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1.  Migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome 
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology  2012;15(Suppl 1):S72-S77.
Evidence is emerging that migraine is not solely a headache disorder. Observations that ischemic stroke could occur in the setting of a migraine attack, and that migraine headaches could be precipitated by cerebral ischemia, initially highlighted a possibly association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease. More recently, large population-based studies that have demonstrated that migraineurs are at increased risk of stroke outside the setting of a migraine attack have prompted the concept that migraine and cerebrovascular disease are comorbid conditions. Explanations for this association are numerous and widely debated, particularly as the comorbid association does not appear to be confined to the cerebral circulation as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease also appear to be comorbid with migraine. A growing body of evidence has also suggested that migraineurs are more likely to be obese, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic and have impaired insulin sensitivity, all features of the metabolic syndrome. The comorbid association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may consequently be explained by migraineurs having the metabolic syndrome and consequently being at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. This review will summarise the salient evidence suggesting a comorbid association between migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.100015
PMCID: PMC3444221  PMID: 23024568
Comorbidities; metabolic syndrome; migraine; obesity; stroke
2.  Low energy diet and intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: prospective cohort study 
Objective To observe intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who follow a low energy diet.
Design Prospective cohort study.
Setting Outpatient department and the clinical research facility based at two separate hospitals within the United Kingdom.
Participants 25 women with body mass index (BMI) >25, with active (papilloedema and intracranial pressure >25 cm H2O), chronic (over three months) idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Women who had undergone surgery to treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension were excluded.
Intervention Stage 1: no new intervention; stage 2: nutritionally complete low energy (calorie) diet (1777 kJ/day (425 kcal/day)); stage 3: follow-up period after the diet. Each stage lasted three months.
Main outcome measure The primary outcome was reduction in intracranial pressure after the diet. Secondary measures included score on headache impact test-6, papilloedema (as measured by ultrasonography of the elevation of the optic disc and diameter of the nerve sheath, together with thickness of the peripapillary retina measured by optical coherence tomography), mean deviation of Humphrey visual field, LogMAR visual acuity, and symptoms. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and three, six, and nine months. Lumbar puncture, to quantify intracranial pressure, was measured at baseline and three and six months.
Results All variables remained stable over stage 1. During stage 2, there were significant reductions in weight (mean 15.7 (SD 8.0) kg, P<0.001), intracranial pressure (mean 8.0 (SD 4.2) cm H2O, P<0.001), score on headache impact test (7.6 (SD 10.1), P=0.004), and papilloedema (optic disc elevation (mean 0.15 (SD 0.23) mm, P=0.002), diameter of the nerve sheath (mean 0.7 (SD 0.8) mm, P=0.004), and thickness of the peripapillary retina (mean 25.7 (SD 36.1) µ, P=0.001)). Mean deviation of the Humphrey visual field remained stable, and in only five patients, the LogMAR visual acuity improved by one line. Fewer women reported symptoms including tinnitus, diplopia, and obscurations (10 v 4, P=0.004; 7 v 0, P=0.008; and 4 v 0, P=0.025, respectively). Re-evaluation at three months after the diet showed no significant change in weight (0.21 (SD 6.8) kg), and all outcome measures were maintained.
Conclusion Women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who followed a low energy diet for three months had significantly reduced intracranial pressure compared with pressure measured in the three months before the diet, as well as improved symptoms and reduced papilloedema. These reductions persisted for three months after they stopped the diet.
doi:10.1136/bmj.c2701
PMCID: PMC2898925  PMID: 20610512
3.  Should we educate about the risks of medication overuse headache? 
Background
Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is caused by the regular use of medications to treat headache. There has been a lack of research into awareness of MOH. We distributed an electronic survey to undergraduate students and their contacts via social networking sites. Analgesic use, awareness of MOH, perceived change in behaviour following educational intervention about the risks of MOH and preferred terminology for MOH was evaluated.
Findings
485 respondents completed the questionnaire (41% having received healthcare training). 77% were unaware of the possibility of MOH resulting from regular analgesic use for headache. Following education about MOH, 80% stated they would reduce analgesic consumption or seek medical advice. 83% indicated that over the counter analgesia should carry a warning of MOH. The preferred terminology for MOH was painkiller-induced headache.
Conclusions
This study highlights the lack of awareness of MOH. Improved education about MOH and informative packaging of analgesics, highlighting the risks in preferred lay terminology (i.e. painkiller-induced headache), may reduce this iatrogenic morbidity and warrants further evaluation.
doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-10
PMCID: PMC3942071  PMID: 24524380
Medication-overuse headache; Analgesia; Headache; Prevention; Education

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