persistent headache; intractable headache
3.  Headache supplement 
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.99984
PMCID: PMC3444226  PMID: 23024556
4.  Impact of GP direct-access computerised tomography for the investigation of chronic daily headache 
Background
Chronic daily headache is a major healthcare problem, with significant resource implications for specialist services. Since 1999, GPs in Greater Glasgow have had direct access to computerised tomography (CT) for investigation of chronic daily headache.
Aim
The purpose of this study is to assess the significance of pathology, impact of the service, and GP satisfaction.
Method
The direct-access CT findings in patients between 1999 and 2007 were reviewed. Radiological reports were reviewed for abnormal findings by a radiologist. A neurologist reviewed those cases with abnormalities to assess their potential causation in presenting symptoms. A questionnaire was sent to the referring GP for every patient referred for direct-access CT. Data from the Information Services Division of NHS National Services Scotland was used to estimate potential cost benefits.
Results
A total of 4404 CT scans were performed. Abnormal findings were reported in 461 (10.5%), and the reported abnormalities were considered a potential causative factor for the presenting symptoms in 60 patients (1.4%). Other abnormalities mostly resulted from established cerebrovascular disease and atrophy; 986 GP questionnaires were analysed. The major body of GP opinion (n = 460, 47%) indicated that direct-access CT was their preferred choice for referral of chronic daily headache. If direct-access CT was not available, neurology (n = 448, 45%) and general medicine (n = 379, 38%) would be the commonest referral choices. This study also reveals that 86% did not require further specialist referral. Projecting the GP questionnaire data to the study group gave an approximate cost saving of at least £86 681.81.
Conclusion
Direct-access CT is now the preferred choice of management for patients with chronic daily headache in primary care. Patients and GPs are reassured by a normal scan in the majority of cases. There may be cost savings, although confirmation of cost-effectiveness would require further study.
doi:10.3399/bjgp10X544069
PMCID: PMC2991742  PMID: 21144199
cephalalgia; chronic daily headache; computerised tomography, X-ray; CT scan; general practitioners; patients

Results 1-4 (4)